A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
A town is a human settlement. Towns are larger than villages but smaller than cities, though the criteria to distinguish them vary between different parts of the world; the word town shares an origin with the German word Zaun, the Dutch word tuin, the Old Norse tun. The German word Zaun comes closest to the original meaning of the word: a fence of any material. An early borrowing from Celtic *dunom. In English and Dutch, the meaning of the word took on the sense of the space which these fences enclosed. In England, a town was a small community that could not afford or was not allowed to build walls or other larger fortifications, built a palisade or stockade instead. In the Netherlands, this space was a garden, more those of the wealthy, which had a high fence or a wall around them. In Old Norse tun means a place between farmhouses, the word is still used in a similar meaning in modern Norwegian. In Old English and Early and Middle Scots, the words ton, etc. could refer to diverse kinds of settlements from agricultural estates and holdings picking up the Norse sense at one end of the scale, to fortified municipalities.
If there was any distinction between toun and burgh as claimed by some, it did not last in practice as burghs and touns developed. For example, "Edina Burgh" or "Edinburgh" was built around a fort and came to have a defensive wall. In some cases, "town" is an alternative name for "city" or "village". Sometimes, the word "town" is short for "township". In general, today towns can be differentiated from townships, villages, or hamlets on the basis of their economic character, in that most of a town's population will tend to derive their living from manufacturing industry and public services rather than primary industry such as agriculture or related activities. A place's population size is not a reliable determinant of urban character. In many areas of the world, e.g. in India at least until recent times, a large village might contain several times as many people as a small town. In the United Kingdom, there are historical cities; the modern phenomenon of extensive suburban growth, satellite urban development, migration of city dwellers to villages has further complicated the definition of towns, creating communities urban in their economic and cultural characteristics but lacking other characteristics of urban localities.
Some forms of non-rural settlement, such as temporary mining locations, may be non-rural, but have at best a questionable claim to be called a town. Towns exist as distinct governmental units, with defined borders and some or all of the appurtenances of local government. In the United States these are referred to as "incorporated towns". In other cases the town lacks its own governance and is said to be "unincorporated". Note that the existence of an unincorporated town may be set out by other means, e.g. zoning districts. In the case of some planned communities, the town exists in the form of covenants on the properties within the town; the United States Census identifies many census-designated places by the names of unincorporated towns which lie within them. The distinction between a town and a city depends on the approach: a city may be an administrative entity, granted that designation by law, but in informal usage, the term is used to denote an urban locality of a particular size or importance: whereas a medieval city may have possessed as few as 10,000 inhabitants, today some consider an urban place of fewer than 100,000 as a town though there are many designated cities that are much smaller than that.
Australian geographer Thomas Griffith Taylor proposed a classification of towns based on their age and pattern of land use. He identified five types of town: Infantile towns, with no clear zoning Juvenile towns, which have developed an area of shops Adolescent towns, where factories have started to appear Early mature towns, with a separate area of high-class housing Mature towns, with defined industrial and various types of residential area In Afghanistan and cities are known as shār; as the country is an rural society with few larger settlements, with major cities never holding more than a few hundred thousand inhabitants before the 2000s, the lingual tradition of the country does not discriminate between towns and cities. In Albania "qytezë" means town, similar with the word for city. Although there is no official use of the term for any settlement. In Albanian "qytezë" means "small city" or "new city", while in ancient times "small residential center within the walls of a castle"; the center is a population group, larger than a village, smaller than a city.
Though the village is bigger than a hamlet In Australia, towns or "urban centre localities" are understood to be those centers of population not formally declared to be cities and having a population in excess of about 200 people. Centers too small to be called towns are understood to be a township. In addition, some local government entities are styled as towns in Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory, before the statewide amalgamations of th
Hayden is a town in Gila County in the State of Arizona. According to the 2010 census, the population of the town is 662; the economic base of Hayden's economy is the Asarco Hayden Smelter. Hayden is located at 33°0′5″N 110°47′8″W, adjacent to Winkelman and entirely in Gila County. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 1.3 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 892 people, 288 households, 222 families residing in the town; the population density was 707.1 people per square mile. There were 334 housing units at an average density of 264.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 56.95% White, 0.45% Black or African American, 1.68% Native American, 0.56% Pacific Islander, 35.09% from other races, 5.27% from two or more races. 84.53% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 288 households out of which 31.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.5% were married couples living together, 13.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.9% were non-families.
21.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.10 and the average family size was 3.56. In the town, the population was spread out with 33.2% under the age of 18, 9.0% from 18 to 24, 20.5% from 25 to 44, 23.2% from 45 to 64, 14.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.6 males. The median income for a household in the town was $24,293, the median income for a family was $26,964. Males had a median income of $35,521 versus $22,500 for females; the per capita income for the town was $9,797. About 20.1% of families and 27.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 35.2% of those under age 18 and 14.9% of those age 65 or over. Dick Tuck, politician consultant, was born in Hayden. History of Hayden EPA Takes Action Against Toxic Arizona Copper Plant, NPR story on Hayden, with video
Arizona is a state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is part of the Western and the Mountain states, it is the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona shares the Four Corners region with Utah and New Mexico. Arizona is the 48th state and last of the contiguous states to be admitted to the Union, achieving statehood on February 14, 1912, coinciding with Valentine's Day. Part of the territory of Alta California in New Spain, it became part of independent Mexico in 1821. After being defeated in the Mexican–American War, Mexico ceded much of this territory to the United States in 1848; the southernmost portion of the state was acquired in 1853 through the Gadsden Purchase. Southern Arizona is known for its desert climate, with hot summers and mild winters. Northern Arizona features forests of pine, Douglas fir, spruce trees. There are ski resorts in the areas of Flagstaff and Tucson. In addition to the Grand Canyon National Park, there are several national forests, national parks, national monuments.
About one-quarter of the state is made up of Indian reservations that serve as the home of 27 federally recognized Native American tribes, including the Navajo Nation, the largest in the state and the United States, with more than 300,000 citizens. Although federal law gave all Native Americans the right to vote in 1924, Arizona excluded those living on reservations in the state from voting until the state Supreme Court ruled in favor of Native American plaintiffs in Trujillo v. Garley; the state's name appears to originate from an earlier Spanish name, derived from the O'odham name alĭ ṣonak, meaning "small spring", which applied only to an area near the silver mining camp of Planchas de Plata, Sonora. To the European settlers, their pronunciation sounded like "Arissona"; the area is still known as alĭ ṣonak in the O'odham language. Another possible origin is the Basque phrase haritz ona, as there were numerous Basque sheepherders in the area. A native Mexican of Basque heritage established the ranchería of Arizona between 1734 and 1736 in the current Mexican state of Sonora, which became notable after a significant discovery of silver there, c.
1737. There is a misconception. For thousands of years before the modern era, Arizona was home to numerous Native American tribes. Hohokam and Ancestral Puebloan cultures were among the many that flourished throughout the state. Many of their pueblos, cliffside dwellings, rock paintings and other prehistoric treasures have survived, attracting thousands of tourists each year; the first European contact by native peoples was with Marcos de Niza, a Spanish Franciscan, in 1539. He explored parts of the present state and made contact with native inhabitants the Sobaipuri; the expedition of Spanish explorer Coronado entered the area in 1540–1542 during its search for Cíbola. Few Spanish settlers migrated to Arizona. One of the first settlers in Arizona was José Romo de Vivar. Father Kino was the next European in the region. A member of the Society of Jesus, he led the development of a chain of missions in the region, he converted many of the Indians to Christianity in the Pimería Alta in the 1690s and early 18th century.
Spain founded presidios at Tubac in 1752 and Tucson in 1775. When Mexico achieved its independence from the Kingdom of Spain and its Spanish Empire in 1821, what is now Arizona became part of its Territory of Nueva California known as Alta California. Descendants of ethnic Spanish and mestizo settlers from the colonial years still lived in the area at the time of the arrival of European-American migrants from the United States. During the Mexican–American War, the U. S. Army occupied the national capital of Mexico City and pursued its claim to much of northern Mexico, including what became Arizona Territory in 1863 and the State of Arizona in 1912; the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo specified that, in addition to language and cultural rights of the existing inhabitants of former Mexican citizens being considered as inviolable, the sum of US$15 million dollars in compensation be paid to the Republic of Mexico. In 1853, the U. S. acquired the land south below the Gila River from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase along the southern border area as encompassing the best future southern route for a transcontinental railway.
What is now known as the state of Arizona was administered by the United States government as part of the Territory of New Mexico until the southern part of that region seceded from the Union to form the Territory of Arizona. This newly established territory was formally organized by the Confederate States government on Saturday, January 18, 1862, when President Jefferson Davis approved and signed An Act to Organize the Territory of Arizona, marking the first official use of the name "Territory of Arizona"; the Southern territory supplied the Confederate government with men and equipment. Formed in 1862, Arizona scout companies served with the Confederate States Army duri
Payson is a town in northern Gila County, United States. Its location puts it near to the geographic center of Arizona. Payson has been called "The Heart of Arizona"; the town has many outdoor activities year round. As of the 2010 census, the population of Payson was 15,301. Payson considers its founding year 1882, at which time the town was known as "Green Valley". On March 3, 1884, a post office was established with the help of Illinois Representative Levi Joseph Payson; the first postmaster was Frank C. Hise. In honor of the representative's help, the town's name was changed to "Payson". Payson had its first rodeo in 1884, it considers its rodeo. In 1918 author Zane Grey made his first trip to the area surrounding Payson, he would come back with regularity through 1929, would purchase two plots of land near Tonto Creek, including 120 acres from Sampson Elam Boles under Myrtle Point. Grey wrote numerous books about the area and filmed some movies, such as To the Last Man, in the Payson area in the 1920s.
During Prohibition the manufacture and distribution of liquor was plentiful. The transactions took place on historic Bootleg Alley. During the 1930s an effort began to try to get Payson a better road to connect it to the outside world. At that time the town was isolated, with a trip from Phoenix to Payson taking eight to twelve hours. Throughout the 1950s work on a paved road from Phoenix to Payson progressed, the road was completed in 1958. A few years ago this highway, State Route 87, was expanded to four lanes. Located in northern Gila County at 34°14′22″N 111°19′39″W, at an elevation of 5,000 feet, the town has a total area of 19.5 square miles. The Mogollon Rim, the southern boundary of the Colorado Plateau, lies to the north of Payson, with elevations exceeding 7,500 feet, they are stocked with fish by the Arizona Fish Department. Payson is bordered to the east by the town of Star Valley. Other nearby communities are Pine, Strawberry and Rye, all within Gila County. Globe, the Gila County seat, is 80 miles to the south via State Routes 87 and 188.
State Route 87, the Beeline Highway, leads southwest 90 miles to Phoenix and northeast 90 miles to Winslow. State Route 260 leads east from Payson 90 miles to Show Low. "Zane Grey Country" is a term for the area around Payson. This term was most used in the 1970s and 1980s, appeared in the header of the local newspaper, the Payson Roundup. In recent times it has fallen somewhat out of favor, as the term "Rim Country" has become more popular among locals. Owing to its elevation of 5,000 feet, Payson has what is classified as a Mediterranean climate, though atypical for this climate with its early-summer drought and late-summer rainfall. While average temperatures do reach the high 80s to mid 90s in summer, the town’s altitude keeps it protected from the 100 °F + temperatures found at Arizona’s lower elevations. Monsoon storms develop in the afternoon, bring heavy rainfall to the area and lower the temperature. Summer nights cool down into the 50s. Winter is mild, with cold nights. January's average nighttime low is 25.3 °F or −3.7 °C with some nights in the teens, but by mid-afternoon, the temperature has risen into the 50s.
There are only a few days of real winter, with 23.3 inches of annual snowfall, but little snow cover. The weather in Payson is as varied as the landscape, a snowstorm is followed by weather so warm that any accumulation melts away within a day or two. In spring the desert blooms with a fiery array of Indian paintbrush and the golds and fuchsias of cactus blossoms and other brightly colored wildflowers. On Monday, November 5, 2001, between about 8 pm and 10:30 pm, Payson was treated to a rare display of the Northern Lights, it is rare and only happens during solar flares because Payson is so far south. The lights appeared in a red color; as of the census of 2000, there were 13,620 people, 5,832 households, 4,070 families residing in the town. The population density was 699.6 people per square mile. There were 7,033 housing units at an average density of 361.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 94.75% White, 0.26% Black or African American, 1.89% Native American, 0.53% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 1.34% from other races, 1.17% from two or more races.
5.20% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 5,832 households out of which 21.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.6% were married couples living together, 8.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.2% were non-families. 26.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.71. In the town, the population was spread out with 18.1% under the age of 18, 4.6% from 18 to 24, 15.3% from 25 to 44, 25.9% from 45 to 64, 36.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 49 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.5 males. The median income for a household in the town was $33,638, the median income for a family was $38,713. Males had a median income of $30,900 versus $23,750 for females; the per capita income for the town was $19,513. About 6.5% of families and 9.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.1% of those under age 18 and 4.7% of tho
Miami is a town in Gila County, United States. Miami is a classic Western copper boom-town. Miami's old downtown has been renovated, the Bullion Plaza Museum features the cultural and ranching history of the Miami area. According to the 2010 Census, the population of the town was 1,837. Miami is located at 33°23.8'N 110°52.3'W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of.9 square miles, all of it land. Miami is adjacent to Globe, near the San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation. Miami and the unincorporated areas nearby are called Globe-Miami; the town is located on the northeastern slope of the Pinal Mountains, is surrounded by the Tonto National Forest. It is located on U. S. Routes 60 and 70, is served by the Arizona Eastern Railway; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,936 people, 754 households, 493 families residing in the town. The population density was 2,008.0 people per square mile. There were 930 housing units at an average density of 964.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 74.74% White, 1.03% Black or African American, 1.45% Native American, 0.10% Asian, 20.40% from other races, 2.27% from two or more races.
54.44% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 754 households out of which 31.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.7% were married couples living together, 16.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.5% were non-families. 31.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.21. In the town, the age distribution of the population shows 29.7% under the age of 18, 8.3% from 18 to 24, 24.0% from 25 to 44, 20.9% from 45 to 64, 17.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.6 males. Copper mining accounts for the largest number of jobs in Miami. According to the 2002 annual report of the Arizona State Mine Inspector, Freeport-McMorRan employed nearly 600 at its Miami operations, including 330 at the smelter and 187 at the mine.
The median income for a household in the town was $27,196, the median income for a family was $30,625. Males had a median income of $28,250 versus $18,026 for females; the per capita income for the town was $13,674. About 20.5% of families and 23.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.7% of those under age 18 and 19.7% of those age 65 or over. The Miami mine is operated by Freeport-McMoRan. Mining began in 1911 as the Inspiration mine, the nation’s first froth flotation copper concentrator to process sulfide minerals was built and began production in 1915. Inspiration was among the first to employ vat leaching in 1926 and precipitation plants to recover oxide minerals. Copper was mined underground until after World War II; the plant’s smelter was modernized in 1974 to meet Clean Air Act standards and further modernized and expanded in 1992. The success of a Solvent extraction and electrowinning plant commissioned in 1979 ended vat leaching by the mid-1980s, the concentrator closed in 1986 as well.
The copper rod mill was commissioned in 1966. Copper mining was suspended in September 2015. Leaching/SX-EW operations are expected to decline over time; the Miami smelter and rod plant continue to operate. In 2016, copper production at Miami amounted to 25 million pounds of copper. In 2017, copper production was 19 million pounds, more than 740 people were employed there. Romana Acosta Bañuelos – Treasurer of the United States under Richard Nixon Joe Castro – jazz pianist Jack Elam – actor known for having lazy-eye, inducted into the Hall of Great Western Performers Matt Pagnozzi – Major League Baseball player for the Cleveland Indians Rueben Martinez – activist and MacArthur Fellow Felix L. Sparks – American military commander who led the first Allied force to enter Dachau concentration camp and liberate its prisoners Esteban Edward Torres – ambassador and politician Richard F. Pedersen- United States Ambassador to Hungary, President of the American University of Cairo. Eric Guadiana – 1992 US Jr.
Summer Olympics Freestyle and Greco Roman medalist 2 Time USA Freestyle International Wrestling Gold Medalist Musician CandyMan featuring Junebug Slim Brady Ellison – American archery Olympian, winner of individual bronze medal at the 2016 Olympic Games, multiple World Cup Gold Medalist According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Miami has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated "Csa" on climate maps. List of historic properties in Miami, Arizona National Register of Historic Places listings in Gila County, Arizona.
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol