The terms anno Domini and before Christ are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars. The term anno Domini is Medieval Latin and means "in the year of the Lord", but is presented using "our Lord" instead of "the Lord", taken from the full original phrase "anno Domini nostri Jesu Christi", which translates to "in the year of our Lord Jesus Christ"; this calendar era is based on the traditionally reckoned year of the conception or birth of Jesus of Nazareth, with AD counting years from the start of this epoch, BC denoting years before the start of the era. There is no year zero in this scheme, so the year AD 1 follows the year 1 BC; this dating system was devised in 525 by Dionysius Exiguus of Scythia Minor, but was not used until after 800. The Gregorian calendar is the most used calendar in the world today. For decades, it has been the unofficial global standard, adopted in the pragmatic interests of international communication and commercial integration, recognized by international institutions such as the United Nations.
Traditionally, English followed Latin usage by placing the "AD" abbreviation before the year number. However, BC is placed after the year number, which preserves syntactic order; the abbreviation is widely used after the number of a century or millennium, as in "fourth century AD" or "second millennium AD". Because BC is the English abbreviation for Before Christ, it is sometimes incorrectly concluded that AD means After Death, i.e. after the death of Jesus. However, this would mean that the approximate 33 years associated with the life of Jesus would neither be included in the BC nor the AD time scales. Terminology, viewed by some as being more neutral and inclusive of non-Christian people is to call this the Current or Common Era, with the preceding years referred to as Before the Common or Current Era. Astronomical year numbering and ISO 8601 avoid words or abbreviations related to Christianity, but use the same numbers for AD years; the Anno Domini dating system was devised in 525 by Dionysius Exiguus to enumerate the years in his Easter table.
His system was to replace the Diocletian era, used in an old Easter table because he did not wish to continue the memory of a tyrant who persecuted Christians. The last year of the old table, Diocletian 247, was followed by the first year of his table, AD 532; when he devised his table, Julian calendar years were identified by naming the consuls who held office that year—he himself stated that the "present year" was "the consulship of Probus Junior", 525 years "since the incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ". Thus Dionysius implied that Jesus' incarnation occurred 525 years earlier, without stating the specific year during which his birth or conception occurred. "However, nowhere in his exposition of his table does Dionysius relate his epoch to any other dating system, whether consulate, year of the world, or regnal year of Augustus. Among the sources of confusion are: In modern times, incarnation is synonymous with the conception, but some ancient writers, such as Bede, considered incarnation to be synonymous with the Nativity.
The civil or consular year began on 1 January but the Diocletian year began on 29 August. There were inaccuracies in the lists of consuls. There were confused summations of emperors' regnal years, it is not known. Two major theories are that Dionysius based his calculation on the Gospel of Luke, which states that Jesus was "about thirty years old" shortly after "the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar", hence subtracted thirty years from that date, or that Dionysius counted back 532 years from the first year of his new table, it has been speculated by Georges Declercq that Dionysius' desire to replace Diocletian years with a calendar based on the incarnation of Christ was intended to prevent people from believing the imminent end of the world. At the time, it was believed by some that the resurrection of the dead and end of the world would occur 500 years after the birth of Jesus; the old Anno Mundi calendar theoretically commenced with the creation of the world based on information in the Old Testament.
It was believed that, based on the Anno Mundi calendar, Jesus was born in the year 5500 with the year 6000 of the Anno Mundi calendar marking the end of the world. Anno Mundi 6000 was thus equated with the resurrection and the end of the world but this date had passed in the time of Dionysius; the Anglo-Saxon historian the Venerable Bede, familiar with the work of Dionysius Exiguus, used Anno Domini dating in his Ecclesiastical History of the English People, completed in 731. In this same history, he used another Latin term, ante vero incarnationis dominicae tempus anno sexagesimo, equivalent to the English "before Christ", to identify years before the first year of this era. Both Dionysius and Bede regarded Anno Domini as beginning at the incarnation of Jesus, but "the distinction between Incarnation and Nativity was not drawn until the late 9th century, when in some places the Incarnation epoch was identified with Christ's conception, i.e. the Annunciation on March 25". On the continent of Europe, Anno
San Francisco the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. San Francisco is the 13th-most populous city in the United States, the fourth-most populous in California, with 884,363 residents as of 2017, it covers an area of about 46.89 square miles at the north end of the San Francisco Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area, making it the second-most densely populated large US city, the fifth-most densely populated U. S. county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. San Francisco is part of the fifth-most populous primary statistical area in the United States, the San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area; as of 2017, it was the seventh-highest income county in the United States, with a per capita personal income of $119,868. As of 2015, San Francisco proper had a GDP of $154.2 billion, a GDP per capita of $177,968. The San Francisco CSA was the country's third-largest urban economy as of 2017, with a GDP of $907 billion.
Of the 500+ primary statistical areas in the US, the San Francisco CSA had among the highest GDP per capita in 2017, at $93,938. San Francisco was ranked 14th in the world and third in the United States on the Global Financial Centres Index as of September 2018. San Francisco was founded on June 29, 1776, when colonists from Spain established Presidio of San Francisco at the Golden Gate and Mission San Francisco de Asís a few miles away, all named for St. Francis of Assisi; the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856. San Francisco's status as the West Coast's largest city peaked between 1870 and 1900, when around 25% of California's population resided in the city proper. After three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a major port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater.
It became the birthplace of the United Nations in 1945. After the war, the confluence of returning servicemen, significant immigration, liberalizing attitudes, along with the rise of the "hippie" counterculture, the Sexual Revolution, the Peace Movement growing from opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War, other factors led to the Summer of Love and the gay rights movement, cementing San Francisco as a center of liberal activism in the United States. Politically, the city votes along liberal Democratic Party lines. A popular tourist destination, San Francisco is known for its cool summers, steep rolling hills, eclectic mix of architecture, landmarks, including the Golden Gate Bridge, cable cars, the former Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary, Fisherman's Wharf, its Chinatown district. San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Gap Inc. Fitbit, Salesforce.com, Reddit, Inc. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation and Weather Underground.
It is home to a number of educational and cultural institutions, such as the University of San Francisco, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco State University, the De Young Museum, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the California Academy of Sciences. As of 2019, San Francisco is the highest rated American city on world liveability rankings; the earliest archaeological evidence of human habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. The Yelamu group of the Ohlone people resided in a few small villages when an overland Spanish exploration party, led by Don Gaspar de Portolà, arrived on November 2, 1769, the first documented European visit to San Francisco Bay. Seven years on March 28, 1776, the Spanish established the Presidio of San Francisco, followed by a mission, Mission San Francisco de Asís, established by the Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the area became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the mission system ended, its lands became privatized.
In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, near a boat anchorage around what is today Portsmouth Square. Together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7, 1846, during the Mexican–American War, Captain John B. Montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, Mexico ceded the territory to the United States at the end of the war. Despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography; the California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers. With their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849; the promise of great wealth was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor.
Some of these 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels.
Monterey Bay Aquarium
Monterey Bay Aquarium is a nonprofit public aquarium in Monterey, California. Known for its regional focus on the marine habitats of Monterey Bay, it was the first to exhibit a living kelp forest when it opened in October 1984, its biologists have pioneered the animal husbandry of jellyfish and it was the first to care for and display a great white shark. The organization's research and conservation efforts focus on sea otters, various birds, tunas. Seafood Watch, a sustainable seafood advisory list published by the aquarium beginning in 1999, has influenced the discussion surrounding sustainable seafood. Early proposals to build a public aquarium in Monterey County were not successful until a group of four marine biologists affiliated with Stanford University revisited the concept in the late-1970s. Monterey Bay Aquarium was built at the site of a defunct sardine cannery and has been recognized for its architectural achievements by the American Institute of Architects. Along with its architecture, the aquarium has won numerous awards for its exhibition of marine life, ocean conservation efforts, educational programs.
Monterey Bay Aquarium receives around two million visitors each year. It led to the revitalization of Cannery Row, produces hundreds of millions of dollars for the economy of Monterey County. In addition to being featured in two PBS Nature documentaries, the aquarium has appeared in film and television productions. In the early 1960s, scientists at Stanford University's Hopkins Marine Station grew wary of the growing industry on Cannery Row; the station succeeded in convincing the university of their concerns in 1967, Stanford University purchased the property on Cannery Row that housed the Hovden Cannery, a sardine cannery on the border of Monterey and Pacific Grove. Hovden Cannery closed in 1973 when its parent company moved the plant, Hopkins used the facility as a warehouse. In the late‑1970s, Chuck Baxter and Robin Burnett—both faculty members at Hopkins—along with Nancy Burnett, a graduate of Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, Steve Webster, faculty at San Jose State University, thought of building an aquarium on the Hovden Cannery site.
Three separate proposals for an aquarium in Monterey County had occurred in 1914, 1925, 1944, but financial backing and public support for the idea was not sufficient. Nancy Burnett brought the group's interest to her parents and David Packard, their foundation commissioned a feasibility study. An aquarium was predicted to attract 300,000 paying visitors annually with a potential future increase to 500,000 so, in April 1978, the Packards created the Monterey Bay Aquarium Foundation, which purchased the Hovden property from Stanford for nearly US$1 million. Around this time, Julie Packard—also a daughter of David and Lucile—joined the planning group. David Packard funded construction with an initial donation of $7 million with the caveat that the private nonprofit would be financially self-supporting after it opened. Due to an expansion of its planned exhibits—after visits to public aquariums in Japan—and the design and creation of exhibits in‑house, the Packards paid a final sum of $55 million.
General contracting firm Rudolph and Sletten predicted the building would take 31 months to construct, but project manager Linda Rhodes and architectural firm Esherick, Homsey and Davis first had to design the facility to fit Cannery Row. Those involved intended to reconstruct Hovden Cannery rather than destroy it, EHDD acknowledged that the latter would be "a big disservice to our visiting public and to the community". Concrete sections of the building were able to be kept; the facility was constructed around the cannery's boiler house, preserved as a non-functioning public exhibit. As the building would reside over water, unique challenges occurred throughout construction. Nearly half of the aquarium would be located over the bay in depths of up to 120 ft, requiring foundational elements to be installed during low tide, which occurred at night. According to a project manager with Rudolph and Sletten, excavations were sometimes lost as the composition of the ground underneath beach sand was inconsistent.
Various elements of the building mirrored that of Hovden Cannery, including its windows, plain cement walls, structural protection from waves and storms, its many roofs. Exposed pipes and ducts along the ceiling contributed to the industrial style of buildings on Cannery Row; the ironic transition from a plant that processed fish to an aquarium which would display them didn't prevent the facility from appearing like a cannery, according to multiple journalists. The aquarium's successful representation of the cannery was acknowledged by the California Historical Society with a historical preservation award; when Monterey Bay Aquarium opened on October 20, 1984, it was the largest public aquarium in the United States. On opening day, 11,000 around 30,000 people attended the day's festivities. In reference to the disappearance of sardines, which caused the canneries to close, the aquarium said that "the fish are back!" Throughout the following year, 2.4 million people visited, which influenced assumptions about "the ability of marine life to entertain and promote a city."
Within five years, it was reported in the Los Angeles Times that it was among California's most popular visitor attractions. By 1994, it was the most attended aquarium in th
University of California, Santa Barbara
The University of California, Santa Barbara is a public research university in Santa Barbara, California. It is one of the 10 campuses of the University of California system. Tracing its roots back to 1891 as an independent teachers' college, UCSB joined the University of California system in 1944 and is the third-oldest general-education campus in the system. UCSB is one of America's Public Ivy universities, a designation that recognizes top public research universities in the U. S; the university is a comprehensive doctoral university, is organized into five colleges and schools offering 87 undergraduate degrees and 55 graduate degrees. UCSB was ranked 30th among "National Universities", fifth among U. S. public universities, 37th among Best Global Universities by U. S. News & World Report's 2019 rankings; the university was ranked 48th worldwide for 2016–17 by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, 45th worldwide by the Academic Ranking of World Universities in 2017. UC Santa Barbara is a high-activity research university with 10 national research centers, including the renowned Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics and the Center for Control, Dynamical-Systems and Computation.
Current UCSB faculty includes six Nobel Prize laureates, one Fields Medalist, 39 members of the National Academy of Sciences, 27 members of the National Academy of Engineering, 34 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. UCSB was the No. 3 host on the ARPAnet and was elected to the Association of American Universities in 1995. The world-class faculty includes two Academy and Emmy Award winners, recipients of a Millennium Technology Prize, an IEEE Medal of Honor, a National Medal of Technology and Innovation and a Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics; the UC Santa Barbara Gauchos compete in the Big West Conference of the NCAA Division I. The Gauchos have won NCAA national championships in men's water polo. UCSB traces its origins back to the Anna Blake School, founded in 1891, offered training in home economics and industrial arts; the Anna Blake School was taken over by the state in 1909 and became the Santa Barbara State Normal School, which became the Santa Barbara State College in 1921.
In 1944, intense lobbying by an interest group in the City of Santa Barbara led by Thomas Storke and Pearl Chase persuaded the State Legislature, Gov. Earl Warren, the Regents of the University of California to move the State College over to the more research-oriented University of California system; the State College system sued to stop the takeover. A state constitutional amendment was passed in 1946 to stop subsequent conversions of State Colleges to University of California campuses. From 1944 to 1958, the school was known as Santa Barbara College of the University of California, before taking on its current name; when the vacated Marine Corps training station in Goleta was purchased for the growing college, Santa Barbara City College moved into the vacated State College buildings. The regents envisioned a small, several thousand–student liberal arts college, a so-called "Williams College of the West", at Santa Barbara. Chronologically, UCSB is the third general-education campus of the University of California, after Berkeley and UCLA.
The original campus the regents acquired in Santa Barbara was located on only 100 acres of unusable land on a seaside mesa. The availability of a 400-acre portion of the land used as Marine Corps Air Station Santa Barbara until 1946 on another seaside mesa in Goleta, which the regents could acquire for free from the federal government, led to that site becoming the Santa Barbara campus in 1949. Only 3000–3500 students were anticipated, but the post-WWII baby boom led to the designation of general campus in 1958, along with a name change from "Santa Barbara College" to "University of California, Santa Barbara," and the discontinuation of the industrial arts program for which the state college was famous. A chancellor, Samuel B. Gould, was appointed in 1959. All of this change was done in accordance with the California Master Plan for Higher Education. In 1959, UCSB professor Douwe Stuurman hosted the English writer Aldous Huxley as the university's first visiting professor. Huxley delivered a lectures series called "The Human Situation".
In the late'60s and early'70s, UCSB became nationally known as a hotbed of anti–Vietnam War activity. A bombing at the school's faculty club in 1969 killed Dover Sharp. In the spring of 1970, multiple occasions of arson occurred, including a burning of the Bank of America branch building in the student community of Isla Vista, during which time one male student, Kevin Moran, was shot and killed by police. UCSB's anti-Vietnam activity impelled then-Gov. Ronald Reagan to order the National Guard to enforce it. Armed guardsmen were a common sight in Isla Vista during this time. In 1995, UCSB was elected to the Association of American Universities, an organization of leading research universities, with a membership consisting of 59 universities in the United States and two universities in Canada. On May 23, 2014, a killing spree occurred in Isla Vista, California, a community in close proximity to the campus. All six people killed during the rampage were students at UCSB; the murderer was a former Santa Barbara City College student.
1944–1946: Clarence L. Phelps 1946–1955: J. Harold Williams 1955–1955: Clark G. Kuebler 1956–1956: John C. Snidecor 1956–1959: Elmer Noble 1959–1962: Samuel B. Gould 1962–1977: Vernon Cheadle 1977–1986: Robert Huttenba
San Benito County, California
San Benito County the County of San Benito, is a county located in the Coast Range Mountains of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 55,269; the county seat is Hollister. San Benito County is included in the San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area. El Camino Real includes one mission in San Juan Bautista. San Benito County was formed from parts of Monterey County in 1874; the county is named after the San Benito Valley. Father Juan Crespí, in his expedition in 1772, named a small river in honor of San Benedicto, the patron saint of the married, it is from the contraction of this name that the county took its name. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,390 square miles, of which 1,389 square miles is land and 1.8 square miles is water. Sharing a border with Santa Clara County, San Benito County lies adjacent to the San Francisco Bay Area and is sometimes considered a part of that region.
The county is associated with the Monterey Bay Area through governmental organizations such as the Association of Monterey Bay Area Governments as well as the Pajaro River, which flows from northern San Benito County into the Monterey Bay. However, the United States Census Bureau includes the county in the San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara MSA and the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland CSA, which the Census uses as a statistical definition of the San Francisco Bay Area; the county borders Merced County and Fresno County in the east, which lead onto California's San Joaquin Valley. The county is the location of the Mount Harlan and San Benito American Viticultural Areas; the latter contains the Cienega Valley, Lime Kiln Valley, Paicines AVAs. There are a number of plant communities that occur in San Benito County including grasslands and chaparral. Benitoite, the official gem of the State of California, was discovered in San Benito County; the county is home to the San Benito evening primrose. The plant genus.
Pinnacles National Park The 2010 United States Census reported that San Benito County had a population of 55,269. The racial makeup of San Benito County was 35,181 White, 483 African American, 895 Native American, 1,443 Asian, 94 Pacific Islander, 14,471 from other races, 2,702 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 31,186 persons; as of the census of 2000, there were 53,234 people, 15,885 households, 12,898 families residing in the county. The population density was 38 people per square mile. There were 16,499 housing units at an average density of 12 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county in 2010 was 38.3% non-Hispanic White, 0.6% non-Hispanic Black or African American, 0.4% Native American, 2.3% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.1% from other races, 1.7% from two or more races. 56.4% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 7.6% were of German, 6.3% Irish and 5.4% Italian ancestry according to Census 2000. 62.8% spoke English and 35.3% Spanish as their first language.
As of the 2010 United States Census, San Benito County was the only county in the greater San Francisco Bay Area with a Hispanic majority and where a minority race formed the largest race composition. There were 15,885 households out of which 46.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.7% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 18.8% were non-families. 14.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.32 and the average family size was 3.64. In the county, the population was spread out with 32.2% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 31.5% from 25 to 44, 19.3% from 45 to 64, 8.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 102.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.6 males. The median income for a household in the county was $57,469, the median income for a family was $60,665.
Males had a median income of $44,158 versus $29,524 for females. The per capita income for the county was $20,932. About 6.7% of families and 10.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.4% of those under age 18 and 8.5% of those age 65 or over. County government is overseen by a five-member elected Board of Supervisors, who serve four-year terms of office. Other elected county leaders include: Assessor Clerk-Auditor-Recorder District Attorney Sheriff-Coroner Treasurer-Tax Collector-Public AdministratorSan Benito County has the last elected Marshal in California. Shasta and Trinity Counties still have appointed Marshals. In the United States House of Representatives, San Benito County is part of California's 20th congressional district, represented by Democrat Jimmy Panetta. In the California State Legislature, San Benito County is in the 12th Senate District, represented by Democrat Anna Caballero, in the 30th Assembly District, represented by Democrat Robert Rivas. San Benito is a Democratic-leaning county in congressional elections.
The last Republican to win a majority in the county was George H. W. Bush in 1988. San Benito is considered a bellwether county for California in presidential elections.