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Central Department of Social Affairs

The Central Department of Social Affairs was the intelligence & counter-intelligence organ of the Chinese Communist Party leadership prior to the founding of the PRC in 1949. The creation of the Central Department of Social Affairs followed a decision taken by the Chinese Communist Party's Central Secretariat on 18 February 1939; the decision assigned to the department some five major tasks, including those of overseeing CCP counter-intelligence work and intelligence. An alternative designation of the department at this early stage was the "Central Commission for Enemy Area Operations." The first director of the CDSA was Kang Sheng. By the time the Chinese Civil War flared up again after World War II, Kang had been replaced by his senior deputy Li Kenong as acting director. Li was department director in August 1949, when the CDSA was dissolved and its tasks parceled out to other agencies. After the founding of the PRC, domestic counter-intelligence work was at the central level managed by the Ministry of Public Security of the People's Republic of China, while the task of collecting political and military intelligence overseas was assigned to the Intelligence Department of the Central Military Commission.

In 1955, the task of political intelligence work was transferred to a newly created Communist party body, the CCP Central Investigation Department with Li Kenong as its first director. Today, China's Ministry of Public Security and Ministry of State Security of the People's Republic of China both trace their institutional origins to the CDSA. Worth noting in an institutional history context is the fact that some of the CDSA's sub-national counterparts continued to exist as party bodies for quite some time after the founding of the PRC. In the Tibet Autonomous Region, the Department of Social Affairs of the regional CCP Committee was not abolished until 2 May 1961. Directors: Kang Sheng, Li Kenong Deputy directors: Kong Yuan, Pan Hannian, Li Kenong, Chen Gang, Tan Zhengwen, Liu Shaowen Wang Jianying, 《中国共产党组织史资料汇编》, revised and expanded edition. Beijing: Zhonggong zhongyang dangxiao chubanshe, 1995. 《中国人民公安史稿》. Beijing: Jingguan jiaoyu chubanshe, 1997

Giuseppe Faraoni

Giuseppe Faraon was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Crotone and Bishop of Massa Lubrense. On 9 March 1577, Giuseppe Faraon was appointed during the papacy of Pope Gregory XIII as Bishop of Massa Lubrense. On 26 November 1581, he was appointed during the papacy of Pope Gregory XIII as Bishop of Crotone, he served as Bishop of Crotone until his death in 1588. Catholic Church in Italy Cheney, David M. "Diocese of Massa Lubrense". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. Retrieved June 16, 2018. Chow, Gabriel. "Titular Episcopal See of Massa Lubrense". GCatholic.org. Retrieved June 16, 2018. Cheney, David M. "Archdiocese of Crotone-Santa Severina". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. Retrieved June 16, 2018. Chow, Gabriel. "Archdiocese of Crotone-Santa Severina". GCatholic.org. Retrieved June 16, 2018

Book of Mormon

The Book of Mormon is a sacred text of the Latter Day Saint movement, according to adherents, contains writings of ancient prophets who lived on the American continent from 2200 BC to AD 421. It was first published in March 1830 by Joseph Smith as The Book of Mormon: An Account Written by the Hand of Mormon upon Plates Taken from the Plates of Nephi. According to Smith's account and the book's narrative, the Book of Mormon was written in otherwise unknown characters referred to as "reformed Egyptian" engraved on golden plates. Smith said that the last prophet to contribute to the book, a man named Moroni, buried it in the Hill Cumorah in present-day Manchester, New York before his death, appeared in vision to Smith in 1827 as an angel, revealing the location of the plates, instructing him to translate the plates into English for use in the restoration of Christ's true church in the latter days. Critics claim that it was authored by Smith, drawing on material and ideas from contemporary 19th-century works rather than translating an ancient record.

The Book of Mormon has a number of original and distinctive doctrinal discussions on subjects such as the fall of Adam and Eve, the nature of the Christian atonement, redemption from physical and spiritual death, the organization of the latter-day church. The pivotal event of the book is an appearance of Jesus Christ in the Americas shortly after his resurrection; the Book of Mormon is the earliest of the unique writings of the Latter-day Saint movement, the denominations of which regard the text as scripture, secondarily as a historical record of God's dealings with the ancient inhabitants of the Americas. The archaeological and scientific communities do not accept the Book of Mormon as an ancient record of actual historical events; the Book of Mormon is divided into smaller books, titled after the individuals named as primary authors and, in most versions, divided into chapters and verses. It is written in English similar to the Early Modern English linguistic style of the King James Version of the Bible, has since been or translated into 111 languages.

As of 2011, more than 150 million copies of the Book of Mormon had been printed. According to Joseph Smith, he was seventeen years of age when an angel of God named Moroni appeared to him and said that a collection of ancient writings was buried in a nearby hill in present-day Wayne County, New York, engraved on golden plates by ancient prophets; the writings were said to describe a people whom God had led from Jerusalem to the Western hemisphere 600 years before Jesus' birth. According to the narrative, Moroni was the last prophet among these people and had buried the record, which God had promised to bring forth in the latter days. Smith stated that this vision occurred on the evening of September 21, 1823 and that on the following day, via divine guidance, he located the burial location of the plates on this hill. Smith's description of these events recounts that he was allowed to take the plates on September 22, 1827 four years from that date, was directed to translate them into English.

Accounts vary of the way. Smith himself implied that he read the plates directly using spectacles prepared for the purpose of translating. Other accounts variously state. Both the special spectacles and the seer stone were at times referred to as the "Urim and Thummim". During the translating process itself, Smith sometimes separated himself from his scribe with a blanket between them. Additionally, the plates were not always present during the translating process, when present, they were always covered up. Smith's first published description of the plates said that the plates "had the appearance of gold", they were described by Martin Harris, one of Smith's early scribes, as "fastened together in the shape of a book by wires." Smith called the engraved writing on the plates "reformed Egyptian". A portion of the text on the plates was "sealed" according to his account, so its content was not included in the Book of Mormon. In addition to Smith's account regarding the plates, eleven others stated that they saw the golden plates and, in some cases, handled them.

Their written testimonies are known as the Testimony of Three Witnesses and the Testimony of Eight Witnesses. These statements have been published in most editions of the Book of Mormon. Smith enlisted his neighbor Martin Harris as a scribe during his initial work on the text. In 1828, prompted by his wife Lucy Harris requested that Smith lend him the current pages, translated. Smith reluctantly acceded to Harris's requests. Lucy Harris is thought to have stolen the first 116 pages. After the loss, Smith recorded that he had lost the ability to translate, that Moroni had taken back the plates to be returned only after Smith repented. Smith stated that God allowed him to resume translation, but directed that he begin translating another part of the plates. In 1829, work resumed on the Book of Mormon, with the assistance of Oliver Cowdery, was completed in a short period. Smith said that he returned the plates to Moroni upon the publication of the book; the Book of Mormon went on sale at the bookstore of E. B.

Grandin in Palmyra, New York on March 26, 1830. Today, the building in which the B

Letten Tunnel

The Letten Tunnel is a disused railway tunnel in the Swiss city of Zürich. It is situated on the old route of the Lake Zürich right bank railway from Zurich Hbf station to Rapperswil station. Radical changes to the local railway geography led to the tunnel being superseded in 1990, closed and sealed by 2002; as built in 1894, the right bank railway was a single track line that departed from Zürich Hbf in a westerly direction, before performing a clockwise 270 degrees turn via a viaduct over the Limmat, the principal river flowing through the city of Zürich. It passed through Letten station and the Letten Tunnel in order to reach Stadelhofen station. By rail the distance between Zurich Hbf and Stadelhofen was some 5 kilometres, despite the fact that they are only 1.5 kilometres apart in a straight line. In 1990 the Letten Tunnel was replaced by the Hirschengraben Tunnel, which took a direct route from new through low-level platforms at Zurich Hbf under the Limmat to Stadelhofen. After the new route opened, the original railway line and tunnel fell into disuse.

The railway line was closed in 1998, by 2002 it had been removed, the tunnel was filled in and sealed off. The northern portal of the tunnel can still be observed from a location close to the former Letten railway station and the Letten power station on the banks of the Limmat; the northern approaches to the tunnel, including the bridge over the Limmat, are now used as a cycle and pedestrian path. Media related to Letten Tunnel at Wikimedia Commons

1908–09 Australia rugby union tour of Britain

Not to be confused with the 1908–09 Kangaroo tour of Great BritainThe 1908–09 Australia rugby union tour of the British Isles was a collection of friendly rugby union games undertaken by the Australia national rugby union team against invitational and national teams from England and Wales, as well as several games against sides from North America. This was the first Australian tour of the Northern Hemisphere and the side is sometimes referred to as the "First Wallabies". Both the New Zealand and South African teams had toured Europe in 1905 and 1906 both achieving unexpected but deserved success against club and international opposition. Despite the success of these two touring teams, Australia suffered poor press and with only a single win after the teams' first twelve international matches in its history to that point, few people suggested the team would do well. Against low expectations the Australians played well, winning 25 of 31 matches played on the tour and with some commentators writing that the team would have achieved better results if they had not picked up so many injuries.

Australia took in two recognised international games, against Wales and England, but failed to play any games in Scotland or Ireland due to the Irish and Scottish Unions resenting the International Rugby Board's attitude regarding the Australian invitation. Tour manager, who performed the role of coach was New South Wales state selector James McMahon, a veteran of the early NSWRU representative fixtures of 1889 and 1894 against New Zealand, he was assisted by Stan Wickham who had captained the Wallabies on 10 occasions between 1904 and 1905. Tour captain was Dr. Herbert'Paddy' Moran; the team was captained in matches during the tour by Chris McKivat and by Fred Wood, the tour vice-captain. They played in blue shirts, emblazoned with the Waratah. Players were paid 3 shillings a day in expenses. Moran writes in Viewless Winds that when the touring squad first arrived at Plymouth a pack of journalists were there who were anxious to give the team some distinctive name; the "Rabbits" was instantaneously rejected and soon after the team adopted the moniker of "The Wallabies" which for many years was used to describe the Australia national rugby union team when touring to Britain.

These days the national side are the Wallabies whether playing at anywhere abroad. Moran describes as "an affliction" the war-cry which the parent Union in Australia had suggested the team should use for its "box-office value". Moran wrote: The memory of that war cry provokes anger in me after all these years... We were expected to leap up in the air and make foolish gestures which somebody thought Australian natives might have used in similar circumstances and we were give meaningless words which we were to utter savagely during the pantomime... I refused to lead the wretched caricature of a native corroboree and hid myself among the team, a conscientious objector. Echoing the feelings of the Australian team towards the war-cry, there was little respect shown from their opponents towards it either. In the encounter with Cardiff at the Cardiff Arms Park, Percy Bush responded to the cry by charging onto the pitch brandishing a sword and shield, in what was intended to be an amusing riposte; the squad left Sydney on 8 August 1908 on board.

The ship contained 116 passengers, 1579 bales of wool, 2729 carcasses of mutton, 4650 carcasses of lamb, 2000 quarters of beef, 4800 crates of frozen rabbits and 200 tonnes of lead and copper. They played a game at the MCG against a Victorian XV, won 26–6, they docked in Fremantle and played and won a fixture against a Western Australian XV 58–6. On the long voyage Moran introduced the practice of team meetings that were part lecture and part brain–storming with players encouraged to voice their ideas on improving team performance. Moran stood at a blackboard and while his lecturing style was derided by the players he managed to instill a sense of cleverness and skill in players, creating thoughts of rugby as similar to a game of chess; the Sydney forward Cecil Murnin became ill on the voyage and left the tour in Naples to return to Australia. The first tour match in England was against Devon. Peter Burge did not play again on the tour. Australia won the match with fourteen men. Bob Craig had brought a carpet snake in his luggage as a tour mascot and the snake died that same day.

The fourth tour match saw the Wallabies pitted against the best players from Cardiff and Swansea playing as Glamorgan County. The match at Pontypridd drew a crowd of 20,000. In that match another player was lost to a broken leg – this time from the sideline; the Queensland forward Flanagan was running the flag as line–umpire and collided with the winger "Boxer" Russell. Australia's first loss was the ninth match, against Llanelli RFC – a spirited encounter which saw the Llanelli side win the match 8–3 and themselves a place in local sporting folklore. During the tour, the Olympic Games were being held in London; the Australian team entered the rugby tournament and were the only other team alongside Cornwall, who were representing Great Britain. The interest in the Olympic rugby final was only lukewarm with the final being held in the last week of Games that had taken place over six months. Australia had beaten Cornwall, the British county champions early in the tour. Scottish and Irish Unions had turned down the RFU's invitation to participate in the Olympic bouts.

France were expected to contest the medal, but had withdrawn, leaving just Australia and Cornwall for England team to play for gold and silver medals. The match was played on an area alongside the Olympic Games swimming pool which measured 110 yards in length with a long line of netting stre

Paper cutter

A paper cutter known as a paper trimmer sometimes described as a paper guillotine, is a tool found in offices and classrooms, designed to cut a large set of paper sheets at once with a straight edge. Paper cutters, similar to those of today, were patented in 1852 by Guillaume Massiquot, they have been around since the late 1830s, when, in 1837, Thirault built a model with a fixed blade to a flat surface. Since the middle of the 19th century, considerable improvements have been made by Fomm and Krause of Germany, Furnival in England, Oswego and Seybold in the United States. Paper cutters vary in size from about 30 centimetres in length on each side for office work to 841 millimetres in design workshops; the surface will have a grid either painted or inscribed on it in half-inch increments, may have a ruler across the top. At the least, it must have a flat edge against which the user may line up the paper at right-angles before passing it under the blade, it is relatively heavy, so that it will remain steady while in use.

On the right-hand edge is a long, curved steel blade referred to as a knife, attached to the base at one corner. Larger versions have a strong compression coil spring as part of the attachment mechanism that pulls the knife against the stationary edge as the knife is drawn down to cut the paper; the other end of the knife unit is a handle. The stationary right edge of the base is steel, with an exposed, finely-ground edge; when the knife is pulled down to cut paper, the action resembles that of a pair of scissors, only instead of two knives moving against each other, one is stationary. The combination of a blade mounted to a steady base produces clean and straight cuts, the likes of which would have otherwise required a ruler and razor blade to achieve on a single page. Paper cutters are used for cutting thin sheet metal and plastic; the blade on a paper cutter is made of steel. The steel blade can be resharpened as needed. A variant design uses a wheel-shaped blade mounted on a sliding shuttle attached to a rail.

This type of paper cutter is known as a rotary paper cutter. Advantages of this design include being able to make wavy cuts, perforations or to to score the paper without cutting by substituting various types of circular blades. With a rotary cutter, it is almost impossible for the user to cut oneself, except while changing the blade; this makes it safer for home use. Higher-end versions of rotary paper cutters are used for precision paper cutting and are popular for trimming photographs. An simpler design uses double-edged blades which do not rotate, but cut like a penknife. While cheaper, this design is not preferable for serious work due to its tendency to tear paper, poor performance with thick media. Most paper cutters come equipped with a finger guard to prevent users from accidentally cutting themselves or severing a digit while using the apparatus. However, injuries are still possible if the device is not used with proper attention. In the modern paper industry, larger machines are used to cut large stacks of paper, cardboard, or similar material.

Such machines operate in a manner similar to a guillotine. Commercial versions are motorized and automated, include clamping mechanisms to prevent shifting of the material during the cutting process. Board shear Scissors