ARCA Menards Series
The ARCA Menards Series is an American stock car series, the premier division of the Automobile Racing Club of America. It is considered a minor but professional league of stock car racing, used as a feeder series into the three national touring series of NASCAR, hosts events at a variety of track types including superspeedways, road courses, dirt tracks; the series has a longstanding relationship with NASCAR, including using former Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series cars, hosting events in the same race weekend such as Daytona Speedweeks, naming an award after NASCAR founder Bill France, Sr. The series was not affiliated with NASCAR until its buyout on April 27, 2018; the series was known as the ARCA Permatex SuperCar Series from 1986 until 1991, the ARCA Hooters SuperCar Series from 1993 until 1995, as the ARCA Bondo/Mar-Hyde Series from 1996 to 2000. The series was sponsored by real estate company RE/MAX as the ARCA RE/MAX Series from 2001 until 2009. Midwest-based home improvement company Menards began sponsoring the series in 2010 jointly with RE/MAX, became the lone presenting sponsor in 2011, from until February 2019 the series was known as the ARCA Racing Series presented by Menards.
The series was founded in Toledo, Ohio in 1953 as the Midwest Association for Race Cars, a local touring group in the Midwestern United States. The series was founded by John Marcum, a friend and former competitor of Bill France, Sr. and former NASCAR employee, who created MARC as a northern counterpart to the southern-based NASCAR. Early drivers included Nelson Stacy; the series became a part of Daytona Speedweeks in 1964 at the request of Bill France, allowing the series to open its season alongside the Daytona 500. The same year, the series name was changed from MARC to the current ARCA as a suggestion from France to give the series more national exposure; the series races on a variety of tracks from small ovals to superspeedways such as Daytona International Speedway. It is one of the last major oval track circuits to still compete on dirt tracks. In 2008 the series returned to racing on a road course; the series is headed by Marcum's grandson, Ron Drager. Due to the similarity between the cars and racetracks of the two series, the ARCA Racing Series is used to develop young drivers looking to break into the top three series of NASCAR.
The series has spawned such drivers as Benny Parsons, Ken Schrader and Kyle Petty, helped more recent Monster Energy Cup Series drivers Kyle Busch, Justin Allgaier, Casey Mears, Sam Hornish, Jr. get acclimated to stock cars. Young drivers will race in the series opener at Daytona International Speedway to gain NASCAR approval to run at superspeedways in the Truck or Xfinity Series. Other drivers, such as 10-time champion Frank Kimmel and 9-time race winner Bobby Gerhart remain in the series as opposed to pursuing a full-time career in NASCAR. NASCAR regulars, notably Ken Schrader, are known to frequent the series as well; the general minimum age for drivers is 18. However, drivers as young as 17 may be approved to drive on speedway tracks, drivers as young as 15 years can be permitted to drive at courses less than one mile in length and road courses; this is one year younger. After the 2015 season, ARCA ended its 30-year relationship with the Hoosier Racing Tire company, with General Tire replacing Hoosier.
On April 27, 2018 it was announced that the National Association of Stock Car Auto Racing had bought out the Automobile Racing Club of America. The 2018 and 2019 seasons will continue as planned, with undetermined changes coming in the 2020 racing season. Starting with the 2019 season, every race was televised live for the first time in series history, doing so on Fox Sports 1, Fox Sports 2, MAVTV; the series is known for using veteran steel-bodied Generation 4 cars from the NASCAR Monster Energy Cup Series, running cars until they are several years old and after a model's discontinuation in the Cup Series. For example, Bobby Gerhart's winning Daytona car in 1999 used a chassis built by Hendrick Motorsports in 1989. Following the transition of the Cup and Xfinity Series to the Car of Tomorrow in 2007 and 2010 the ARCA Series continued to use the 2007-style models of the Chevrolet Monte Carlo SS, Ford Fusion, Toyota Camry, Dodge Charger; the carbureted V8 engines used by the series are built under similar specifications to their NASCAR counterparts, purchased from NASCAR teams.
In spite of the similarities, ARCA racing is much more affordable than its more popular counterpart, with car owner Larry Clement estimating the required budget to run an ARCA car as "10 percent of what a NASCAR Winston Cup budget is." On August 1, 2014, ARCA president Ron Drager announced a new engine package option for the 2015 season, in addition to the current open motor rules package. The package is called the ARCA Ilmor 396 engine, alternately known as the ARCA Control Engine. Developed by Ilmor, which has developed engines for the IndyCar Series, the engine is a "purpose-built powerplant" using Holley electronic fuel injection and based on the Chevrolet LS engine family, able to deliver 700 horsepower and 500 ft. pounds of torque. The engine costs $35,000 to build and $15,000 to be re-built, allows teams to use the same engine at all track types for up to 1500 miles between re-builds; the Ilmor engine debuted during testing at Daytona International Speedway in December 2014, with Sean Corr's Ilmor-powered #48 Ford topping the speed charts at 188.478 mph.
Logistics is the detailed organization and implementation of a complex operation. In a general business sense, logistics is the management of the flow of things between the point of origin and the point of consumption in order to meet requirements of customers or corporations; the resources managed in logistics can include physical items such as food, animals and liquids. The logistics of physical items involves the integration of information flow, materials handling, packaging, transportation and security. In military science, logistics is concerned with maintaining army supply lines while disrupting those of the enemy, since an armed force without resources and transportation is defenseless. Military logistics was practiced in the ancient world and as modern military have a significant need for logistics solutions, advanced implementations have been developed. In military logistics, logistics officers manage how and when to move resources to the places they are needed. Logistics management is the part of supply chain management that plans and controls the efficient, effective forward, reverse flow and storage of goods and related information between the point of origin and the point of consumption in order to meet customer's requirements.
The complexity of logistics can be modeled, analyzed and optimized by dedicated simulation software. The minimization of the use of resources is a common motivation in all logistics fields. A professional working in the field of logistics management is called a logistician; the term logistics is attested in English from 1846, is from French: logistique, where it was either coined or popularized by military officer and writer Antoine-Henri Jomini, who defined it in his Summary of the Art of War. The term appears in the 1830 edition titled Analytic Table, Jomini explains that it is derived from French: logis, lit.'lodgings', in the terms French: maréchal des logis, lit.'marshall of lodgings' and French: major-général des logis, lit.'major-general of lodging': Autrefois les officiers de l’état-major se nommaient: maréchal des logis, major-général des logis. The officers of the general staff were named: marshall of lodgings, major-general of lodgings; the term is credited to Jomini, the term and its etymology criticized by Georges de Chambray in 1832, writing: Logistique: Ce mot me paraît être tout-à-fait nouveau, car je ne l'avais encore vu nulle part dans la littérature militaire.
… il paraît le faire dériver du mot logis, étymologie singulière … Logistic: This word appears to me to be new, as I have not yet see it anywhere in military literature. … he appears to derive it from the word lodgings, a peculiar etymology … Chambray notes that the term logistique was present in the Dictionnaire de l'Académie française as a synonym for algebra. The French word: logistique is a homonym of the existing mathematical term, from Ancient Greek: λογῐστῐκός, translit. Logistikós, a traditional division of Greek mathematics; some sources give this instead as the source of logistics, either ignorant of Jomini's statement that it was derived from logis, or dubious and instead believing it was in fact of Greek origin, or influenced by the existing term of Greek origin. Jomini defined logistics as:... L'art de bien ordonner les marches d'une armée, de bien combiner l'ordre des troupes dans les colonnes, les tems de leur départ, leur itinéraire, les moyens de communications nécessaires pour assurer leur arrivée à point nommé...... the art of well ordering the functionings of an army, of well combining the order of troops in columns, the times of their departure, their itinerary, the means of communication necessary to assure their arrival at a named point...
The Oxford English Dictionary defines logistics as "the branch of military science relating to procuring and transporting material and facilities". However, the New Oxford American Dictionary defines logistics as "the detailed coordination of a complex operation involving many people, facilities, or supplies", the Oxford Dictionary on-line defines it as "the detailed organization and implementation of a complex operation"; as such, logistics is seen as a branch of engineering that creates "people systems" rather than "machine systems". According to the Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals, logistics is the process of planning and controlling procedures for the efficient and effective transportation and storage of goods including services and related information from the point of origin to the point of consumption for the purpose of conforming to customer requirements and includes inbound, outbound and external movements. Academics and practitioners traditionally refer to the terms operations or production management when referring to physical transformations taking place in a single business location and reserve the term logistics for activities related to distribution, that is, moving products on the territory.
Managing a distribution center is seen, therefore, as pertaining to the realm of logistics since, while in theory the products made by a factory are ready
Alecia Beth Moore, known professionally as Pink, is an American singer and actress. A member of the girl group Choice in 1995, LaFace Records saw potential in Pink and offered her a solo recording contract, her R&B-influenced debut studio album Can't Take Me Home was certified double-platinum in the United States and spawned two Billboard Hot 100 top-ten songs: "There You Go" and "Most Girls". She gained further recognition with the collaborative single "Lady Marmalade" from the Moulin Rouge! soundtrack, which topped many charts worldwide. Refocusing her sound to pop rock with her second studio album Missundaztood, the album sold more than 13 million copies worldwide and yielded the international number-one hits "Get the Party Started", "Don't Let Me Get Me", "Just Like a Pill". While Pink's third studio album, Try This, sold fewer copies than her previous work, it earned her the Grammy Award for Best Female Rock Vocal Performance, she returned to the top of record charts with her fourth and fifth studio albums, I'm Not Dead and Funhouse, which generated the top-ten singles "Who Knew" and "U + Ur Hand", as well as the number-one hit "So What".
Pink's sixth studio album, The Truth About Love, was her first album to debut atop the Billboard 200 chart and spawned her fourth number-one single, "Just Give Me a Reason". In 2014, Pink recorded a collaborative album, Rose Ave. with Canadian musician Dallas Green under a folk music duo named You+Me. Her seventh studio album, Beautiful Trauma, became the third best-selling album of the year and saw the success of its lead single, "What About Us". Recognized for her distinctive, raspy voice and acrobatic stage presence, Pink has sold over 90 million records worldwide, making her one of the world's best-selling music artists, her career accolades include three Grammy Awards, two Brit Awards, a Daytime Emmy Award and seven MTV Video Music Awards, including the Michael Jackson Video Vanguard Award. In 2009, Billboard named Pink the Pop Songs Artist of the Decade. Pink was the second most-played female solo artist in the United Kingdom, during the 2000s decade, behind Madonna. VH1 ranked her number 10 on their list of the 100 Greatest Women in Music, while Billboard awarded her the Woman of the Year award in 2013.
At the 63rd annual BMI Pop Awards, she received the BMI President's Award for "her outstanding achievement in songwriting and global impact on pop culture and the entertainment industry." Alecia Beth Moore was born on September 8, 1979, in Doylestown, Pennsylvania, to emergency room nurse Judith "Judy" Moore and insurance salesman James "Jim" Moore. Her father is Catholic and her mother is Jewish, she has described herself as an "Irish-German-Lithuanian-Jew", self-identifies as Jewish. Although a healthy baby at birth, she developed asthma that plagued her through her early years; when Pink was a toddler, her parents began having marital problems, divorced before she was 10. Pink developed her voice early in life, she attended Central Bucks High School West. In high school, Pink joined her first band, but it disbanded upon losing a battle of the bands competition; as a teenager, she wrote lyrics as an outlet for her feelings, her mother commented, "Her initial writings were always introspective.
Some of it was black, deep worrisome." Pink began performing in Philadelphia clubs. She adopted her stagename, "Pink", around this time, she had that nickname for quite some time by that point, it had been "a mean thing". She had gotten that name from the character "Mr. Pink" in Quentin Tarantino's film Reservoir Dogs. Pink has said, "I was extreme. I went through phases to hip-hopper, to rave child, to lead singer in a band. I did it all, all at the same time." At 14, she was convinced to audition to become a member of the all-female group Basic Instinct, earned a spot in the lineup. The group disbanded without releasing any material. At 16, Pink and two other teenage girls, Sharon Flanagan and Chrissy Conway, formed the R&B group Choice. A copy of their first song, "Key to My Heart", was sent to LaFace Records in Atlanta, where L. A. Reid arranged for the group to fly there so he could see them perform. After that, he signed them to a record deal. Since the three girls were under 18 at the time, their parents had to cosign the contract.
The group relocated to Atlanta and recorded an album, never released, but "Key to My Heart" appeared on the soundtrack to the 1996 film Kazaam. During a Christmas party, Reid gave Pink an ultimatum: go home. Choice disbanded in 1998. After Choice disbanded, Pink signed a recording contract with LaFace Records and began working on her debut solo album with producers such as Babyface, Kandi Burruss and Tricky Stewart, her debut single, "There You Go", was released in February 2000 and became her first top-ten hit on the Billboard Hot 100 chart, where it peaked at number seven. Internationally, the song charted inside the top ten in Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom. In April, Pink's debut album, Can't Take Me Home, was released to commercial success. Despite a moderate peak of 26 on the Billboard 200 chart, the album was certified double platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America for two million units shipped in the United States, it went platinum in the United Kingdom and multi-platinum in Australia and Canada, while selling over four million copies worldwide.
Critical reception to the album was mixed. The album's second single, "Most Girls", peaked at number four on the B
Doylestown is a borough and the county seat of Bucks County in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. It is located 35 miles north of 80 miles southwest of New York City; as of the 2010 census, the borough population was 8,380. Doylestown's origins date to 1745 when William Doyle obtained a license to build a tavern on what is now the northwest corner of Main and State Street. Known for years as "William Doyle's Tavern," its strategic location — at the intersection of the road linking Swede's Ford and Coryell's Ferry and the road linking Philadelphia and Easton — allowed the hamlet to blossom into a village; the first church was erected in 1815, followed by a succession of congregations throughout the 19th century. As the population of Central and Upper Bucks County grew throughout the 18th and into the 19th century, discontent developed with the county seat's location in Newtown, where it had been since 1725; the county seat moved north to the more centrally located Doylestown in 1813. An outgrowth of Doylestown's new courthouse was the development of "lawyers row", a collection of Federal-style offices.
One positive consequence of early 19th-century investment in the new county seat was organized fire protection, which began in 1825 with the Doylestown Fire Engine Company. In 1838 the Borough of Doylestown was incorporated. An electric telegraph station was built in 1846, in 1856 the North Pennsylvania Railroad completed a branch to Doylestown; the first gas lights were introduced in 1854. Because of the town's high elevation and a lack of strong water power, substantial industrial development never occurred and Doylestown evolved to have a professional and residential character. During the mid-19th century, several large tracts located east of the courthouse area were subdivided into neighborhoods; the next significant wave of development occurred after the Civil War, when the 30-acre Magill property to the southwest of the town's core was subdivided for residential lots. In 1869 Doylestown established; the first telephone line arrived in 1878, the same year. 1897 saw the first of several trolley lines connecting Doylestown with Willow Grove and Easton.
A private sewer system and treatment plant were authorized in 1903. The Borough took over and expanded sewer service to about three-quarters of the town in 1921. In the early 20th century, Doylestown became best known to the outside world through the "Tools of the Nation-Maker" museum of the Bucks County Historical Society. Henry Chapman Mercer constructed the reinforced concrete building in 1916 to house his collection of mechanical tools and utensils. Upon his death in 1930, Mercer left his constructed home Fonthill and adjacent Moravian Pottery and Tile Works, to be operated as a museum; the home was left on the condition that his housekeeper be allowed to live there for the rest of her life. She gave tours until the mid-1970s. In 1916, Doylestown Country Club was established and still operates a private golf course and caddy program. By 1931, the advent of the automobile and improved highway service had put the last trolley line out of business, Doylestonians were forced to embrace the automobile as the primary means of travel within the region.
The Great Depression took its toll, as many grand old houses constructed a century earlier fell into disrepair. During the 1930s, the Borough expanded its land area to the north by admission of the tract known as the Doylestown Annex. In the decade following World War II, Doylestown's business community boomed. During the 1940s, streets were paved for the first time in two decades and parking meters were introduced downtown in 1948. However, the Borough's post-war housing boom did not begin in earnest until the 1950s, when 550 new homes were built; this housing boom continued into the 1960s and 1970s, as more than 1,600 new homes were built during those decades and the Borough's population grew from 5,917 in 1960 to 8,717 in 1980. As with many small towns across the country, the growth of the post-war decades brought a new competitor to the downtown business district—the shopping mall. By the 1960s, the toll could be seen in Doylestown by the numerous vacant buildings and dilapidated storefronts in the center of town.
The Bucks County Redevelopment Authority responded with a federal urban renewal scheme that called for the demolition of 27 historic buildings. The local business community objected to such wholesale clearance and responded with its own plan called Operation'64, the Doylestown Plan for Self-Help Downtown Renewal; this private initiative was successful in saving Doylestown's old buildings and historic character, while improving business at the same time. One historic landmark that could not be saved was the 80-year-old courthouse and clock tower, replaced by the present county complex in the early 1960s. By the end of the 1980s, the downtown business district was again showing the toll of massive new competition from the latest wave of suburban shopping centers, as well as the recession that hit hardest in the northeastern states. In response, the Borough Council established a volunteer group of civic-minded representatives from business organizations and the residential community to begin formulating plans for the downtown area in 1992.
This effort resulted in streetscape improvements composed of cast iron street lamps and brick pavers, facade improvements and other beautification efforts, the establishment of a Main Street Manager Program. As the 1990s progressed, the downtown area rebuilt itself by turning to an out-of-town audience. Doylestown had long been respected as a bucolic tourist destination; the gent
Michael Mark Pettine is an American football coach and former player, the defensive coordinator of the Green Bay Packers of the National Football League. He was the head coach of the Cleveland Browns of the National Football League from 2014 to 2015, has served as the defensive coordinator for the Buffalo Bills and New York Jets. Pettine earned all-state honors as a quarterback and defensive back at Central Bucks High School West; the head coach was his father, Mike Pettine, Sr., renowned in Pennsylvania for compiling a record of 326–42–4 in 33 seasons and winning four state championships. Pettine played free safety at the University of Virginia graduating in 1988 with a bachelor's degree in economics. Pettine coached high school football in Pennsylvania at North Penn and William Tennent high schools after working as a graduate assistant at the University of Pittsburgh, he spent four years as an assistant coach under his father at Central Bucks West High School. In 1999, a New York Times TV crew documented the North Penn football season for ESPN in a film titled The Season.
The TV show consisted of two separate hours and followed the team behind the scenes during the 1999 season and highlighted the rivalry between North Penn and Central Bucks West. Pettine joined the Ravens in 2001 and was promoted to OLB's coach in 2005 when Rex Ryan became defensive coordinator. Pettine, as Rex Ryan's "right-hand man" received a three-year deal to lead the Jets defense. Pettine has been credited with contributing to the Jets number one defense in the NFL in 2009, his tenure with the Jets ended with the expiration of his contract. Pettine was hired to be the defensive coordinator of the Buffalo Bills on January 9, 2013. Pettine was hired to be the head coach of the Cleveland Browns on January 23, 2014. On January 3, 2016, the same day the Browns lost their last game of the season to finish 3–13, Pettine was fired, along with GM Ray Farmer. Pettine started 7-4 in the 2014 season, but the Browns lost their final 5 games to finish at 7-9; the Browns were 3-13 the following season. Pettine went 10 -- 22 in his two seasons as Cleveland's head coach.
In 2017, Pettine worked as a consultant for the Seattle Seahawks. On January 10, 2018, Pettine was hired as defensive coordinator by the Green Bay Packers. NFL head coaches under whom Pettine has served: Cleveland Browns bio Buffalo Bills bio
The National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing is an American auto racing sanctioning and operating company, best known for stock-car racing. Its three largest or National series are the Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series, the Xfinity Series, the Gander Outdoors Truck Series. Regional series include the NASCAR K&N Pro Series East and West, the Whelen Modified Tour, NASCAR Pinty's Series, NASCAR Whelen Euro Series, NASCAR PEAK Mexico Series. NASCAR sanctions over 1,500 races at over 100 tracks in 48 US states as well as in Canada and Europe. NASCAR has presented races at the Suzuka and Motegi circuits in Japan, the Calder Park Thunderdome in Australia. NASCAR ventures into eSports via the PEAK Antifreeze NASCAR iRacing Series and a sanctioned ladder system on that title; the owned company was founded by Bill France Sr. in 1948, Jim France has been CEO since August 6, 2018. The company's headquarters is in Florida. Internationally, its races are broadcast on television in over 150 countries. In the 1920s and 30s, Daytona Beach became known as the place to set world land speed records, supplanting France and Belgium as the preferred location for land speed records, with 8 consecutive world records set between 1927 and 1935.
After a historic race between Ransom Olds and Alexander Winton in 1903, the beach became a mecca for racing enthusiasts and 15 records were set on what became the Daytona Beach Road Course between 1905 and 1935. By the time the Bonneville Salt Flats became the premier location for pursuit of land speed records, Daytona Beach had become synonymous with fast cars in 1936. Drivers raced on a 4.1-mile course, consisting of a 1.5–2.0-mile stretch of beach as one straightaway, a narrow blacktop beachfront highway, State Road A1A, as the other. The two straights were connected by two tight rutted and sand covered turns at each end. Stock car racing in the United States has its origins in bootlegging during Prohibition, when drivers ran bootleg whiskey made in the Appalachian region of the United States. Bootleggers needed to distribute their illicit products, they used small, fast vehicles to better evade the police. Many of the drivers would modify their cars for speed and handling, as well as increased cargo capacity, some of them came to love the fast-paced driving down twisty mountain roads.
The repeal of Prohibition in 1933 dried up some of their business, but by Southerners had developed a taste for moonshine, a number of the drivers continued "runnin' shine", this time evading the "revenuers" who were attempting to tax their operations. The cars continued to improve, by the late 1940s, races featuring these cars were being run for pride and profit; these races were popular entertainment in the rural Southern United States, they are most associated with the Wilkes County region of North Carolina. Most races in those days were of modified cars. Street vehicles were lightened and reinforced. Mechanic William France Sr. moved to Daytona Beach, from Washington, D. C. in 1935 to escape the Great Depression. He was familiar with the history of the area from the land speed record attempts. France entered the 1936 Daytona event, he took over running the course in 1938. He promoted a few races before World War II. France had the notion. Drivers were victimized by unscrupulous promoters who would leave events with all the money before drivers were paid.
In 1947, he decided this racing would not grow without a formal sanctioning organization, standardized rules, regular schedule, an organized championship. On December 14, 1947, France began talks with other influential racers and promoters at the Ebony Bar at the Streamline Hotel at Daytona Beach, that ended with the formation of NASCAR on February 21, 1948; the first Commissioner of NASCAR was Erwin "Cannonball" Baker. A former stock car and open-wheel racer who competed in the Indianapolis 500 and set over one hundred land speed records. Baker earned most of his fame for his transcontinental speed runs and would prove a car's worth by driving it from New York to Los Angeles. After his death, the famous transcontinental race the'Cannonball Run' and the film, inspired by it were both named in his honor. Baker is enshrined in the Automotive Hall of Fame, the Motorcycle Hall of Fame, the Indianapolis Motor Speedway Hall of Fame; this level of honor and success in each diverse racing association earned Baker the title of "King of the Road".
In the early 1950s, the United States Navy stationed Bill France Jr. at the Moffett Federal Airfield in northern California. His father asked him to look up Bob Barkhimer in California. Barkhimer was a star of midget car racing from the World War II era, ran about 22 different speedways as the head of the California Stock Car Racing Association. Young Bill developed a relationship with his partner, Margo Burke, he went to events with them, stayed weekends with them and became familiar with racing on the west coast. "Barky", as he was called by his friends, met with Bill France Sr.. In the spring of 1954, NASCAR became a stock car sanctioning body on the Pacific Coast under Barky. Wendell Scott was the first African-American to win a race in the Grand National Series, NASCAR's highest level, he was posthumously inducted into the NASCAR Hall of Fame in Charlotte, N. C. January 30, 2015. On March 8, 1936, a collection of drivers gathered at Florida; the drivers brought coupes, hardtops and sports cars to compete in an event to determine the fastest cars, best dr
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe