Communist Party of the Russian Federation
The Communist Party of the Russian Federation is a communist and Marxist–Leninist political party in Russia. The party is viewed as the immediate successor of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. It is the second largest political party in the Russian Federation, the youth organisation of the party is the Leninist Young Communist League. The party is administered by the Central Committee, as of 2015, the party has 570,000 members. The partys stated goal is to establish a new, modernised form of socialism in Russia, Zyuganov had been a harsh critic of Alexander Yakovlev, the so-called godfather of glasnost, on the CPSU Central Committee. In order to oppose Yeltsin, Zyuganov organized a popular-patriotic bloc of nationalist organizations to support his candidacy and it went on to support Zyuganov in the 2000 presidential election. The NPSR was meant to form the basis of a two-party system, the party suffered a sharp decline in the 2003 legislative election, going from 113 seats to 52. Zyuganov called the 2003 elections a revolting spectacle, and accused the Kremlin of setting up a Potemkin party, the CPRF was endorsed by Sergey Baburins Peoples Union for the 2007 Russian parliamentary elections.
The party played only a role in the protests. Party rallies on December 18,2011 in protest of election irregularities in Moscow and Saint Petersburg were attended by only a few thousand, mostly elderly, the party has recently called for Russia to formally recognize Donetsk Peoples Republic and the Luhansk Peoples Republic. The partys current program was adopted in 2008, where the CPRF declared that it is the political organization that consistently upholds the rights of the workers. According to the program, the goal of the party is to build in Russia a renewed socialism, socialism of the 21st century. The program of the Communist Party declared that the party is guided by Marxism–Leninism, based on the experience and achievements of domestic and world science, according to its program, the CPRF considers it necessary to reform the country in three phases. In the first phase, it is needed to achieve power through representation by a coalition led by the CPRF. In this case, small producers will remain, moreover, will be organized to protect them from robbery by big business, bureaucrats and it is planned to reform the management of enterprises through the creation of councils at various levels.
The party plans to transform Russia into a Soviet republic, in the second stage the role of councils and trade unions will increase even more. The economy will be made a transition to a socialist form of economic activity, however. Finally, the phase is to build socialism
Imperialism is an action that involves a country extending its power by the acquisition of territories. It may include the exploitation of these territories, an action that is linked to colonialism, colonialism is generally regarded as an expression of imperialism. However, both are examples of imperialism, the word imperialism originated from the Latin word imperium, which means supreme power. It first became common in Great Britain, during the 1870s and was used with a negative connotation, the term was and is mainly applied to Western political and economic dominance, especially in Asia and Africa, in the 19th and 20th centuries. Its precise meaning continues to be debated by scholars, some writers, such as Edward Said, use the term more broadly to describe any system of domination and subordination organised with an imperial center and a periphery. This definition encompasses both nominal empires and neocolonialism, the word empire comes from the Latin word imperium, for which the closest modern English equivalent would perhaps be sovereignty, or simply rule.
The greatest distinction of an empire is through the amount of land that a nation has conquered and expanded, Political power grew from conquering land, however cultural and economic aspects flourished through sea and trade routes. A distinction about empires is that although political empires were built mostly by expansion overland, some of the main aspects of trade that went overseas consisted of animals and plant products. European empires in Asia and Africa have come to be seen as the forms of imperialism. European expansion caused the world to be divided by how developed, the two main regions are the core and the periphery. The core consists of areas of income and profit, the periphery is on the opposing side of the spectrum consisting of areas of low income. These critical theories of Geo-politics have led to increased discussion of the meaning and this idea from Lenin stresses how important new political world order has become in our modern era. Geopolitics now focuses on states becoming major players in the market, some states today are viewed as empires due to their political.
The term imperialism is often conflated with colonialism, however scholars have argued that each have their own distinct definition. Imperialism and colonialism have been used in order to describe ones superiority, colonialism in modern usage tends to imply a degree of geographic separation between the colony and the imperial power. Thus it can be said that imperialism includes some form of colonialism, colonialism is seen to be the architect deciding how to start dominating areas and imperialism can be seen as creating the idea behind conquest cooperating with colonialism. Colonialism is when the imperial nation begins a conquest over an area, colonialisms core meaning is the exploitation of the valuable assets and supplies of the nation that was conquered and the conquering nation gaining the benefits from the spoils of the war. The meaning of imperialism is to create an empire, by conquering the states lands
Some tendencies of democratic socialism advocate for revolution in order to transition to socialism, distinguishing it from some forms of social democracy. For Hain, this divide is more important than the revolutionary/reformist divide. A similar, but more complex, argument is made by Nicos Poulantzas, Draper himself uses the term revolutionary-democratic socialism as a type of socialism from below in his The Two Souls of Socialism. Similarly, about Eugene Debs, he writes, Debsian socialism evoked a response from the heart of the people. In contrast, other tendencies of democratic socialism advocate for eventual socialism that follow a gradual, reformist or evolutionary path to socialism, rather than a revolutionary one. We are socialists because we are developing a strategy for achieving that vision. The term is used to refer to policies that are compatible with and exist within capitalism. Though this is not always the case, for example, Robert M. contended that a more benevolent form of capitalism had emerged since the.
According to Crosland, it was now possible to achieve equality in society without the need for fundamental economic transformation. Some proponents of market socialism see it as a system compatible with the political ideology of democratic socialism. The term democratic socialism can be used even another way, to refer to a version of the Soviet model that was reformed in a democratic way, for example, Mikhail Gorbachev described perestroika as building a new and democratic socialism. Consequently, some former Communist parties have rebranded themselves as democratic socialist, justification of democratic socialism can be found in the works of social philosophers like Charles Taylor and Axel Honneth, among others. Honneth has put forward the view that political and economic ideologies have a social basis, contra liberal individualism, Honneth has emphasised the inter-subjective dependence between humans, that is, our well-being depends on recognising others and being recognised by them. Democratic socialism, with its emphasis on social collectivism, could be seen as a way of safeguarding this dependency and their concern for both democracy and social justice marks them out as key precursors of democratic socialism.
Owens followers again stressed both participatory democracy and economic socialisation, in the form of consumer co-operatives, credit unions, the Chartists similarly combined a working class politics with a call for greater democracy. The British moral philosopher John Stuart Mill came to advocate a form of socialism within a liberal context. Democratic socialism became a prominent movement at the end of the 19th century, in Germany, the Eisenacher socialist group merged with the Lassallean socialist group, in 1875, to form the German Social Democratic Party. In Australia, the Labour and Socialist movements were gaining traction, the ALP has been the main driving force for workers rights in Australia, backed by Australian Trade Unions, in particular the Australian Workers Union
Communist Party of Cuba
The Communist Party of Cuba is the political party that rules in Republic of Cuba, although others exist. It is a Communist party of the Marxist-Leninist model, the Cuban constitution ascribes the role of the Party to be the leading force of society and of the state. Cuba had a number of communist and anarchist organizations from the period of the Republic. The original internationalised Communist Party of Cuba formed in the 1920s, in 1944 it renamed itself as the Popular Socialist Party for electoral reasons. The Communist Party is the recognized political party in Cuba. Other parties, though not illegal, are unable to campaign or conduct any activities on the island that could be deemed counter-revolutionary, for the first fifteen years of its formal existence, the Communist Party was almost completely inactive outside of the Politburo. The 100 person Central Committee rarely met and it was ten years after its founding that the first regular Party Congress was held. In 1969, membership of the party was only 55,000 or 0. 7% of the population, in the 1970s, the partys apparatus began to develop.
By 1980 the party had grown to over 430,000 members, apparatuses of the party had grown to ensure that its leading cadres were appointed to key government positions. The Communist Party of Cuba held its first Party Congress in 1975 and has had additional congresses in 1980,1986,1991,1997, and 2011. The Seventh Party Congress took place from April 19 to April 22,2016, around the 55th anniversary of the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Secretariat, was re-introduced in 2002. There is a Central Committee which meets between party congresses, at the Fifth Party Congress the size of the Central Committee was reduced to 150 members from the previous membership of 225. Fidel Castro was the partys First Secretary since its inception, while Raúl Castro was the Second Secretary, upon Fidels 2008 resignation from the Party and Cuban government, Raúl became First Secretary. The 7th Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Cuba was elected by the Central Committee on 19 April 2016 following the 7th Party Congress.
The 6th Secretariat of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Cuba was elected by the Central Committee on 19 April 2011 following the 6th Party Congress. The Communist Party of Cuba has a wing, the Young Communist League which is a member organization of the World Federation of Democratic Youth. It has a group, the José Martí Pioneer Organization. Their most significant international role was in Angola where the Cuban direction of a joint Angolan/Soviet/Cuban force that was involved in the Battle of Cuito Cuanavale and this led to the withdrawal of intervening forces and, in the following peace agreement, the independence of Namibia from South African rule
Republican National Committee
The Republican National Committee is a U. S. political committee that provides national leadership for the Republican Party of the United States. It is responsible for developing and promoting the Republican political platform, as well as coordinating fundraising and it is responsible for organizing and running the Republican National Convention. Ronna Romney McDaniel is the current committee chair, the RNCs main counterpart is the Democratic National Committee. The 1856 Republican National Convention appointed the first RNC and it consisted of one member from each state and territory to serve for four years. Each national convention since has followed the precedent of equal representation for each state or territory, from 1924 to 1952, there was a national committeeman and national committeewoman from each state and U. S. possession, and from Washington, D. C. As of 2011, the RNC has 168 members, the only person to have chaired the RNC and become U. S. president is George H. W. Bush. A number of the chairs of the RNC have been state governors, on November 24,2008, Steele launched his campaign for the RNC chairmanship with the launching of his website.
On January 30,2009, Steele won the chairmanship of the RNC in the sixth round, I think I may have some keys to open the door, some juice to turn on the lights, he said. Six people ran for the 2009 RNC Chairmanship, Ken Blackwell, Mike Duncan, Saul Anuzis, Katon Dawson, after Saltsmans withdrawal, there were only five candidates during the hotly contested balloting January 30,2009. After the third round of balloting that day, Steele held a lead over incumbent Mike Duncan of Kentucky. Shortly after the announcement of the standings, Duncan dropped out of contention without endorsing a candidate, after the fifth round, Steele held a ten-vote lead over Katon Dawson, with 79 votes, and Saul Anuzis dropped out. After the sixth vote, he won the chairmanship of the RNC over Dawson by a vote of 91 to 77, when I was chairman of the Republican National Committee the last time we lost the White House in 1992 we focused exclusively on 1993 and 1994. And at the end of time, we had both houses of Congress with Republican majorities, and wed gone from 17 Republican governors to 31.
So anyone talking about 2012 today doesnt have their eye on the ball, what we ought to worry about is rebuilding our party over the next year and particularly in 2010, Barbour said at the November 2008 Republican Governors conference. Michael Steele ran for re-election at the 2011 RNC winter meeting, steeles critics increasingly called on him to step down as RNC Chair when his term ended in 2011. A debate for Chairman hosted by Americans for Tax Reform took place on January 3 at the National Press Club, the election for Chairman took place January 14 at the RNCs winter meeting with Reince Priebus winning on the seventh ballot after Steele and Wagner withdrew. He was re-elected to a term in 2015, setting him up to become the longest serving head of the party ever. Trump recommended Ronna Romney McDaniel as RNC Chairwoman, and she was elected to that role by the RNC in January 2017
Alcoholics Anonymous is an international mutual aid fellowship founded in 1935 by Bill Wilson and Dr. Bob Smith in Akron, Ohio. AAs stated primary purpose is to help alcoholics stay sober and help other alcoholics achieve sobriety, with other early members, Bill Wilson and Bob Smith developed AAs Twelve Step program of spiritual and character development. AAs initial Twelve Traditions were introduced in 1946 to help the fellowship be stable, the Traditions recommend that members and groups remain anonymous in public media, altruistically help other alcoholics and avoid official affiliations with other organizations. They advise against dogma and coercive hierarchies, subsequent fellowships such as Narcotics Anonymous have adopted and adapted the Twelve Steps and the Twelve Traditions to their respective primary purposes. According to AAs 2014 membership survey, 27% of members have been less than one year, 24% have 1–5 years sober, 13% have 5–10 years, 14% have 10–20 years. Studies of AAs efficacy have produced inconsistent results, while some studies have suggested an association between AA attendance and increased abstinence or other positive outcomes, other studies have not.
The first female member, Florence Rankin, joined AA in March 1937, and the first non-Protestant member, AA membership has since spread across diverse cultures holding different beliefs and values, including geopolitical areas resistant to grassroots movements. Over 2 million people worldwide are members of AA as of 2016, AAs name is derived from its first book, informally called The Big Book, originally titled Alcoholics Anonymous, The Story of How More Than One Hundred Men Have Recovered From Alcoholism. AA sprang from The Oxford Group, a non-denominational movement modeled after first-century Christianity, some members founded the Group to help in maintaining sobriety. Feeling a kinship of common suffering and, though drunk, Wilson attended his first Group gathering, within days, Wilson admitted himself to the Charles B. Towns Hospital after drinking four beers on the way—the last alcohol he ever drank, under the care of Dr. William Duncan Silkworth, Wilsons detox included the deliriant belladonna.
At the hospital a despairing Wilson experienced a flash of light. Following his hospital discharge Wilson joined the Oxford Group and recruited other alcoholics to the Group, Wilsons early efforts to help others become sober were ineffective, prompting Dr. Silkworth to suggest that Wilson place less stress on religion and more on the science of treating alcoholism. Wilsons first success came during a trip to Akron, where he was introduced to Dr. Robert Smith. After thirty days of working with Wilson, Smith drank his last drink on June 10,1935, by 1937, Wilson separated from the Oxford Group. AA Historian Ernest Kurtz described the split. more and more, Bill discovered that new adherents could get sober by believing in each other and this, then—whatever it was that occurred among them—was what they could accept as a power greater than themselves. They did not need the Oxford Group, in 1955, Wilson acknowledged AAs debt, saying The Oxford Groupers had clearly shown us what to do. And just as importantly, we learned from them not to do
Central Committee of the Communist Party of China
The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China is a political body that comprises the top leaders of the Communist Party of China. It is currently composed of 205 full members and 171 alternate members, members are elected once every five years by the National Congress of the Communist Party of China. The Central Committee is, the partys highest organ of authority when the National Congress is not in session and it oversees work of various powerful national organs of the party. The Committee convenes at least once a year at a plenary session, the Committee operates, however, on the principle of democratic centralism, i. e. once a decision is made, the entire body speaks with one voice. The role of the Central Committee has varied throughout history, Central Committee plenums function as venues whereby policy is discussed, fine-tuned, and publicly released in the form of resolutions or decisions. The Central Committee is therefore technically the partys highest organ of authority when the National Congress is not in session.
The Central Committee must be convened to prepare for a National Congress, for example, to determine its dates, delegate selection, agenda. The Central Committee has the power to elect the General Secretary and the members of the Politburo, its Standing Committee, and the Central Military Commission. These elections take place in the form of votes, i. e. there is only one candidate. In some instances write-in candidates may be allowed, the Central Committee confirms membership of the Secretariat, the organ in charge of executing party policy, whose membership is determined through nomination by the Politburo. The Central Committees role has varied throughout history and it was founded in 1927 as a successor organization to the Central Executive Committee, a group of party leaders charged with executing party work during the pre-revolutionary days of the CPC. Over the next decades it served to confirm the party leadership lineup and legitimize military, strategic. In practice, power was concentrated in a group of military and political leaders.
Although the Central Committee was required to convene at least once a year, it did not convene at all in 1951–53,1960, 1963–65, and 1967. Mao did not hold power over the Central Committee, as evidenced by the debates surrounding the policies of the Great Leap Forward. Mao faced some opposition at the 11th Plenum but ultimately most delegates were goaded into ratifying Maos decisions, many members were politically disgraced or purged thereafter. The Committee was convened again in October 1968 to ratify the decision to head of state Liu Shaoqi from the Party. At the 12th plenum, less than half the members actually attended, in a letter to Mao evaluating the members of the Central Committee at the time, Kang Sheng wrote that some 70% of CC members were considered traitors, spies, or otherwise politically unreliable
In this period, social democrats embraced a mixed economy based on the predominance of private property, with only a minority of essential utilities and public services under public ownership. By 1868–1869, Marxism had become the official theoretical basis of the first social democratic party established in Europe, in this period, social democracy became associated with reformist socialism. The origins of social democracy have been traced to the 1860s, with the rise of the first major party in Europe. 1864 saw the founding of the International Workingmens Association, known as the First International, another issue in the First International was the role of reformism. Although Lassalle was not a Marxist, he was influenced by the theories of Marx and Engels, however unlike Marxs and Engelss The Communist Manifesto, Lassalle promoted class struggle in a more moderate form. While Marx viewed the state negatively as an instrument of class rule that should only exist temporarily upon the rise to power of the proletariat and dismantled, Lassalle accepted the state.
Lassalle viewed the state as a means through which workers could enhance their interests, Lassalles strategy was primarily electoral and reformist, with Lassalleans contending that the working class needed a political party that fought above all for universal adult male suffrage. The ADAVs party newspaper was called Der Sozialdemokrat and Engels responded to the title Sozialdemocrat with distaste, Engels once writing, But what a title, Sozialdemokrat. Why dont they simply call it The Proletarian. Marx agreed with Engels that Sozialdemokrat was a bad title, there was a Marxist faction within the ADAV represented by Wilhelm Liebknecht who became one of the editors of the Die Sozialdemokrat. Friction in the ADAV arose over Lassalles policy of an approach to Bismarck that had assumed incorrectly that Bismarck in turn would be friendly towards them. This approach was opposed by the partys Marxists, including Liebknecht, opposition in the ADAV to Lassalles friendly approach to Bismarcks government resulted in Liebknecht resigning from his position as editor of Die Sozialdemokrat and leaving the ADAV in 1865.
Though the SDAP was not officially Marxist, it was the first major organization to be led by Marxists and Marx. The party adopted stances similar to those adopted by Marx at the First International, there was intense rivalry and antagonism between the SDAP and the ADAV, with the SDAP being highly hostile to the Prussian government while the ADAV pursued a reformist and more cooperative approach. In spite of such militant rhetoric to appeal to the working class, in 1875 Marx attacked the Gotha Program that became the program of Social Democratic Party of Germany in the same year in his Critique of the Gotha Program. Marx was not optimistic that Germany at the time was not open to a means to achieve socialism. In addition he noticed a change over the relations between the two classes. The Reform Acts of 1867 and 1884 make an approach to universal suffrage. The Fabian Society was founded as a group from the Fellowship of the New Life due to opposition within that group to socialism
Central Committee of the Workers' Party of Korea
The Central Committee of the Workers Party of Korea is the leadership body of the Workers Party of Korea. According to Party rules, the Central Committee directs the Party work between the Party Congresses and it is elected by the Party Congress itself, although Party conferences can be called to perform this duty as well. The current Central Committee, the 6th, was elected by the 6th WPK Congress in 1980, the Central Committee, which is currently made up by more than 300 people between full members and alternate members, should meet at least once every year. However, no meeting at all was convened between the 21st Plenary Meeting of the 6th Central Committee in December 1993 and the September 28,2010 Plenary Meeting and it organizes the Central Military Commission, the Control Commission and the Secretariat of the Central Committee. The many Party departments are nominally under the Central Committees jurisdiction, unlike many other ruling communist parties, the Central Committee doesnt elect the General Secretary of the Workers Party of Korea, who is elected by the Party Congress directly.
One of the aspects of its long paralysis from 1993 to 2010 is that all members of the Presidium of the Political Bureau but Kim Jong-il died in the meantime. In March 2013, after more than two years since the last, a meeting of the Party Central Committee was convened prior to the Supreme Peoples Assembly session. The Politburo rules the Party while the Central Committee is not in meeting and it currently has 22 full members and 16 alternate members. It has the power to propose or commend important state leaders, like the Premier, the true day-to-day ruling body, however, is the Presidium of the Politburo, currently made up of four members, including supreme leader Kim Jong-un. The Secretariat of the Central Committee is tasked with executive and administrative duties, the Secretariat is made up by the Party First Secretary plus other secretaries of the Central Committee. The authority of the WPK Central Committee is enforced through a number of at least 15 departments charged with specific tasks, Department directors are usually Central Committee members themselves.
There follows a list of departments and their heads. The Organization and Guidance Department is one of the most important departments since it controls party, Kim Jong-il succeeded his uncle Kim Yong-ju as department director in 1974, and never officially relinquished that post, its first deputy director managed OGD daily affairs. It is currently led by leader Kim Jong-uns aunt Kim Kyong-hui and this marks the third consecutive head belonging to the ruling Kim family. Similar to the OGD, the Administration Department oversees personnel appointments and it was merged into the OGD in 1990 and restored in 2007. Its director was Jang Song-taek from 2007 to 2013, other important departments include the Propaganda and Agitation Department, the United Front Department, the Military Affairs Department, and the Workers Organizations Department. September 2010 Plenary Meeting Date, September 28,2010 Location, Pyongyang Significance, elected Politburo, Central Military Commission, Central Control Commission and department directors.
First meeting attended by Kim Jong-un, who was elected vice-chairman of the Military Commission, March 2013 Plenary Meeting Date, March 31,2013 Location, Pyongyang Significance, First meeting after the 4th Party Conference
The Likud, officially the Likud–National Liberal Movement, is a major center-right to right-wing political party in Israel. A secular party, it was founded in 1973 by Menachem Begin in an alliance with several right-wing, Likuds landslide victory in the 1977 elections was a major turning point in the countrys political history, marking the first time the left had lost power. In addition, it was the first time in Israel that a party won the plurality of the votes. However, after ruling the country for most of the 1980s, Likuds candidate Benjamin Netanyahu did win the vote for Prime Minister in 1996 and was given the task of forming a government after the 1996 elections. Netanyahus government fell apart after a vote of no confidence, which led to elections being called in 1999, in 2001, Likuds Ariel Sharon, who replaced Netanyahu following the 1999 election, defeated Barak in an election called by the Prime Minister following his resignation. After the party recorded a win in the 2003 elections.
This resulted in Likud slumping to fourth place in the 2006 elections, Netanyahu has been Prime Minister since and Likud has been the leading vote-getter in each election. A member of the party is called a Likudnik. Herut had been the nations largest right-wing party since growing out of the Irgun in 1948 and it had already been in coalition with the Liberals since 1965 as Gahal, with Herut as the senior partner. Herut remained the senior partner in the new grouping, which was given the name Likud, meaning Consolidation and it worked as a coalition under Heruts leadership until 1988, when the member parties merged into a single party under the Likud name. From its establishment in 1973, Likud enjoyed great support from blue-collar Sephardim who felt discriminated against by the ruling Alignment, Likud made a strong showing in its first elections in 1973, reducing the Alignments lead to 12 seats. The party went on to win the 1977 elections, finishing 11 seats ahead of the Alignment, Begin was able to form a government with the support of the religious parties, consigning the left-wing to opposition for the first time since independence.
A former leader of the hard-line paramilitary Irgun, Begin helped initiate the process with Egypt, which resulted in the 1978 Camp David Accords. Likud was reelected with a reduced mandate in 1981. Likud has long been an alliance between politicians committed to different and sometimes opposing policy preferences and ideologies. Begin resigned in October 1983 and was succeeded as Likud leader, although Shamir lost the 1984 election, the Alignment was unable to form a government on its own. Likud and the Alignment thus formed a unity government, with Peres as Prime Minister. After two years and Shamir switched posts and this government remained in power through 1990, when the Alignment pulled out and Shamir stitched together a right-wing coalition that held on until its defeat in 1992 by Labor