Central Committee elected by the 17th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Central Committee elected
by the 17th Congress
16th ←
→ 18th
17th Congress AUCP-4.jpg
A scene from the 17th Congress
Duration 10 February 1934 – 22 March 1939
General Secretary Joseph Stalin
Second Secretary Lazar Kaganovich (1934–1935)
Inner-groups Politburo: 12 full & 5 candidates
Secretariat: 6 members
Orgburo: 12 full & 2 candidates
No. of departments 12
Members 71 full and 68 candidates

The Central Committee (CC) composition was elected at the 17th Congress, and sat from 10 February 1934 until 22 March 1939, its 1st Plenary Session renewed the composition of the Politburo, Secretariat and the Orgburo of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks). The 17th Congress was labelled the "Congress of Victors" to mark the success of the First Five-Year Plan and the collectivization of agriculture.[1] The CC 1st Plenary Session elected Joseph Stalin General Secretary of the Central Committee, and Lazar Kaganovich continued to serve as Stalin's deputy, an informal post referred to by Sovietologists as Second Secretary, and was empowered to manage party business and sign Politburo resolutions when Stalin was away from Moscow.[2]

This Central Committee composition saw the de-formalisation of politics; for example, the number of Politburo meetings was reduced to 16 for the year of 1934.[3] Politburo decisions were made either by polling the members or informal meeting between Stalin and other Politburo members.[3] According to Ukrainian historian Oleg Khlevniuk the "procedures followed by the Politburo became increasingly simplified as it was transformed from a collective body into an appendage of a decision-making system that rested on Stalin's sole authority. [e.g. that the Soviet Union, originally an oligarchic state, was turning into an autocracy]"[4] According to Vadim Rogovin, "During the period of the Great Purge, the rights of the Central Committee and its members were restricted even more", noting that CC members lost the right to attend Politburo sessions or being informed on the decisions taken by the Politburo, Secretariat or the Orgburo.[5] When looking back, Nikita Khrushchev lamented the situation; "by 1938, the earlier democracy in the Central Committee had already been greatly undermined. For instance, as a candidate member of the Politburo, I did not receive materials of our sessions. ... I received only the material which Stalin sent to me on his own orders."[6]

Of the 139 full members and candidate members elected at the 17th Party Congress, 98 people were killed in the period 1936–1940.[7] Of these 44 (out of 71) were full members, while 55 (out of 68) were candidate members.[7] Of those arrested, over 80 percent of them were below the age of 50.[7] When the 18th Party Congress convened in 1939, 31 individuals remained in the Central Committee.[7] Of these, seven were not reelected, and of them five were pensioned or relieved of leading offices (Grigory Petrovsky, Gleb Krzhizhanovsky, Grigory Broydo, Mikhail Chuvyrin and Isaak Schwartz) while Tikhon Yurkin and Avraami Zavenyagin were reelected to the CC at the 19th Party Congress (in 1952) and the 20th Party Congress (in 1956) respectively.[7] Of the 24 reelected at the 18th Party Congress, four would be subject to violent repression (Mikhail Kaganovich in 1941, Solomon Lozovsky in 1952, Lavrentiy Beria in 1953 and Mir Jafar Baghirov in 1956).[8] Klavdija Nikolaeva became the only CC member who had previously been active in intra-party opposition to survive the purge.[9]

Life durations of members of Central Committee chosen on the 17th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks)

When asked in an interview how the Central Committee approved its own destruction (the decision to expel a member from the CC or for a member to be arrested by the authorities had to be approved by the CC itself through a plenary session), Vyacheslav Molotov replied; "In the first place, on democratic centralism—Listen, it did not happen that a minority expelled a majority. It happened gradually. Seventy expelled 10–15 people, then 60 expelled another 15. All in line with majority and minority. ... Essentially, it happened that a minority of the composition of the TsK [CC] remained of this majority, but without formal violation [of democratic centralism]."[10] According to J. Arch Getty and Oleg Naumov the CC "In the name of party unity and with a desperate feeling of corporate self-preservation, the nomenklatura committed suicide."[11] However, there were some within the CC who breached party tradition and spoke against the purges, such as Grigory Kaminsky and Osip Piatnitsky for example.[12]

Keys[edit]

Abbreviations used
K "K" is an abbreviation of the word Keys.
I–C "I–C" is an abbreviation of the word inner-composition, which means in this instance individual membership in the Politburo, Secretariat and Orgburo.
PB Politburo member.
SC Secretariat member.
OB Orgburo member.
PB(C), OB(C) The first "C" in these initials refers to "Candidate member"
Keys
The Star of David, a symbol of Judaism, shaped as that of a hexagram, the compound of two equilateral triangles Indicates that the individual was born into a Jewish family.
The Venus symbol is a generally recognized symbol for the female gender. Its shape is that of a circle with a small cross below it. Indicates that the individual is female.
Indicates that the individual died of natural causes.
Indicates that the individual committed suicide.
Indicates that the individual was murdered.
Indicates that the individual was arrested by Soviet authorities while holding a Central Committee seat.
Indicates that the individual was removed from the Central Committee.
Indicates that the individual was expelled on 8 December 1937, but that the expulsion was confirmed later by the 13th Plenary Session on 20 January 1938.[13]
Indicates that the individual was elevated from candidate to full member.

Plenums[edit]

The CC was not a permanent institution, the CC was convened for fourteen plenary sessions between the 17th Congress and the 18th Congress. When the CC was not in session, decision-making powers were transferred to inner bodies of the CC itself; the Politburo, Secretariat and Orgburo (none of these bodies were permanent either, but convened to decide on crucial matters).[14]

Plenum
(CC)
Start–end Length
1st Plenary Session 10 February 1934 1 day
2nd Plenary Session 29 June – 1 July 1934 3 days
3rd Plenary Session 25–28 November 1934 4 days
4th Plenary Session 1 February 1935 1 day
5th Plenary Session 28 February 1935 1 day
6th Plenary Session 5–7 June 1935 3 days
7th Plenary Session 21–25 December 1935 5 days
8th Plenary Session 1–4 June 1936 4 days
9th Plenary Session 4, 7 July 1936 2 days
10th Plenary Session 23 February – 5 March 1937 12 days
11th Plenary Session 26–29 June 1937 4 days
12th Plenary Session 11–12 October 1937 2 days
13th Plenary Session 11, 14, 18, 20 January 1938 4 days
14th Plenary Session 9–11 January 1938 3 days

Apparatus[edit]

Individuals employed by Central Committee's bureaus, departments and newspapers made up the apparatus between the 17th Congress and the 18th Congress,[15] the bureaus and departments were supervised by the Secretariat, and each secretary (member of the Secretariat) supervised a specific department.[16] The leaders of departments were officially referred to as Heads, while the titles of bureau leaders varied between chairman, first secretary and secretary.[17]

Institution Head
(birth–death)
Cyrillic
Took office Left office Tenure Ethnicity
Agriculture Department Zhdanov, AndreiAndrei Zhdanov
(1896–1948)
Андрей Жданов
3 March 1934 10 April 1934 38 days Russian
Yakovlev, YakovYakov Yakovlev
(1896–1938)
Я́ков Я́ковлев
10 April 1934 1936 2 years and 52 days UkrainianStar of David
Chief Administrator Samsonov, TimofeyTimofey Samsonov
(1888–1956)
Тимофей Самсонов
10 February 1934 1935 1 year and 111 days Russian
Lychov, IvanIvan Lychov
(1881–1972)
Иван Лычев
1935 May 1938 3 years and 120 days Russian
Krupin, DmitryDmitry Krupin
(1881–1972)
Дмитрий Крупин
May 1938 22 March 1939 325 days Russian
Cultural and Educational Work Department Shcherbakov, AlexanderAlexander Shcherbakov
(1901–1945)
Алекса́ндр Щербако́в
13 May 1935 1936 1 year and 19 days Russian
Angarov, AlekseyAleksey Angarov
(1898–1937)
Алексей Ангаров
1936 July 1937 1 year and 30 days Russian
Industrial Department Yezhov, NikolaiNikolai Yezhov
(1895–1940)
Николай Ежов
3 March 1934 3 March 1935 1 year and 0 days Russian
Andreyev, AndreyAndrey Andreyev
(1895–1971)
Андрей Андреев
3 March 1935 13 May 1937 2 years and 71 days Russian
Tselishev, MikhailMikhail Tselishev
(1898–1938)
Михаил Целищев
13 May 1937 September 1937 111 days Russian
Leninist Culture and Propaganda Department Stetskii, AlekseiAleksei Stetskii
(1896–1938)
Алексей Стецкий
10 February 1934 13 May 1935 1 year and 92 days Russian
Planning, Finance and Trade Department Zhdanov, AndreiAndrei Zhdanov
(1896–1948)
Андрей Жданов
10 April 1934 1934 235 days Russian
Bauman, KarlKarl Bauman
(1892–1937)
Карл Бауман
1934 20 January 1938 4 years and 19 days Latvian
Political-Administrative Department Brezanovsky, YakovYakov Brezanovsky
(1888–1938)
Яков Брезановский
10 March 1934 February 1935 328 days PolishStar of David
Piatnitsky, OsipOsip Piatnitsky
(1882–1938)
Осип Пятницкий
19 August 1935 7 July 1937 1 year and 322 days RussianStar of David
Pravda Mekhlis, LevLev Mekhlis
(1889–1953)
Лев Мехлис
10 February 1934 4 September 1937 3 years and 206 days UkrainianStar of David
Press and Publications Department Tal, BorisBoris Tal
(1898–1938)
Борис Таль
13 May 1935 4 September 1937 2 years and 114 days Azerbaijani
Mekhlis, LevLev Mekhlis
(1889–1953)
Лев Мехлис
4 September 1937 2 January 1938 120 days UkrainianStar of David
Niktin, AleksandrAleksandr Niktin
(1901–1941)
Александр Никитин
2 January 1938 21 November 1938 323 days Russian
Propaganda Department Stetskii, AlekseiAleksei Stetskii
(1896–1938)
Алексей Стецкий
13 May 1935 26 April 1938 2 years and 348 days Russian
Zhdanov, AndreiAndrei Zhdanov
(1896–1948)
Андрей Жданов
21 November 1938 22 March 1939 121 days Russian
Science and Scientific-technological Discoveries Department Bauman, KarlKarl Bauman
(1892–1937)
Карл Бауман
13 May 1935 14 April 1937 1 year and 336 days Latvian
School Department Volin, BorisBoris Volin
(1886–1957)
Борис Волин
13 May 1935 1936 1 year and 19 days Russian
Special Sector Poskrebyshev, AlexanderAlexander Poskrebyshev
(1891–1965)
Александр Поскрёбышев
10 February 1934 22 March 1939 5 years and 40 days Russian
Transportation Department Kaganovich, LazarLazar Kaganovich
(1893–1991)
Лазарь Каганович
10 March 1934 9 July 1935 1 year and 121 days RussianStar of David
Zimin, NikolaiNikolai Zimin
(1895–1938)
Николай Зимин
9 July 1935 22 March 1939 3 years and 256 days Russian

Membership[edit]

Full[edit]

Name
(birth–death)
Cyrillic
K Took office Left office Tenure Ethnicity Portrait Position held
(upon election)
I–C
Alexeyev, PyotrPyotr Alexeyev
(1877–1936)
Пётр Алексеев
10 February 1934 23 June
1937
3 years and 133 days Russian
Chairman, Leningrad Regional Council of Trade Unions
Andreyev, AndreyAndrey Andreyev
(1895–1971)
Андрей Андреев
10 February 1934 22 March
1939
5 years and 40 days Russian Andrey Andreyev People's Commissar for Railways PB, SC, OB
Antipov, NikolayNikolay Antipov
(1894–1938)
Николай Антипов
10 February 1934 23 June
1937
3 years and 133 days Russian
Deputy People's Commissar, Workers' and Peasants' Inspectorate
Badayev, AlekseiAleksei Badayev
(1883–1951)
Алексей Бадаев
10 February 1934 22 March
1939
5 years and 40 days Russian Aleksei Badayev Chairman, Moscow Council of Consumer Societies
Baghirov, Mir JafarMir Jafar Baghirov
(1896–1956)
Мир Багиров
12 October 1937 22 March
1939
1 year and 161 days Azerbaijani
First Secretary, Central Committee of the Communist Party (Bolsheviks) of Azerbaijan
Balitsky, VsevolodVsevolod Balitsky
(1892–1937)
Всеволод Балицкий
10 February 1934 23 June
1937
3 years and 133 days Ukrainian
Chairman, Joint State Political Directorate of the Council of People's Commissars of the Ukrainian SSR
Bauman, KarlKarl Bauman
(1892–1937)
Карл Бауман
10 February 1934 20 January
1938
3 years and 344 days Latvian
First Secretary, Central Asian Bureau
Beria, LavrentiyLavrentiy Beria
(1899–1953)
Лавре́нтий Бе́рия
10 February 1934 22 March
1939
5 years and 40 days Georgian Lavrentiy Beria First Secretary, Transcaucasian Regional Committee
Blyukher, VasilyVasily Blyukher
(1899–1938)
Василий Блюхер
12 October 1937 22 October
1938
1 year and 10 days Russian Vasily Blyukher Commander, Far East Front
Bubnov, AndreiAndrei Bubnov
(1884–1938)
Андрей Бубнов
10 February 1934 20 January
1938
3 years and 344 days Russian Andrei Bubnov People's Commissar for Education of the Russian SFSR
Bulganin, NikolaiNikolai Bulganin
(1895–1975)
Николай Булганин
12 October 1937 22 March
1939
1 year and 161 days Russian Nikolai Bulganin Chairman, Board of the State Bank
Bulin, AntonAnton Bulin
(1894–1938)
Антон Булин
12 October 1937 20 January
1938
3 years and 344 days Russian
Deputy Head, Political Directorate of the Red Army
Chernov, MikhailMikhail Chernov
(1891–1938)
Михаил Чернов
10 February 1934 20 January
1938
3 years and 344 days Ukrainian
Chairman, Committee for the Procurement of Agricultural Products of the Council of People's Commissars
Chubar, VlasVlas Chubar
(1891–1939)
Влас Чубар
10 February 1934 11 November
1938
4 years and 274 days Ukrainian Vlas Chubar Chairman, Council of People's Commissars of the Ukrainian SSR PB(C), PB
Chudov, MikhailMikhail Chudov
(1893–1937)
Михаил Чудов
10 February 1934 29 June
1937
3 years and 139 days Russian
Second Secretary, Leningrad Regional Committee
Chuvyrin, MikhailMikhail Chuvyrin
(1883–1947)
Михаил Чувырин
10 February 1934 22 March
1939
5 years and 40 days Russian
Chairman, Ukrainian Council of Trade Unions
Eikhe, RobertRobert Eikhe
(1890–1940)
Роберт Эйхе
10 February 1934 28 April
1938
4 years and 77 days Latvian
First Secretary, West Siberian Regional Committee PB(C)
Enukidze, AvelAvel Enukidze
(1877–1937)
А́вель Енуки́дзе
10 February 1934 7 June
1935
1 year and 117 days Georgian Avel Enukidze Secretary, Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of the Congress of Soviets
Gamarnik, YanYan Gamarnik
(1894–1937)
Ян Гамарник
10 February 1934 31 May
1937
3 years and 110 days UkrainianStar of David Yan Gamarnik Head, Political Directorate of the Red Army OB
Ivanov, VladimirVladimir Ivanov
(1893–1938)
Владимир Иванов
10 February 1934 20 January
1938
3 years and 344 days Russian
First Secretary, Northern Regional Committee
Ikramov, AkmalAkmal Ikramov
(1898–1938)
Акмаль Икрамов
10 February 1934 12 October
1937
3 years and 244 days Uzbek Akmal Ikramov First Secretary, Central Committee of the Communist Party (Bolsheviks) of Uzbekistan
Isayev, UrazUraz Isayev
(1899–1938)
Ураз Исаев
12 October 1937 31 May
1938
3 years and 344 days Kazakh
Chairman, Council of People's Commissars of the Kazakh SSR
Kabakov, IvanIvan Kabakov
(1891–1937)
Иван Кабаков
10 February 1934 17 May
1937
3 years and 96 days Russian
First Secretary, Sverdlovsk Regional Committee
Kaganovich, LazarLazar Kaganovich
(1893–1991)
Лазарь Каганович
10 February 1934 22 March
1939
5 years and 40 days RussianStar of David Lazar Kaganovich First Secretary, Moscow Regional Committee
Chairman, Party Control Commission
Head, Transportation Department
PB, SC, OB
Kaganovich, MikhailMikhail Kaganovich
(1888–1941)
Михаил Каганович
10 February 1934 22 March
1939
5 years and 40 days RussianStar of David
Deputy People's Commissar for Heavy Industry OB(C)
Kalinin, MikhailMikhail Kalinin
(1875–1946)
Михаил Калинин
10 February 1934 22 March
1939
5 years and 40 days Russian Mikhail Kalinin Chairman, Central Executive Committee of the All-Russian Congress of Soviets PB
Kartvelishvili , LavrentiyLavrentiy Kartvelishvili
(1890–1938)
Лаврентий Картвелишвили
10 February 1934 23 June
1937
3 years and 133 days Georgian
First Secretary, Far Eastern Regional Committee
Khatayevich, MendelMendel Khatayevich
(1893–1937)
Мендель Хатаeвич
10 February 1934 12 October
1937
3 years and 244 days RussianStar of David Mendel Khatayevich First Secretary, Dnipropetrovsk Regional Committee
Khrushchev, NikitaNikita Khrushchev
(1894–1971)
Никита Хрущёв
10 February 1934 22 March
1939
5 years and 40 days Russian First Secretary, Moscow City Committee PB(C)
Kirov, SergeySergey Kirov
(1886–1934)
Серге́й Ки́ров
10 February 1934 1 December
1934
294 days Russian Sergey Kirov First Secretary, Leningrad Regional Committee PB, SC, OB
Knorin, VilhelmVilhelm Knorin
(1890–1938)
Вильгельм Кнорин
10 February 1934 23 June
1937
3 years and 133 days Latvian
Secretary, Executive Committee of the Comintern
Director, Historical Institute of Red Professors
Member, Editorial Board of Bolshevik
Kodatskiy, IvanIvan Kodatskiy
(1893–1937)
Иван Кодацкий
10 February 1934 29 June
1937
3 years and 139 days Ukrainian
Chairman, Executive Committee of the Leningrad Regional Soviet
Kosarev, AlexanderAlexander Kosarev
(1903–1939)
Александр Косарев
10 February 1934 28 November
1938
4 years and 291 days Russian Alexander Kosarev First Secretary, Central Committee of the Komsomol OB
Kosior, JosephJoseph Kosior
(1889–1937)
Иосиф Косиор
10 February 1934 14 May
1938
4 years and 93 days Polish
Commissioner, Council of People's Commissar in the Far East Region
Kosior, StanislavStanislav Kosior
(1889–1939)
Станислав Косиор
10 February 1934 22 March
1939
5 years and 40 days Polish Stanislav Kosior First Secretary, Central Committee of the Communist Party (Bolshevik) of Ukraine PB
Krupskaya, NadezhdaNadezhda Krupskaya
(1869–1939)
Наде́жда Кру́пская
10 February 1934 27 February
1939
5 years and 17 days RussianVenus symbol Nadezhda Krupskaya Deputy People's Commissar for Education of the Russian SFSR
Krinitsky, AlexanderAlexander Krinitsky
(1894–1937)
Александр Криницкий
10 February 1934 12 October
1937
3 years and 244 days Russian Alexander Krinitsky Deputy People's Commissar for Agriculture OB(C)
Krzhizhanovsky, GlebGleb Krzhizhanovsky
(1872–1959)
Глеб Кржижано́вский
10 February 1934 22 March
1939
5 years and 40 days Russian Gleb Krzhizhanovsky Chairman, Committee of Higher Technical Education at the Central Executive Committee of the Congress of Soviets
Kulkov, MikhailMikhail Kulkov
(1891–1939)
Михаил Кульков
12 October 1937 27 October
1938
1,801 years and 15 days Russian
Chairman, Party Control Commission under the CPSU Central Committee in Rostov Regional Committee
Kuybyshev, ValerianValerian Kuybyshev
(1888–1935)
Валериан Куйбышев
10 February 1934 25 January
1935
349 days Russian Valerian Kuybyshev Chairman, State Planning Commission PB, OB
Lebed, DmitryDmitry Lebed
(1893–1937)
Дмитрий Лебедь
10 February 1934 12 October
1937
3 years and 244 days Russian
Deputy Chairman, Council of People's Commissars
Deputy Chairman, Council of Labor and Defense
Litvinov, MaximMaxim Litvinov
(1876–1951)
Макси́м Литви́нов
10 February 1934 22 March
1939
5 years and 40 days LithuanianStar of David Maxim Litvinov People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs
Lobov, SemenSemen Lobov
(1888–1937)
Семён Лобов
10 February 1934 23 June
1937
3 years and 133 days Russian
People's Commissar for Forestry
Lozovsky, SolomonSolomon Lozovsky
(1892–1952)
Соломон Лозовский
12 October 1937 22 March
1939
1,801 years and 161 days RussianStar of David Solomon Lozovsky General Secretary, Central Committee of the Red International of Labour Unions
Lyubimov, IsidoreIsidore Lyubimov
(1882–1937)
Исидор Любимов
10 February 1934 23 June
1937
3 years and 133 days Russian
People's Commissar for Light Industry
Makarov, IvanIvan Makarov
(1888–1949)
Иван Макаров
12 October 1937 22 March
1939
1 year and 161 days Russian
Deputy People's Commissar for Heavy Industry
Manuilsky, DmitryDmitry Manuilsky
(1883–1959)
Дмитро Мануїльський
10 February 1934 22 March
1939
5 years and 40 days Ukrainian Dmitry Manuilsky Member, Presidium of the Executive Council of the Comintern
Secretary, Executive Committee of the Comintern
Mekhlis, LevLev Mekhlis
(1889–1953)
Лев Ме́хлис
12 October 1937 22 March
1939
1 year and 161 days UkrainianStar of David Lev Mekhlis Head, Political Directorate of the Red Army
Deputy People's Commissar for Defense
OB
Mezhlauk, ValeryValery Mezhlauk
(1893–1938)
Валерий Межлаук
10 February 1934 20 January
1938
3 years and 344 days Latvian Valery Mezhlauk First Deputy Chairman, State Planning Commission
Mikhailov, MikhailMikhail Mikhailov
(1902–1938)
Михаил Михайлов
12 October 1937 10 November 1937 29 days Russian
First Secretary, Voronezh Regional Committee
Mikoyan, AnastasAnastas Mikoyan
(1895–1978)
Анаста́с Микоя́н
10 February 1934 22 March
1939
5 years and 40 days Armenian Anastas Mikoyan People's Commissar for Supplies PB(C), PB
Mirzoyan, LevonLevon Mirzoyan
(1887–1939)
Левон Мирзоян
10 February 1934 23 May
1938
4 years and 102 days Armenian Levon Mirzoyan First Secretary, Kazakh Regional Committee
Molotov, VyacheslavVyacheslav Molotov
(1890–1986)
Вячеслав Молотов
10 February 1934 22 March
1939
5 years and 40 days Russian Vyacheslav Molotov Chairman, Council of People's Commissars
Chairman, Council of Labour and Defense
PB
Nikolaeva, KlavdijaKlavdija Nikolaeva
(1893–1944)
Клавдия Николаева
10 February 1934 22 March
1939
5 years and 40 days RussianVenus symbol
Second Secretary, West Siberian Regional Committee
Nosov, IvanIvan Nosov
(1888–1937)
Иван Носов
10 February 1934 12 October
1937
3 years and 244 days Russian
First Secretary, Ivanovo Industrial Regional Committee
Ordzhonikidze, GrigolGrigol Ordzhonikidze
(1886–1937)
Григо́рий Орджоники́дзе
10 February 1934 18 February
1937
3 years and 8 days Georgian Grigol Ordzhonikidze People's Commissar for Heavy Industry PB
Pakhomov, NikolayNikolay Pakhomov
(1890–1938)
Николай Пахомов
12 October 1937 9 April
1938
179 days Russian
People's Commissar for Water Transport
Petrovsky, GrigoryGrigory Petrovsky
(1878–1958)
Григо́рій Петро́вський
10 February 1934 22 March
1939
5 years and 40 days Ukrainian Grigory Petrovsky Chairman, Central Executive Committee of the All-Ukrainian Congress of Soviets PB(C)
Piatnitsky, OsipOsip Piatnitsky
(1882–1938)
Осип Пятницкий
10 February 1934 12 October
1937
3 years and 244 days RussianStar of David Osip Piatnitsky Member, Presidium of the Executive Committee of the Comintern
Postyshev, PavelPavel Postyshev
(1887–1939)
Григо́рій Петро́вський
10 February 1934 11 September
1936
2 years and 214 days Russian Pavel Postyshev First Secretary, Kiev Regional Committee PB(C)
Pramnek, EduardEduard Pramnek
(1899–1938)
Эдуард Прамнэк
12 October 1937 9 May
1938
209 days Lithuanian
First Secretary, Donetsk Regional Committee
Pyatakov, GeorgyGeorgy Pyatakov
(1890–1937)
Георгий Пятаков
10 February 1934 12 December
1935
2 years and 306 days Russian Georgy Pyatakov Deputy People's Commissar for Heavy Industry
Razumov, MikhailMikhail Razumov
(1894–1937)
Михаил Разумов
10 February 1934 23 June
1937
3 years and 133 days Ukrainian
First Secretary, East Siberian Regional Committee
Rudzutaks, JānisJānis Rudzutaks
(1887–1938)
Ян Рудзутак
10 February 1934 26 May
1937
3 years and 105 days Latvian Jānis Rudzutaks Deputy Chairman, Council of People's Commissars
Deputy Chairman, Council of Labour and Defense
Chairman, Workers' and Peasants' Inspectorate
PB(C)
Rukhimovich, MoiseiMoisei Rukhimovich
(1889–1938)
Моисей Рухимович
10 February 1934 20 January
1938
3 years and 344 days RussianStar of David
Managing Director, Board of Kuzbassugol
Rumyantsev, IvanIvan Rumyantsev
(1886–1937)
Иван Румянцев
10 February 1934 23 June
1937
3 years and 133 days Russian
First Secretary, Western Regional Committee
Ryndin, KuzmaKuzma Ryndin
(1893–1938)
Кузьма Рындин
10 February 1934 20 January
1938
3 years and 344 days Russian
First Secretary, Chelyabinsk Regional Committee
Sheboldaev, BorisBoris Sheboldaev
(1895–1937)
Борис Шеболдаев
10 February 1934 23 June
1937
3 years and 133 days Russian
First Secretary, Azov–Black Sea Regional Committee
Shvernik, NikolayNikolay Shvernik
(1888–1970)
Николай Шверник
10 February 1934 22 March
1939
5 years and 40 days Russian Nikolay Shvernik Chairman, All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions OB
Smorodin, PyotrPyotr Smorodin
(1897–1938)
Пётр Смородин
12 October 1937 22 June
1938
253 days Russian Pyotr Smorodin First Secretary, Stalingrad Regional Committee
Stalin, JosephJoseph Stalin
(1878–1953)
Ио́сиф Ста́лин
10 February 1934 22 March
1939
5 years and 40 days Georgian Joseph Stalin General Secretary, Central Committee PB, SC, OB
Stetskii, AlekseiAleksei Stetskii
(1896–1938)
Алексей Стецкий
10 February 1934 26 April
1938
4 years and 75 days Russian
Head, Culture and Propaganda Department OB
Sulimov, DaniilDaniil Sulimov
(1890–1937)
Даниил Сулимов
10 February 1934 23 June
1937
3 years and 133 days Russian
Chairman, Council of People's Commissars of the Russian SFSR
Ugarov, AleksandrAleksandr Ugarov
(1900–1939)
Александр Угаров
12 October 1937 20 October
1938
1 year and 8 days Russian
First Secretary, Moscow Regional Committee
Ukhanov, KonstantinKonstantin Ukhanov
(1891–1937)
Константин Уханов
10 February 1934 22 May
1937
3 years and 101 days Russian
People's Commissar for Supplies
Vareikis, JuozasJuozas Vareikis
(1894–1938)
Иосиф Варейкис
10 February 1934 12 October
1937
3 years and 244 days Lithuanian
First Secretary, Central Black Earth Economic Region
Voroshilov, KlimentKliment Voroshilov
(1881–1969)
Климент Ворошилов
10 February 1934 22 March
1939
5 years and 40 days Russian Kliment Voroshilov People's Commissar for Military and Naval Affairs PB
Yakovlev, YakovYakov Yakovlev
(1896–1938)
Я́ков Я́ковлев
10 February 1934 20 January
1938
3 years and 344 days UkrainianStar of David
People's Commissar for Agriculture
Zelensky, IsaakIsaak Zelensky
(1890–1937)
Исаак Зеленский
10 February 1934 12 October
1937
3 years and 244 days RussianStar of David
Chairman, Board of the Central Council of Consumer Societies
Yagoda, GenrikhGenrikh Yagoda
(1891–1938)
Генрих Ягода
10 February 1934 3 April
1938
4 years and 52 days RussianStar of David Genrikh Yagoda Deputy Chairman, Joint State Political Directorate
Member, Special Council of the Joint State Political Directorate
Yakir, IonaIona Yakir
(1896–1937)
Иона Якир
10 February 1934 30 May
1937
3 years and 109 days MoldovanStar of David Iona Yakir Commander, Ukrainian Military District
Yevdokimov, YefimYefim Yevdokimov
(1891–1940)
Ефи́м Евдоки́мов
10 February 1934 9 November 1938 4 years and 272 days Russian Yefim Yevdokimov= First Secretary, North Caucasian Regional Committee
Yezhov, NikolaiNikolai Yezhov
(1895–1940)
Николай Ежов
10 February 1934 22 March
1939
5 years and 40 days Russian
Head, Administrative, Enterprise and Trade Union Cadres Department PB(C), SC, OB
Zhdanov, AndreiAndrei Zhdanov
(1896–1948)
Андрей Жданов
10 February 1934 22 March
1939
5 years and 40 days Russian Andrei Zhdanov First Secretary, Gorky Regional Committee PB(C)
Zhukov, IvanIvan Zhukov
(1889–1937)
Иван Жуков
10 February 1934 23 June
1937
3 years and 133 days Russian
Deputy People's Commissars for Communications

Candidates[edit]

Name
(birth–death)
Cyrillic
K Left office Tenure Ethnicity Portrait Position held
(upon election)
Baghirov, Mir JafarMir Jafar Baghirov
(1896–1956)
Мир Багиров
12 October 1937 3 years and 244 days Azerbaijani
First Secretary, Central Committee of the Communist Party (Bolsheviks) of Azerbaijan
Blagonravov, GeorgyGeorgy Blagonravov
(1896–1938)
Георгий Благонравов
23 June 1937 3 years and 133 days Russian
First Deputy People's Commissar for Railways
Blyukher, VasilyVasily Blyukher
(1890–1938)
Георгий Благонравов
12 October 1937 3 years and 244 days Russian Vasily Blyukher Commander, Special Red Banner Far Eastern Army
Broydo, GrigoryGrigory Broydo
(1883–1956)
Григорий Бройдо
22 March 1939 5 years and 40 days RussianStar of David
First Secretary, Central Committee of the Communist Party of Tajikistan
Budyonny, SemyonSemyon Budyonny
(1883–1973)
Григорий Бройдо
22 March 1939 5 years and 40 days Russian Semyon Budyonny Cavalry Inspector, Red Army
Bukharin, NikolaiNikolai Bukharin
(1888–1938)
Никола́й Буха́рин
27 February 1937 3 years and 17 days Russian Nikolai Bukharin Editor-in-chief, Izvestia
Bulganin, NikolaiNikolai Bulganin
(1895–1975)
Николай Булганин
12 October 1937 3 years and 244 days Russian Nikolai Bulganin Chairman, Executive Committee of the Moscow City Soviet
Bulin, AntonAnton Bulin
(1894–1938)
Антон Булин
12 October 1937 3 years and 244 days Russian
Deputy Head, Political Directorate of the Red Army
Bykin, YavlovYavlov Bykin
(1888–1938)
Яков Быкин
12 October 1937 3 years and 244 days RussianStar of David
First Secretary, Bashkir Regional Committee
Demchenko, NikolaiNikolai Demchenko
(1896–1937)
Николай Демченко
12 October 1937 3 years and 244 days Ukrainian
First Secretary, Kharkiv Regional Committee
Deribas, TerentyTerenty Deribas
(1896–1937)
Терентий Дерибас
12 October 1937 3 years and 244 days Russian
Member, Council of the People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs
Eliava, ShalvaShalva Eliava
(1883–1937)
Шалва Элиава
19 May 1937 3 years and 98 days Georgian Shalva Eliava Deputy People's Commissar for Foreign Trade
Filatov, NikolaiNikolai Filatov
(1891–1939)
Николай Филатов
23 June 1937 3 years and 133 days Russian
Chairman, Moscow City Control Commission
Gikalo, NikolaiNikolai Gikalo
(1897–1938)
Николай Гикало
12 October 1937 3 years and 244 days Ukrainian
First Secretary, Central Committee of the Communist Party (Bolsheviks) of Byelorussia
Goloded, NikolayNikolay Goloded
(1894–1937)
Николай Голодед
23 June 1937 3 years and 133 days Belarusian
Chairman, Council of People's Commissar of the Byelorussian SSR
Gryadinsky, FyodorFyodor Gryadinsky
(1893–1938)
Фёдор Грядинский
12 October 1937 3 years and 244 days Russian
Chairman, Executive Committee of the West Siberian Regional Soviet
Hrynko, HryhoriyHryhoriy Hrynko
(1890–1938)
Григорий Гринько
12 October 1937 3 years and 244 days Ukrainian
People's Commissar for Finance
Isayev, UrazUraz Isayev
(1899–1938)
Ураз Исаев
12 October 1937 3 years and 244 days Kazakh
Chairman, Council of People's Commissar of the Kazakh ASSR
Kalgyna, AnnaAnna Kalgyna
(1895–1937)
Анна Калыгина
12 October 1937 3 years and 244 days RussianVenus symbol
First Secretary, Kalinin District Committee
Kalmanovich, MoiseiMoisei Kalmanovich
(1888–1937)
Моисей Калманович
23 June 1937 3 years and 133 days RussianStar of David
Chairman, Board of the State Bank
Kaminsky, GrigoryGrigory Kaminsky
(1895–1938)
Григорий Каминский
26 June 1937 3 years and 136 days RussianStar of David Grigory Kaminsky People's Commissar for Health of the Russian SFSR
Komarov, NikolayNikolay Komarov
(1886–1937)
Николай Комаров
23 June 1937 3 years and 133 days Russian
People's Commissar for Communal Services
Kubiak, NikolayNikolay Kubiak
(1881–1937)
Николай Кубяк
23 June 1937 3 years and 133 days Russian Chairman, All-Union Council for Communal Services of the Central Executive Committee of the Congress of Soviets
Kulkov, MikhailMikhail Kulkov
(1891–1939)
Михаил Кульков
12 October 1937 3 years and 244 days Russian
First Secretary, Proletarian District Committee
Kuritsyn, VasilyVasily Kuritsyn
(1892–1937)
Василий Курицын
23 June 1937 3 years and 133 days Russian
Director, Lugansk Locomotive Factory
Lepa, AlfredAlfred Lepa
(1892–1937)
Альфред Лепа
12 October 1937 3 years and 244 days Latvian
First Secretary, Tatar Regional Committee
Lozovsky, SolomonSolomon Lozovsky
(1892–1952)
Соломон Лозовский
12 October 1937 3 years and 244 days RussianStar of David Solomon Lozovsky General Secretary, Central Committee of the Red International of Labour Unions
Lyubchenko, PanasPanas Lyubchenko
(1897–1937)
Соломон Лозовский
29 August 1937 3 years and 200 days Ukrainian Panas Lyubchenko Deputy Chairman, Council of People's Commissar of the Ukrainian SSR
Makarov, IvanIvan Makarov
(1888–1949)
Иван Макаров
12 October 1937 3 years and 244 days Russian
Director, Stalingrad Metallurgical Plant
Mekhlis, LevLev Mekhlis
(1889–1953)
Лев Мехлис
12 October 1937 3 years and 244 days UkrainianStar of David Lev Mekhlis Editor-in-chief, Pravda
Mikhailov, MikhailMikhail Mikhailov
(1902–1938)
Михаил Михайлов
12 October 1937 3 years and 244 days Russian
Secretary, Moscow Regional Committee
Mikhailov, VasilyVasily Mikhailov
(1894–1937)
Василий Михайлов
23 June 1937 3 years and 133 days Russian
Head of Construction of the Palace of the Soviets
Musabekov, GazanfarGazanfar Musabekov
(1888–1938)
Газанфар Мусабеков
23 June 1937 3 years and 133 days Azerbaijani
Chairman, Council of People's Commissars of the Transcaucasian SFSR
Osinsky, ValerianValerian Osinsky
(1887–1938)
Валериан Оболенский
23 June 1937 3 years and 133 days Russian
Head, Central Directorate of National Economic Accounting of the State Planning Commission at the Council of People's Commissars
Pakhomov, NikolaiNikolai Pakhomov
(1890–1938)
Николай Пахомов
12 October 1937 3 years and 244 days Russian
Chairman, Executive Committee of the Gorky Regional Soviet
Pavlunovsky, IvanIvan Pavlunovsky
(1888–1937)
Иван Павлуновский
23 June 1937 3 years and 133 days Russian
Deputy People's Commissar for Heavy Industry
Polonsky, VladimirVladimir Polonsky
(1893–1937)
Владимир Полонский
23 June 1937 3 years and 133 days RussianStar of David
Deputy People's Commissar for Railways
Popov, NikolaiNikolai Popov
(1891–1938)
Николай Попов
23 June 1937 3 years and 133 days Russian
Third Secretary, Central Committee of the Communist Party (Bolsheviks) of Ukraine
Poskrebyshev, AlexanderAlexander Poskrebyshev
(1891–1965)
Александр Поскрёбышев
22 March 1939 5 years and 40 days Russian
Head, Secret Department
Pozern, BorisBoris Pozern
(1882–1939)
Борис Позерн
9 July 1938 4 years and 149 days Russian Boris Pozern Head, Culture and Propaganda Department of the Leningrad Regional Committee
Pramnek, EduardEduard Pramnek
(1891–1965)
Эдуард Прамнэк
12 October 1937 3 years and 244 days Latvian Eduard Pramnek Second Secretary, Gorky Regional Committee
Ptukha, VladimirVladimir Ptukha
(1894–1938)
Владимир Птуха
12 October 1937 3 years and 244 days Ukrainian Vladimir Ptukha First Secretary, Stalingrad Regional Committee
Rosengolts, ArkadyArkady Rosengolts
(1889–1938)
Аркадий Розенгольц
12 October 1937 3 years and 244 days BelarusianStar of David
People's Commissar for Foreign Trade
Rykov, AlexeiAlexei Rykov
(1881–1938)
Алексей Рыков
12 October 1937 3 years and 244 days Russian Alexei Rykov People's Commissar for Communications
Sarkisov, SarkisSarkis Sarkisov
(1881–1938)
Саркис Саркисов
20 January 1938 3 years and 344 days Armenian Sarkis Sarkisov First Secretary, Donetsk Regional Committee
Schwartz, IsaakIsaak Schwartz
(1879–1951)
Исаак Шварц
22 March 1939 5 years and 40 days UkrainianStar of David
Chairman, Central Committee of the Union of Coal and Steel Workers
Sedelnikov, AlexeiAlexei Sedelnikov
(1894–1938)
Алексей Седельников
23 June 1937 3 years and 133 days Russian
First Secretary, Tula Regional Committee
Semenov, BorisBoris Semenov
(1890–1937)
Борис Семёнов
20 January 1938 3 years and 344 days Russian
First Secretary, Crimean Regional Committee
Serebrovsky, AlexanderAlexander Serebrovsky
(1884–1938)
Александр Серебровский
12 October 1937 3 years and 244 days Russian
Deputy People's Commissar for Heavy Industry
Shteyngart, AleksandrAleksandr Shteyngart
(1887–1934)
Александр Штейнгарт
19 February 1934 9 days Ukrainian
First Secretary, Saratov Regional Committee
Shubrikov, VladimirVladimir Shubrikov
(1895–1937)
Владимир Шубриков
12 October 1937 3 years and 244 days Russian
First Secretary, Kuybyshev Regional Committee
Smorodin, PyotrPyotr Smorodin
(1897–1939)
Пётр Смородин
12 October 1937 3 years and 244 days Russian Pyotr Smorodin First Secretary, Vyborg District Committee
Sokolnikov, GrigoriGrigori Sokolnikov
(1888–1939)
Григорий Сокольников
7 December 1936 2 years and 301 days UkrainianStar of David Grigori Sokolnikov Deputy People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs
Strievsky, KonstantinKonstantin Strievsky
(1885–1938)
Константин Стриевский
20 January 1938 3 years and 344 days Belarusian
People's Commissar for Light Industry
Struppe, PyotrPyotr Struppe
(1889–1937)
Пётр Струппе
29 June 1937 3 years and 136 days Russian Pyotr Struppe Chairman, Executive Committee of the Leningrad Soviet
Tomsky, MikhailMikhail Tomsky
(1880–1936)
Михаил Томский
22 August 1936 2 years and 194 days Russian Mikhail Tomsky Head, Association of State Publishing Houses
Tovstukha, IvanIvan Tovstukha
(1889–1935)
Иван Товстуха
9 August 1935 1 year and 180 days Ukrainian Ivan Tovstukha Deputy Director, Institute of Marx–Engels–Lenin of the Central Committee
Tukhachevsky, MikhailMikhail Tukhachevsky
(1893–1937)
Михаи́л Тухаче́вский
25 May 1937 3 years and 104 days Russian Mikhail Tukhachevsky Deputy People's Commissar for Military and Naval Affairs
Uborevich, IeronimIeronim Uborevich
(1896–1937)
Иероним Уборевич
30 May 1937 3 years and 109 days Lithuanian Ieronim Uborevich Commander, Belorussian Military District
Ugarov, AleksandrAleksandr Ugarov
(1900–1939)
Александр Угаров
12 October 1937 3 years and 244 days Russian
Head, Culture and Propaganda Department of the Leningrad City Committee
Unszlicht, JózefJózef Unszlicht
(1879–1938)
Ио́сиф У́ншлихт
23 June 1937 3 years and 133 days PolishStar of David Józef Unszlicht Head, Civil Aviation Department at the Council of People's Commissars
Veger, YevgenyYevgeny Veger
(1899–1937)
Евгений Вегер
23 June 1937 3 years and 133 days Russian
First Secretary, Odessa Regional Committee
Yegorov, AlexanderAlexander Yegorov
(1883–1939)
Александр Егоров
12 October 1937 3 years and 244 days Russian
Chief of Staff, Red Army
Veynberg, GavriiGavrii Veynberg
(1891–1946)
Гавриил Вейнберг
22 March 1939 5 years and 40 days PolishStar of David
Secretary, All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions
Yeromin, IvanIvan Yeromin
(1895–1937)
Иван Ерёмин
12 October 1937 3 years and 244 days Russian
Deputy People's Commissar for Light Industry
Yurkin, TikhonTikhon Yurkin
(1898–1986)
Тихон Юркин
22 March 1939 5 years and 40 days Russian
People's Commissar for Grain and Livestock
Zavenyagin, AvraamiAvraami Zavenyagin
(1901–1956)
Авраамий Завенягин
22 March 1939 5 years and 40 days Russian
Director, Magnitogorsk Metallurgical Combine
Zatonsky, VolodymyrVolodymyr Zatonsky
(1888–1938)
Володи́мир Зато́нський
20 January 1938 3 years and 344 days Ukrainian Volodymyr Zatonsky People's Commissar for Education of the Ukrainian SSR

References[edit]

General[edit]

Plenary sessions, apparatus heads, ethnicity (by clicking on the individual names on "The Central Committee elected by the XVIIth Congress of the CPSU (b) 2/10/1934 members" reference), the Central Committee full- and candidate membership, Politburo membership, Secretariat membership and Orgburo membership were taken from these sources:

Bibliography[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Khlevniuk 2009, p. 86.
  2. ^ Khlevniuk 2009, p. 94.
  3. ^ a b Khlevniuk 2009, p. 100.
  4. ^ Khlevniuk 2009, p. 101.
  5. ^ Rogovin 2009, p. 179.
  6. ^ Rogovin 2009, pp. 179–180.
  7. ^ a b c d e Rogovin 2009, p. 176.
  8. ^ Rogovin 2009, pp. 176–177.
  9. ^ Rogovin 2009, p. 177.
  10. ^ Getty & Naumov 2010, pp. 467–468.
  11. ^ Getty & Naumov 2010, pp. 468.
  12. ^ Getty & Naumov 2010, pp. 467.
  13. ^ Rogovin 2009, p. 175.
  14. ^ Simons & White 1984, pp. 423–425.
  15. ^ Fainsod & Hough 1979, p. 410.
  16. ^ Fainsod & Hough 1979, pp. 410–411 & 417–419.
  17. ^ Fainsod & Hough 1979, pp. 417–419.