Office of the Prime Minister and Council of Ministers (Nepal)
The Office of the Prime Minister and Council of Ministers is a political and bureaucratic office that assists the Council of Ministers of Nepal and the Prime Minister of Nepal in the leadership of the Council of Ministers and Government. The present Prime Minister is Khadga Prasad Oli and the current council of ministers is the Second Oli cabinet; the Office's mandate includes the formation and alteration of organizational structure of the ministries, the formulation, approval or issue of Bills and Rules, control, supervision, coordination and evaluation of various ministries and Order and the Protection and Promotion of Human Rights. The Office of the Prime Minister and Council of Ministers oversees several departments and commissions: Investment Board Nepal New Nepal Construction Fund Prime Minister's Disaster Relief Fund Commission for the Investigation of Abuse of Authority Public Service Commission National Human Right Commission National Planning Commission of Nepal National Vigilance Centre Public Procurement Monitoring Office Office of Nepal Trust Poverty Alleviation Fund Office of the President and Vice President Department of Revenue Investigation
Prime Minister of Nepal
The Prime Minister of Nepal is the leader of the executive body. The prime minister is the head of the Council of Ministers of Nepal. He/she should be member of the House of the Representative Pratinidhi Sabha; the prime minister is the senior-most member of cabinet in the executive of government in a parliamentary system. The prime minister can dismiss members of the cabinet; the federal cabinet headed by the prime minister is appointed by the President of Nepal to assist the latter in the administration of the affairs of the executive. The prime minister has to enjoy the confidence of a majority in the Pratinidhi Sabha and shall resign if they are unable to prove majority when instructed by the president; the residence of Prime Minister of Nepal is in Kathmandu. The seat of the Prime Minister is Singha Darbar since the time of Chandra Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana; the basic monthly salary of Prime Minister of Nepal is NPR 77,280. The Prime Minister of Nepal does not have a term limit; the current Prime Minister is Khadga Prasad Sharma Oli, since 15 February 2018.
The position of Prime Minister of Nepal in modern form was called by different names at different times of Nepalese history. At the time of the Shah dynasty, either Chautariya, Kaji or Mulkajis served the function of Prime Ministers. In 1806, the position of Mukhtiyar was created by Rana Bahadur Shah which carried executive powers of nation. Mukhtiyar is formed from two words: Akhtiyar. Mukhya means Akhtiyar means Authority. Altogether it means the "Executive Head of the State". Mukhtiyar held the position of Executive Head till adoption of title of Prime Minister on 1843 A. D; the first Mukhtiyar to title himself as Prime Minister, as per the British convention, was the last Mukhtiyar Mathabar Singh Thapa. Mathabar Singh became Mukhtiyar as well as Prime Minister and Commander-In-Chief of the Nepalese army in November 1843 by the declaration of second queen of Rajendra, Queen Rajya Laxmi Devi. During the Rana dynasty, the position of Prime Minister was hereditary and the officeholder held additional titles — Maharaja of Lambjang and Kaski, Supreme Commander-in-Chief of Nepal and Grand Master of the Royal Orders of Nepal.
Mukhtiyar Bhimsen Thapa was the first person to be referred to as Prime Minister by the British. Historian Chittaranjan Nepali writes that the first institution to hold all state powers was the position of Mukhtiyar, established after the King Rana Bahadur Shah returned to Nepal from Varanasi, he further writes that the position was converted into the Prime Ministership and thus the view expressed by some historians that the post of Prime Minister and the modern system of administration originated in Nepal with the emergence of Damodar Pande does not appear to be correct. The character of government in the Kingdom of Nepal was driven from consultative state organ of the previous Gorkha hill principality, known as Bharadar; these Bharadars were drawn from politically influential families. For instance; the nobility of Gorkha was based from Chhetri families and they had a strong presence in civil administration affairs. All of the Prime Minister of Nepal between 1768 to 1950 were Chhetris with the exception of Ranga Nath Poudyal, being a Brahmin.
Bharadars formed a consultative body in the kingdom for the most important functions of the state as Counsellors and Diplomats. There was no single successful coalition government as court politics were driven from large factional rivalries, consecutive conspiracies and ostracization of opponent Bharadar families through assassination rather than legal expulsion. Another reason was the minority of the reigning King between 1777 to 1847 that led to establishment of anarchial rule; the government was stated to have controlled by regents and alliance of political faction with strong fundamental support. At the end of the 18th century, the central politics was dominated by two notable political factions. Per historians and contemporary writer Francis Hamilton, the government of Nepal comprised 1 Chautariya 4 Kajis 4 Sirdar/Sardars 2 Subedars 1 Khazanchi 1 Kapardar. Per historian Dilli Raman Regmi, the states the government of Nepal were 4 Chautariyas 4 Kajis 4 Sirdar/Sardars; the number varied after King Rana Bahadur Shah abdicated his throne to minor son on 1799.
In 1794, King Rana Bahadur Shah came of age and his first act was to re-constitute the government such that his uncle, Prince Bahadur Shah of Nepal, had no official part to play. Rana Bahadur appointed Kirtiman Singh Basnyat as Chief Kaji among the newly appointed four Kajis though Damodar Pande was the most influential Kaji. Kirtiman had succeeded Abhiman Singh Basnyat as Chief Kaji while Prince Bahadur Shah was succeeded as Chief Chautariya by Prince Ranodyot Shah heir apparent of King Rana Bahadur Shah. Kajis had held the administrative and executive powers of the nation after the fall of Chief Chautariya Prince Bahadur Shah in 1794. Kirtiman Singh was secretly assassinated on 28 September 1801, by the supporters of Raj Rajeshwari Devi and his brother Bakhtawar Singh Basnyat, was given the post of Chief Kaji. During Bakhtawar's tenure as the Mul Kaji, on 28 October 1801, a Treaty of Commerce and Alliance was signed between Nepal and East India Company. Queen Rajrajeshwari was restored as regent of Nepal in 17 December 1802.
On subsequent February, Damodar Pande was appointed by Queen Rajrajeshwari as Mulkaji as a reward for estab
Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Nepal)
The Nepalese Ministry of Foreign Affairs abbreviated as MoFA is responsible for conducting external affairs of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal. Ministry of Foreign Affairs represents other line ministries and the Government of Nepal while dealing with other states. Minister for Foreign Affairs of Nepal, the Rt. Hon. Pradeep Gyawali, is leading the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Shankar Das Bairagi is serving as Foreign Secretary of Nepal. Nepal's modern, bilateral diplomatic relations began with neighboring India in June 1947, followed by formal relations with France in April 1949. According to Government of Nepal Rules, 2069 Ministry of Foreign Affairs has the following roles and function: Formulation, implementation and evaluation of foreign policy and programs of Nepal Relation with foreign nations Representation of Nepal in foreign countries Publicity of Nepal in foreign countries Passport and visa to be issued in abroad Hospitality Management Protocol Claim over a person of a Nepali or foreign citizen by the respective governments.
Diplomatic protection and privileges Record of Nepali citizens who are in abroad and their right and protection. Non-resident Nepalese Economic diplomacy Development and promotion of public and non-governmental organizations at international level Consular practice United Nations, South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation and other international and regional organization Foreign diplomatic mission in Nepal Negotiation and agreement at diplomatic level Operation of Nepal foreign service This is a list of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of Nepal: 1948: Sovag Jung Thapa 1948–1951: Mohan Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana 1951–1952: Matrika Prasad Koirala 1952–1953: Khadga Man Singh 1953–1955: Dilli Raman Regmi 1955–1956: Sovag Jung Thapa 1956–1957: Chuda Prasad Sharma 1957: Kunwar Inderjit Singh 1958–1959: Purendra Bikram Shah 1959–1960: Bishweshwar Prasad Koirala 1960–1962: Tulsi Giri 1962: Rishikesh Shaha 1962–1963: Tulsi Giri 1963–1968: Kirti Nidhi Bista 1968–1971: Gehendra Bahadur Rajbhandari 1971–1972: Kirti Nidhi Bista 1972–1975: Gyanendra Bahadur Karki 1975–1979: Krishna Raj Aryal 1979: Kirti Nidhi Bista 1979–1981: K. B.
Shahi 1981–1982: Surya Bahadur Thapa 1982–1985: Padma Bahadur Khatri 1985–1986: Ranadhir Subba 1986–1990: Shailendra Kumar Upadhyaya 1990: Hari Bahadur Basnet 1990: Pashupati Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana 1990–1991: Krishna Prasad Bhattarai 1991–1994: Girija Prasad Koirala 1994–1995: Madhav Kumar Nepal 1995–1997: Prakash Chandra Lohani 1997–1998: Kamal Thapa 1998–1999: Girija Prasad Koirala 1999: Krishna Prasad Bhattarai 1999–2000: Ram Sharan Mahat 2000–2001: Chakra Bastola 2001–2002: Sher Bahadur Deuba 2002–2003: Narendra Bikram Shah 2003–2004: Surya Bahadur Thapa 2004: Bhekh Bahadur Thapa 2004–2005: Sher Bahadur Deuba 2005–2006: Ramesh Nath Pandey 2006–2007: Khadga Prasad Oli 2007–2008: Sahana Pradhan 2008–2009: Upendra Yadav 2009–2011: Sujata Koirala 2011: Upendra Yadav 2011–2012: Narayan Kaji Shrestha 2012: Ishwor Pokhrel 2012–2013: Narayan Kaji Shrestha 2013–2014: Madhav Prasad Ghimire 2014–2015: Mahendra Bahadur Pandey 2015–2016: Kamal Thapa 2016–2017: Prakash Sharan Mahat 2017: Krishna Bahadur Mahara 2017–2018: Sher Bahadur Deuba 2018: Khadga Prasad Oli 2018–present: Pradip Kumar Gyawali There are two departments under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Department of Passport, Kathmandu Department of Consular Services, KathmanduThe Ministry has operated a Liaison Office in the border town of Birgunj since 2005.
The Ministry operates the Institute of Foreign Affairs in Kathmandu. Foreign relations of Nepal Diplomatic missions of Nepal Official Ministry website
Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation (Nepal)
The Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation is a government agency of Nepal and one of five Departments of the Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation. It is assigned with the responsibilities of conserving the Wildlife of Nepal, it is furthermore responsible for managing the Protected areas of Nepal, including national parks and conservation areas. The Department is part of the REDD+ Group. Additional to conserving flora and fauna in Nepal and managing national parks, the Department of National Parks and Wild Life Conservation supports people living within the boundaries of those parks as well as their buffer zones and promotes ecotourism; the Department carries out surveys including annual censuses of endangered species, such as the Bengal tiger. Furthermore, the Department creates revenue from film shooting in national parks and conservation areas
April 2015 Nepal earthquake
The April 2015 Nepal earthquake killed nearly 9,000 people and injured nearly 22,000. It occurred at 11:56 Nepal Standard Time on 25 April 2015, with a magnitude of 7.8Mw or 8.1Ms and a maximum Mercalli Intensity of VIII. Its epicenter was east of Gorkha District at Barpak and its hypocenter was at a depth of 8.2 km. It was the worst natural disaster; the ground motion recorded in the capital of Nepal was of low frequency which, along with its occurrence at an hour where many people in rural areas were working outdoors, decreased the loss of property and human lives. The earthquake triggered an avalanche on Mount Everest, killing 21, making 25 April 2015 the deadliest day on the mountain in history; the earthquake triggered another huge avalanche in the Langtang valley, where 250 people were reported missing. Hundreds of thousands of Nepalese were made homeless with entire villages flattened, across many districts of the country. Centuries-old buildings were destroyed at UNESCO World Heritage Sites in the Kathmandu Valley, including some at the Kathmandu Durbar Square, the Patan Durbar Square, the Bhaktapur Durbar Square, the Changu Narayan Temple, the Boudhanath stupa and the Swayambhunath Stupa.
Geophysicists and other experts had warned for decades that Nepal was vulnerable to a deadly earthquake because of its geology and architecture. Dharahara called Bhimsen Tower, a nine-storey and 61.88-metre-tall tower was destroyed. It was a part of the architecture of Kathmandu recognized by UNESCO. Continued aftershocks occurred throughout Nepal at the intervals of 15–20 minutes, with one shock reaching a magnitude of 6.7 on 26 April at 12:54:08 NST. The country had a continued risk of landslides. A major aftershock occurred on 12 May 2015 at 12:50 NST with a moment magnitude of 7.3. The epicenter was near the Chinese border between the capital of Mt. Everest. More than 200 people were killed and over 2,500 were injured by this aftershock, many were left homeless; the earthquake occurred on 25 April 2015 at 11:56 am NST at a depth of 15 km, with its epicentre 34 km east-southeast of Lamjung, lasting fifty seconds. The earthquake was reported as 7.5 Mw by the United States Geological Survey before it was upgraded to 7.8 Mw.
The China Earthquake Networks Center reported the earthquake's magnitude to be 8.1 Ms. The India Meteorological Department said two powerful quakes were registered in Nepal at 06:11 UTC and 06:45 UTC; the first quake measured 7.8 Mw and its epicenter was identified at a distance of 80 km to the northwest of Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal. Bharatpur was the nearest major city to the main earthquake, 53 km from the epicenter; the second earthquake was somewhat less powerful at 6.6 Mw. It occurred 65 km east of Kathmandu and its seismic focus lay at a depth of 10 km below the earth's surface. Over thirty-eight aftershocks of magnitude 4.5 Mw or greater occurred in the day following the initial earthquake, including the one of magnitude 6.8 Mw. According to the USGS, the earthquake was caused by a sudden thrust, or release of built-up stress, along the major fault line where the Indian Plate, carrying India, is diving underneath the Eurasian Plate, carrying much of Europe and Asia. Kathmandu, situated on a block of crust 120 km wide and 60 km long shifted 3 m to the south in a matter of just 30 seconds.
The risk of a large earthquake was well known beforehand. In 2013, in an interview with seismologist Vinod Kumar Gaur, The Hindu quoted him as saying, "Calculations show that there is sufficient accumulated energy, now to produce an 8 magnitude earthquake. I cannot say when, it may not happen tomorrow, but it could happen sometime this century, or wait longer to produce a much larger one." According to Brian Tucker, founder of a nonprofit organization devoted to reducing casualties from natural disasters, some government officials had expressed confidence that such an earthquake would not occur again. Tucker recounted a conversation he had had with a government official in the 1990s who said, "We don't have to worry about earthquakes anymore, because we had an earthquake". Nepal lies towards the southern limit of the diffuse collisional boundary where the Indian Plate underthrusts the Eurasian Plate, occupying the central sector of the Himalayan arc, nearly one-third of the 2,400 km long Himalayas.
Geologically, the Nepal Himalayas are sub-divided into five tectonic zones from north to south and, east to west and parallel to sub-parallel. These five distinct morpho-geotectonic zones are: Terai Plain, Sub Himalaya, Lesser Himalaya, Higher Himalaya, Inner Himalaya; each of these zones is identified by their morphological and tectonic features. The convergence rate between the plates in central Nepal is about 45 mm per year; the location and focal mechanism of the earthquake suggest that it was caused by a slip along the Main Frontal Thrust. The earthquake's effects were amplified in Kathmandu as it sits on the Kathmandu Basin, which contains up to 600 m of sedimentary rocks, representing the infilling of a lake. Based on a study published in 2014, of the Main Frontal Thrust, on average a great earthquake occurs e
The United Nations is an intergovernmental organization, tasked to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international co-operation and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City, is subject to extraterritoriality. Further main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi and The Hague; the organization is financed by voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development and upholding international law; the UN is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. In 24 October 1945, at the end of World War II, the organization was established with the aim of preventing future wars. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; the UN is the successor of the ineffective League of Nations.
On 25 April 1945, 50 governments met in San Francisco for a conference and started drafting the UN Charter, adopted on 25 June 1945 in the San Francisco Opera House, signed on 26 June 1945 in the Herbst Theatre auditorium in the Veterans War Memorial Building. This charter took effect on 24 October 1945; the UN's mission to preserve world peace was complicated in its early decades during the Cold War between the United States and Soviet Union and their respective allies. Its missions have consisted of unarmed military observers and armed troops with monitoring and confidence-building roles; the organization's membership grew following widespread decolonization which started in the 1960s. Since 80 former colonies had gained independence, including 11 trust territories, which were monitored by the Trusteeship Council. By the 1970s its budget for economic and social development programmes far outstripped its spending on peacekeeping. After the end of the Cold War, the UN shifted and expanded its field operations, undertaking a wide variety of complex tasks.
The UN has six principal organs: the General Assembly. The UN System agencies include the World Bank Group, the World Health Organization, the World Food Programme, UNESCO, UNICEF; the UN's most prominent officer is the Secretary-General, an office held by Portuguese politician and diplomat António Guterres since 1 January 2017. Non-governmental organizations may be granted consultative status with ECOSOC and other agencies to participate in the UN's work; the organization, its officers and its agencies have won many Nobel Peace Prizes. Other evaluations of the UN's effectiveness have been mixed; some commentators believe the organization to be an important force for peace and human development, while others have called the organization ineffective, biased, or corrupt. In the century prior to the UN's creation, several international treaty organizations such as the International Committee of the Red Cross was formed to ensure protection and assistance for victims of armed conflict and strife.
In 1914, a political assassination in Sarajevo set off a chain of events that led to the outbreak of World War I. As more and more young men were sent down into the trenches, influential voices in the United States and Britain began calling for the establishment of a permanent international body to maintain peace in the postwar world. President Woodrow Wilson became a vocal advocate of this concept, in 1918 he included a sketch of the international body in his 14-point proposal to end the war. In November 1918, the Central Powers agreed to an armistice to halt the killing in World War I. Two months the Allies met with Germany and Austria-Hungary at Versailles to hammer out formal peace terms. President Wilson wanted peace, but the United Kingdom and France disagreed, forcing harsh war reparations on their former enemies; the League of Nations was approved, in the summer of 1919 Wilson presented the Treaty of Versailles and the Covenant of the League of Nations to the US Senate for ratification.
On January 10, 1920, the League of Nations formally comes into being when the Covenant of the League of Nations, ratified by 42 nations in 1919, takes effect. However, at some point the League became ineffective when it failed to act against the Japanese invasion of Manchuria as in February 1933, 40 nations voted for Japan to withdraw from Manchuria but Japan voted against it and walked out of the League instead of withdrawing from Manchuria, it failed against the Second Italo-Ethiopian War despite trying to talk to Benito Mussolini as he used the time to send an army to Africa, so the League had a plan for Mussolini to just take a part of Ethiopia, but he ignored the League and invaded Ethiopia, the League tried putting sanctions on Italy, but Italy had conquered Ethiopia and the League had failed. After Italy conquered Ethiopia and other nations left the league, but all of them realised that they began to re-arm as fast as possible. During 1938, Britain and France tried negotiating directly with Hitler but this failed in 1939 when Hitler invaded Czechoslovakia.
When war broke out in 1939, the League closed down and its headquarters in Geneva remained empty throughout the war. The earliest concrete plan for a new world organization began under the aegis of the U. S. State Department in 1939; the text of the "Declaration by United Nations" was drafted at the White House on December 29, 1941, by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Roosevelt aide Harry Hopkins
Nepal the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked country in South Asia. It is located in the Himalayas but includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. With an estimated population of 26.4 million, it is 48th largest country by population and 93rd largest country by area. It borders China in the north and India in the south and west while Bangladesh is located within only 27 km of its southeastern tip and Bhutan is separated from it by the Indian state of Sikkim. Nepal has a diverse geography, including fertile plains, subalpine forested hills, eight of the world's ten tallest mountains, including Mount Everest, the highest point on Earth. Kathmandu is largest city. Nepal is a multiethnic nation with Nepali as the official language; the name "Nepal" is first recorded in texts from the Vedic period of the Indian subcontinent, the era in ancient India when Hinduism was founded, the predominant religion of the country. In the middle of the first millennium BCE, Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, was born in Lumbini in southern Nepal.
Parts of northern Nepal were intertwined with the culture of Tibet. The centrally located Kathmandu Valley is intertwined with the culture of Indo-Aryans, was the seat of the prosperous Newar confederacy known as Nepal Mandala; the Himalayan branch of the ancient Silk Road was dominated by the valley's traders. The cosmopolitan region developed distinct traditional architecture. By the 18th century, the Gorkha Kingdom achieved the unification of Nepal; the Shah dynasty established the Kingdom of Nepal and formed an alliance with the British Empire, under its Rajput Rana dynasty of premiers. The country was never colonized but served as a buffer state between Imperial China and British India. Parliamentary democracy was introduced in 1951, but was twice suspended by Nepalese monarchs, in 1960 and 2005; the Nepalese Civil War in the 1990s and early 2000s resulted in the proclamation of a secular republic in 2008, ending the world's last Hindu monarchy. The Constitution of Nepal, adopted in 2015, establishes Nepal as a federal secular parliamentary republic divided into seven provinces.
Nepal was admitted to the United Nations in 1955, friendship treaties were signed with India in 1950 and the People's Republic of China in 1960. Nepal hosts the permanent secretariat of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, of which it is a founding member. Nepal is a member of the Non Aligned Movement and the Bay of Bengal Initiative; the military of Nepal is the fifth largest in South Asia. Local legends have it that a Hindu sage named "Ne" established himself in the valley of Kathmandu in prehistoric times, that the word "Nepal" came into existence as the place was protected by the sage "Nemi", it is mentioned in Vedic texts. According to the Skanda Purana, a rishi called. In the Pashupati Purana, he is mentioned as a protector, he is said to have taught there. The name of the country is identical in origin to the name of the Newar people; the terms "Nepāl", "Newār", "Newāl" and "Nepār" are phonetically different forms of the same word, instances of the various forms appear in texts in different times in history.
Nepal is the learned Sanskrit form and Newar is the colloquial Prakrit form. A Sanskrit inscription dated 512 CE found in Tistung, a valley to the west of Kathmandu, contains the phrase "greetings to the Nepals" indicating that the term "Nepal" was used to refer to both the country and the people, it has been suggested that "Nepal" may be a Sanskritization of "Newar", or "Newar" may be a form of "Nepal". According to another explanation, the words "Newar" and "Newari" are vulgarisms arising from the mutation of P to V, L to R. Neolithic tools found in the Kathmandu Valley indicate that people have been living in the Himalayan region for at least eleven thousand years. Nepal is first mentioned in the late Vedic Atharvaveda Pariśiṣṭa as a place exporting blankets, in the post-Vedic Atharvashirsha Upanishad. In Samudragupta's Allahabad Pillar it is mentioned as a border country; the Skanda Purana has a separate chapter, known as "Nepal Mahatmya", with more details. Nepal is mentioned in Hindu texts such as the Narayana Puja.
Legends and ancient texts that mention the region now known as Nepal reach back to the 30th century BC. The Gopal Bansa were one of the earliest inhabitants of Kathmandu valley; the earliest rulers of Nepal were the Kiratas, peoples mentioned in Hindu texts, who ruled Nepal for many centuries. Various sources mention up to 32 Kirati kings. Around 500 BCE, small kingdoms and confederations of clans arose in the southern regions of Nepal. From one of these, the Shakya polity, arose a prince who renounced his status to lead an ascetic life, founded Buddhism, came to be known as Gautama Buddha. By 250 BCE, the southern regions had come under the influence of the Maurya Empire of North India and became a vassal state under the Gupta Empire in the 4th century CE. There is a quite detailed description of the kingdom of Nepal in the account of the renowned Chinese Buddhist pilgrim monk Xuanzang, dating from about 645 CE. Stone inscriptions in the Kathmandu Valley are important sources for the history of Nepal.
The kings of the Lichhavi dynasty have been found to have r