The Annamite Range or the Annamese Mountains is a mountain range of eastern Indochina. It extends 1,100 km through Laos, a small area in northeast Cambodia; the mountain range is referred to variously as Annamese Range, Annamese Mountains, Annamese Cordillera, Annamite Mountains and Annamite Cordillera. The highest points of the range are 2,819 m high Phou Bia, 2,720 m high Phu Xai Lai Leng and Ngọc Linh, 2,598 m; the latter is located in central Vietnam. Important passes are the Mụ Giạ Pass; the Annamite Range runs parallel to the Vietnamese coast, in a gentle curve which divides the basin of the Mekong River from Vietnam's narrow coastal plain along the South China Sea. Most of the crests are on the Laotian side; the eastern slope of the range rises steeply from the plain, drained by numerous short rivers. The western slope is more gentle, forming significant plateaus before descending to the banks of the Mekong; the range itself has three main plateaus, from north to south: Phouane Plateau, Nakai Plateau and Bolaven Plateau.
Laos lies within the Mekong basin, west of the divide, although most of Houaphan Province and a portion of Xiangkhoang Province lie east of the divide. Most of Vietnam lies east of the divide, although Vietnam's Tây Nguyên region lies west of the divide, in the Mekong basin. "An-nam" means in Chinese "to pacify the south", referring to the region's location relative to China. The Annamite mountains now form an important tropical seasonal forest global ecoregion, the Annamite Range Moist Forests Ecoregion, which consists of two terrestrial ecoregions, the Southern Annamites montane forests and the Northern Annamites moist forests; the range is home to rare creatures such as the discovered Annamite rabbit and the antelope-like saola, the Douc langur, the large gaur, the Chinese pangolin and the Indochinese tiger. Most of the highlands like the Annamite Range and the Central Highlands were populated by ethnic minorities who were not Vietnamese during the 20th century's start; the demographics were drastically transformed with the mass colonization of 6 million settlers from 1976 to the 1990s, which led to ethnic Vietnamese Kinh outnumbering the native ethnic groups in the highlands.
List of Ultras of Southeast Asia BBC In Pictures: Uncovering Viet Nam's secret wildlife Cat Tien National Park Paleoanthropology in mainland Southeast Asia.
The Cor are an ethnic group of Vietnam. Most Cor live in the provinces Quảng Ngãi and Quảng Nam of the South Central Coast region of Vietnam, numbered 27,766 in 1999. In 1996, they made up a slight majority of the population in Trà Bồng District, numbering around 18,000 there; the Cor speak a language in the Mon–Khmer family. Due to their high respect for Ho Chi Minh, all Cor give their last name under his last name, as the official name used on their Vietnamese identity papers; the Cor people used to maintain a chieftain system. The village chief is the head of the community; the village chief is chosen on the basis of knowledge and the trust of villagers. Each village organise; the Cor believe that all things have souls, including bad spirits. They worship the souls of livestock. In former days, the Cor lived in long houses built on stilts called X'lup Recently, the Co has built shorter houses and at ground level. In the past, no Cor lineage had an individual name. Now, nearly all men have taken the family name of Ho, after President Ho Chi Minh.
Cor music features a variety of songs, beat drums, gongs. Folk songs such as the Xru and Agioi are popular; the Cor New Year is called Xa a'ni and is celebrated by animal offerings, sword dancing, gong dancing and wrestling competition. Cor people lives from slash-and-burn agriculture, they grow rice, cassava and other plants. Ritual pole of the Cor Ho Van Thanh and son Ho Van Lang, discovered in 2013 after 40 years living secluded in western Quảng Ngãi's deep jungle
The Bru are an ethnic group living in Thailand and Vietnam. They are linked linguistically and culturally to the Mountain Khmer but are influenced by Laos; the Bru are close ethnically to Pnongam peoples of Southern Vietnam/Eastern Cambodia. Despite kinship with this group, the Bru are different politically and from this other ethnic group; the Bru are often associated with the Lung and Kreung peoples because these four people groups speak similar languages and have developed cultures. The Bru speak a Mon -- Khmer language, which has several dialects, their total population is estimated at 129,559 by Ethnologue. The Bru settled along waterways. Traditionally they live in small houses; the houses are arranged around a central meeting building around a circle. In Thailand, most Bru live in Sakon Nakhon Province, Mukdahan Province in the Isan region of Northeast Thailand. In Laos, most Bru live in eastern Savannakhet Province, in the Sepone District, In Vietnam, most Bru live in the Quảng Bình, Quảng Trị, Đắk Lắk, Thừa Thiên–Huế provinces.
The early history of Bru remains somewhat obscure. Researchers believe that the ancestors of the Bru were members of the kingdom of the Khmers of Angkor which dominated large parts of Cambodia and Thailand, circa the 9th century and 13th century; this is based upon the relationship between the Mon-Khmer languages and of the Bru of the Bolaven Plateau in Champasak Province in southeastern Laos, once the center of the Khmer civilization of Angkor. During the Vietnam War, the Bru had to suffer as a result of the conflict that surrounded them. In 1968, the Bru in Cambodia, for the first time protested against government encroachment on their territory; the Cambodian government reacted by sending in tanks and military personnel which destroyed their fields and villages. After the defeat of the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia in 1979, agents of the toppled government continued to control the rural areas of the Northeast; the Bru complied, but with the new People's Republic of Kampuchea and four provincial governments were set up by Phnom Penh.
During and following the Vietnam War the Bru people in Thailand were involved in revolutionary activities against the local Thai governments. The Thai central government combated these activities by increasing Thai military presence as well as increasing spending for economic development. In Vietnam, during the war, the Bru people provide significant support for the movement of Viet Minh and the People's Republic of Vietnam, they adopted the surname "Ho" to express their gratitude to President Ho Chi Minh. The Bru, are adherents of Theravada Buddhism, observed as the main along religion of each village along with Animism which includes worship of ancestors, the spirits of the rice and fire spirits. Sacred objects to the Bru include relics and fragments of ancient weapons and household objects Also the Bru have a rich heritage of myths and legends passed down orally including several stories about animals; the most intelligent being the hare, the hero being the tiger. The main occupation of the people Bru is manual slash-and-burn agriculture The main crop grown by the Bru and a main staple of their diet is rice.
Other crops grown by the Bru are beans, corn The Bru are involved in animal husbandry and hunting. The Bru are involved in various crafts works which include basket-making and in the making of straw mats; the territories populated by the Bru include excellent conditions for prosperity, but the regions where they live lack adequate infrastructure for much needed development. Recent projects including cultivation of rubber, coffee and cotton have struggled due to these conditions. Therefore, the Bru, both in Cambodia and in Laos are considered a marginal people group. In Thailand developments of the Isan region by the Thai Government has led to somewhat better economic development among the Bru people; every Bru village is independent of others villages. A leader Headman leads the community. In Thailand the village headman is democratically elected by members of the village In Laos, the village headman was integrated into the state administration; the Bru are a patriarchal society where men held to a higher status than the women of the family and where older members enjoy a higher status than their younger counterparts.
Men practice polygamy, which although not sanctioned by the culture is accepted. A polygamous man will have several wives spread out over several villages in which he travels; the Bru are outgoing and love music and dancing. They are musical and are skilled with many different instruments including castanets, gongs and simple and traditional instruments that used to accompany singing tales and change songs Ethnologue entry Picture Cambodia Hill Tribes RWAAI Repository and Workspace for Austroasiatic Intangible Heritage hdl:10050/00-0000-0000-0003-AD64-5@view Bru in RWAAI Digital Archive
Laos the Lao People's Democratic Republic referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao, is a socialist state and the only landlocked country in Southeast Asia. Located at the heart of the Indochinese peninsula, Laos is bordered by Myanmar and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southwest, Thailand to the west and southwest. Present-day Laos traces its historic and cultural identity to the kingdom of Lan Xang Hom Khao, which existed for four centuries as one of the largest kingdoms in Southeast Asia. Due to Lan Xang's central geographical location in Southeast Asia, the kingdom became a popular hub for overland trade, becoming wealthy economically as well as culturally. After a period of internal conflict, Lan Xang broke off into three separate kingdoms—Luang Phrabang and Champasak. In 1893, it became a French protectorate, with the three territories uniting to form what is now known as the country of Laos, it gained independence in 1945 after Japanese occupation, but was recolonised by France until it won autonomy in 1949.
Laos became independent with a constitutional monarchy under Sisavang Vong. Shortly after independence, a long civil war began, which saw the communist resistance, supported by the Soviet Union, fight against, the monarchy and a number of military dictatorships, supported by the United States. After the Vietnam War ended in 1975, the Communist Pathet Lao movement came to power, seeing the end to the civil war. During the first years of Communist rule, Laos was dependent on military and economic aid supported by the Soviet Union until its dissolution in 1991. In 2018, the country had the fourth highest GDP per capita in Indochina, after Singapore and Thailand. In the same year, the country ranked 139th on the Human Development Index, indicating medium development. Laos is a member of the Asia-Pacific Trade Agreement, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, East Asia Summit and La Francophonie. Laos applied for membership of the World Trade Organization in 1997, it is a one-party socialist republic espousing Marxism–Leninism governed by the Lao People's Revolutionary Party.
The capital and largest city is Vientiane. Other major cities include Luang Prabang and Pakse; the official language is Lao. Laos is a multi-ethnic country, with the politically and culturally dominant Lao people making up about 55 percent of the population in the lowlands. Mon-Khmer groups, the Hmong and other indigenous hill tribes, accounting for 45 percent of the population, live in the foothills and mountains. Laos's strategies for development are based on generating electricity from its rivers and selling the power to its neighbours, namely Thailand and Vietnam, as well as its initiative to become a "land-linked" nation, shown by the construction of four new railways connecting Laos to its neighbours. Laos has been referred to as one of East Asia and Pacific's Fastest Growing Economies by the World Bank, with annual GDP growth averaging 7.8% for the past decade. The English word Laos was coined by the French, who united the three Lao kingdoms in French Indochina in 1893 and named the country as the plural of the dominant and most common ethnic group, which are the Lao people.
In the Lao language, the country's name is "Muang Lao" or "Pathet Lao", both mean "Lao Country". An ancient human skull was recovered from the Tam Pa Ling Cave in the Annamite Mountains in northern Laos. Stone artifacts including Hoabinhian types have been found at sites dating to the Late Pleistocene in northern Laos. Archaeological evidence suggests agriculturist society developed during the 4th millennium BC. Burial jars and other kinds of sepulchers suggest a complex society in which bronze objects appeared around 1500 BC, iron tools were known from 700 BC; the proto-historic period is characterised by contact with Indian civilisations. According to linguistic and other historical evidence, Tai-speaking tribes migrated southwestward to the modern territories of Laos and Thailand from Guangxi sometime between the 8th–10th centuries. Laos traces its history to the kingdom of Lan Xang, founded in the 14th century by a Lao prince Fa Ngum, with 10,000 Khmer troops, took over Vientiane. Ngum was descended from a long line of Lao kings.
He made Theravada Buddhism Lan Xang prospered. Within 20 years of its formation, the kingdom expanded eastward to Champa and along the Annamite mountains in Vietnam, his ministers, unable to tolerate his ruthlessness, forced him into exile to the present-day Thai province of Nan in 1373, where he died. Fa Ngum's eldest son, Oun Heuan, ascended to the throne under the name Samsenthai and reigned for 43 years. Lan Xang became an important trade centre during Samsenthai's reign, but after his death in 1421 it collapsed into warring factions for 100 years. In 1520, Photisarath came to the throne and moved the capital from Luang Prabang to Vientiane to avoid a Burmese invasion. Setthathirat became king in 1548, after his father was killed, ordered the construction of what became the symbol of Laos, That Luang. Setthathirat disappeared in the mountains on his way back from a military expedition into Cambodia and Lan Xang began to decline, it was not until 1637, when Sou
Đà Lạt Plateau
The Đà Lạt Plateau is a plateau in southeastern Vietnam. At its centre is the city of Da Lat. Several mountains in this area rise to the highest being Chu Yang Sin at 2442 m; the plateau has been designated as an Endemic Bird Area by BirdLife International. The plateau comprises a multitude of habitats for birds. Restricted-range species such as the crested argus, short-tailed scimitar babbler, black-hooded laughingthrush, white-cheeked laughingthrush, collared laughingthrush, grey-crowned crocias and yellow-billed nuthatch inhabit the tropical montane broadleaf evergreen forest, the notable exception being the Vietnamese greenfinch, which prefers pine forest; the varying altitudes in the plateau form a congenial environment for birds that are suited to low altitude such as the black-hooded laughingthrush and the grey-crowned crocias, which ventures above 1,450 m, while the collared laughingthrush inhabits the higher peaks of the region, reaching above 1,500 m. The Bidoup Núi Bà National Park, located in the northeastern section of the Đà Lạt Plateau, contains a significant number of mammalian species, totaling some 36 species of small mammals.
Some of the notable creatures in this total include treeshrews, roundleaf bats, horseshoe bats, bamboo rats and porcupines. The Lang Biang Plateau frog is named after this area. Đà Lạt Plateau is known for its mild and constant temperatures, which vary slightly throughout the year. The average temperature in April, the warmest month, is 26.3 °C. January, the coldest month, sees an average temperature of 10.5 °C. October is the wettest month of the year
Quảng Trị Province
Quảng Trị is a province in the North Central Coast region of Vietnam, north of the former imperial capital of Huế. Located in the North Central Coast region of Vietnam, Quảng Trị Province is surrounded by Quảng Bình Province to the north. Except for the narrow piedmont coastal plains, the terrain is dominated by hills and the Annamite Mountains; the highlands, characterized by steep slopes, sharp crests, narrow valleys, are covered by a dense broadleaf evergreen forest. Most of the peaks are from 4,000 feet to 7,000 feet feet high; the narrow coastal plains flanking the highlands on the east have rocky headlands and consist of belts of sand dunes and, in areas where the soil is suitable, rice fields. From the crests that mark the drainage divide in the highlands, streams flow either east towards the East Sea or west into Laos or Cambodia; those flowing eastward follow short courses through deep narrow valleys over rocky bottoms until they reach the coastal plains, where they slow down and disperse.
The westward flowing streams follow longer traces, sometimes through deep canyons which are subject to seasonal flooding. The weather features a wide range of temperatures and rainfall, with hot and dry south-west winds during the Southwest Monsoon, much cooler wet weather during the rainy season. Annual average temperature is 24 °C, but temperatures can drop as low as 7 °C during the rainy season. In the immediate prehistorical period, the lowlands of Quảng Trị and central Vietnam as a whole were occupied by Cham peoples, speaking a Malayo-Polynesian language, culturally distinct from the Vietnamese to the north along the Red River; the Qin conquered parts of present-day Central Vietnam at the end of the 3rd century BCE, administered the indigenous peoples of the area through a commandery, for several centuries. A rebellion by the Cham in the 2nd century CE overthrew Chinese control and reestablished local government. Beginning in the 14th and 15th centuries, the Chams were defeated in the area by Vietnamese armies, ethnic Vietnamese displaced or absorbed those Chams who had not fled.
Over time a distinct Vietnamese dialectical and cultural subgroup developed in the area. The region was seized by the French by 1874. In 1887 it became part of French Indochina. Upon the division of Vietnam in 1954 into North and South, Quảng Trị became the northernmost province of the Republic of Vietnam. Beginning 1964, the province became a center for American bases after October 1966, when the 3rd Marine Division moved to bases just south of the demilitarized zone. In 1966, North Vietnamese forces began occupying the northern region and pushing deeper into the province; the provincial capital, Quảng Trị City, was overrun and occupied by Communist troops in April 1967, was a principal battleground during the 1968 Tet Offensive when it was again overrun by North Vietnamese troops and held for a short period before being recaptured by South Vietnamese government and U. S. forces. The Battle of Khe Sanh was a part of the North's steady efforts to occupy the whole of the province. After Khe Sanh was evacuated in July 1968, the North Vietnamese continued their efforts to take the entire province.
The most notable achievement of the North Vietnamese offensive in 1972 was capturing Quảng Trị, although they lost much of the territory gained during the South Vietnamese counter-offensive from June through September 1972. In 2000, Clear Path International removed unexploded ordnance left by the United States in Quảng Trị province, at the time the largest unexploded ordnance removal effort by an NGO in Vietnam's history. Since 1999, Mines Advisory Group has maintained operations in Quảng Trị and neighbouring Quảng Bình Province, providing the only civilian staffed demining and UXO clearance operations in Vietnam. Rebuilding in the areas cleared of mines is Roots of Peace working with MAG on a demine-replant model, clearing areas and working with local farmers to plant high value crops. Quảng Trị is subdivided into 10 district-level sub-divisions: 8 districts: 1 district-level town: Quảng Trị 1 provincial city: Đông Hà They are further subdivided into 11 commune-level towns, 117 communes, 13 wards.
There are many non-governmental organizations working in Quảng Trị. One of the biggest problems which they are focusing on is the explosive remnants of war. Below is the list of NGOs who are active in helping Quảng Trị Province deal with this problem: Clear Path International Mines Advisory Group PeaceTrees Vietnam Project RENEW Roots of Peace The National Route 1A runs north-south of this province. Vietnam–Laos road runs west-east of this province and has a junction with national road 1A. Hanoi–Saigon Railway goes through Quảng Trị. Quảng Trị Airport will be built 7 km north of Đông Hà; the province's name derives from Sino-Vietnamese 廣治. Bến Hải River https://www.quangtri.gov.vn/portal/pages/http--webthunghiemqt-quangtri-gov-vn-portal-Pages-.aspx
The Việt Cộng known as the National Liberation Front, was a mass political organization in South Vietnam and Cambodia with its own army – the People's Liberation Armed Forces of South Vietnam – that fought against the United States and South Vietnamese governments during the Vietnam War emerging on the winning side. It had both guerrilla and regular army units, as well as a network of cadres who organized peasants in the territory it controlled. Many soldiers were recruited in South Vietnam, but others were attached to the People's Army of Vietnam, the regular North Vietnamese army. During the war and anti-war activists insisted the Việt Cộng was an insurgency indigenous to the South, while the U. S. and South Vietnamese governments portrayed the group as a tool of Hanoi. Although the terminology distinguishes northerners from the southerners, communist forces were under a single command structure set up in 1958; the headquarters of the Viet Cong based at Memot came to be known as Central Office for South Vietnam or COSVN by its Military Assistance Command and South Vietnamese counterparts, a near-mythical "bamboo Pentagon" from which the Việt Cộng's entire war effort was being directed.
For nearly a decade the fabled COSVN headquarters, which directed the entire war effort of the Viet Cong was the target of the RVN/US war effort, which would have collapsed the insurgency war effort. US and South Vietnamese Special Forces sent to capture them were killed quickly or returned with heavy casualties to the point that teams refused to go. Daily B-52 bombings had failed to kill any of the leadership during Operation Menu despite flattening the entire area, as Soviet trawlers were able to forewarn COSVN, whom used the data on speed and direction to move perpendicular and to move underground. North Vietnam established the National Liberation Front on December 20, 1960, to foment insurgency in the South. Many of the Việt Cộng's core members were volunteer "regroupees", southern Việt Minh who had resettled in the North after the Geneva Accord. Hanoi gave the regroupees military training and sent them back to the South along the Hồ Chí Minh trail in the early 1960s; the NLF called for southern Vietnamese to "overthrow the camouflaged colonial regime of the American imperialists" and to make "efforts toward the peaceful unification".
The PLAF's best-known action was the Tết Offensive, a gigantic assault on more than 100 South Vietnamese urban centers in 1968, including an attack on the U. S. embassy in Saigon. The offensive riveted the attention of the world's media for weeks, but overextended the Việt Cộng. Two further offensives were conducted in the mini-Tet and August Offensive. In 1969 the Việt Cộng would establish the Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam, a shadow-country in South Vietnam intended to represent the organisation on the world stage and was recognised by the communist bloc and maintained diplomatic links with many nations in the Non-Aligned Movement. Communist offensives were conducted predominantly by newly mechanised PAVN forces, as the ability of the Việt Cộng to recruit among the South Vietnamese became much more limited; the Việt Cộng remained an active political front. The organisation was dissolved in 1976 when North and South Vietnam were unified under a communist government.
Political and military organization of the Việt Cộng was complex, with a series of well-constructed, overlapping networks and organisations, see strategy and structure. Material aid was provided through the well-established, ingenious Hồ Chí Minh trail which withstood the most sustained bombing campaign in history while expanding the war effort, see logistics and equipment, they had further developed a complex insurgency warfare method capable of countering overwhelmingly superior numbers and technology, retaining the strategic initiative during much of the war. According to the Pentagon Papers, 90% of large firefights were initiated by the PAVN/VC and 80% were well-planned VC operations throughout most of the war and as early as 1966 US Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara expressed doubt about the US ability to win the war; the term Việt Cộng appeared in Saigon newspapers beginning in 1956. It is a contraction of Việt Nam Cộng-sản, or alternatively Việt gian cộng sản; the earliest citation for Việt Cộng in English is from 1957.
Media worldwide referred to them as "Vietcong". American soldiers referred to them as Victor Charlie or V-C. "Victor" and "Charlie" are both letters in the NATO phonetic alphabet. "Charlie" referred to communist forces in both Việt Cộng and North Vietnamese. The official Vietnamese history gives the group's name as the Liberation Army of South Vietnam or the National Liberation Front for South Vietnam. Many writers shorten this to National Liberation Front. In 1969, the Việt Cộng created the "Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam", abbreviated PRG. Although the NLF was not abolished until 1977, the Việt Cộng no longer used the name after PRG was created. Members referred to the Việt Cộng as "the Front". Today's Vietnamese media most refers to the group as the "People's Liberation Armed Forces of South Vietnam". By the terms of the Geneva Accord, which ended the Indochina War and the Việt Minh agreed to a truce and to a separation of forces; the Việt Minh had become the government o