Uttar Pradesh is a state in northern India. With over 200 million inhabitants, it is the most populous state in India as well as the most populous country subdivision in the world, it was created on 1 April 1937 as the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh during British rule, was renamed Uttar Pradesh in 1950. The state is divided into 75 districts with the capital being Lucknow; the main ethnic group is the Hindavi people. On 9 November 2000, a new state, was carved out from the state's Himalayan hill region; the two major rivers of the state, the Ganga and Yamuna, join at Allahabad and flow as the Ganga further east. Hindi is the most spoken language and is the official language of the state; the state is bordered by Rajasthan to the west, Himachal Pradesh and Delhi to the northwest and Nepal to the north, Bihar to the east, Madhya Pradesh to the south, touches the states of Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh to the southeast. It covers 243,290 square kilometres, equal to 7.33% of the total area of India, is the fourth-largest Indian state by area.
The economy of Uttar Pradesh is the fourth-largest state economy in India with ₹15.79 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹57,480. Agriculture and service industries are the largest parts of the state's economy; the service sector comprises travel and tourism, hotel industry, real estate and financial consultancies. President's rule has been imposed in Uttar Pradesh ten times since 1968, for different reasons and for a total of 1,700 days; the natives of the state are called Uttar Bhartiya, or more either Awadhi, Bhojpuri, Bundeli, Kannauji, or Rohilkhandi depending upon their region of origin. Hinduism is practised by more than three-fourths of the population, with Islam being the next largest religious group. Uttar Pradesh was home to powerful empires of medieval India; the state has several historical and religious tourist destinations, such as Agra, Vrindavan and Allahabad. Modern human hunter-gatherers have been in Uttar Pradesh since between around 85,000 and 72,000 years ago.
There have been prehistorical finds in Uttar Pradesh from the Middle and Upper Paleolithic dated to 21,000–31,000 years old and Mesolithic/Microlithic hunter-gatherer settlement, near Pratapgarh, from around 10550–9550 BC. Villages with domesticated cattle and goats and evidence of agriculture began as early as 6000 BC, developed between c. 4000 and 1500 BC beginning with the Indus Valley Civilisation and Harappa Culture to the Vedic period and extending into the Iron Age. The kingdom of Kosala, in the Mahajanapada era, was located within the regional boundaries of modern-day Uttar Pradesh. According to Hindu legend, the divine king Rama of the Ramayana epic reigned in Ayodhya, the capital of Kosala. Krishna, another divine king of Hindu legend, who plays a key role in the Mahabharata epic and is revered as the eighth reincarnation of the Hindu god Vishnu, is said to have been born in the city of Mathura, in Uttar Pradesh; the aftermath of the Mahabharata yuddh is believed to have taken place in the area between the Upper Doab and Delhi, during the reign of the Pandava king Yudhishthira.
The kingdom of the Kurus corresponds to the Black and Red Ware and Painted Gray Ware culture and the beginning of the Iron Age in northwest India, around 1000 BC. Control over Gangetic plains region was of vital importance to the power and stability of all of India's major empires, including the Maurya, Kushan and Gurjara-Pratihara empires. Following the Huns' invasions that broke the Gupta empire, the Ganges-Yamuna Doab saw the rise of Kannauj. During the reign of Harshavardhana, the Kannauj empire reached its zenith, it spanned from Punjab in the north and Gujarat in the west to Bengal in the east and Odisha in the south. It included parts of central India, north of the Narmada River and it encompassed the entire Indo-Gangetic plain. Many communities in various parts of India claim descent from the migrants of Kannauj. Soon after Harshavardhana's death, his empire disintegrated into many kingdoms, which were invaded and ruled by the Gurjara-Pratihara empire, which challenged Bengal's Pala Empire for control of the region.
Kannauj was several times invaded by the south Indian Rashtrakuta Dynasty, from the 8th century to the 10th century. After fall of Pala empire, the Chero dynasty ruled from 12th century to 18th century. Parts or all of Uttar Pradesh were ruled by the Delhi Sultanate for 320 years. Five dynasties ruled over the Delhi Sultanate sequentially: the Mamluk dynasty, the Khalji dynasty, the Tughlaq dynasty, the Sayyid dynasty, the Lodi dynasty. In the 16th century, Babur, a Timurid descendant of Timur and Genghis Khan from Fergana Valley, swept across the Khyber Pass and founded the Mughal Empire, covering India, along with modern-day Afghanistan and Bangladesh; the Mughals were descended from Persianised Central Asian Turks. In the Mughal era, Uttar Pradesh became the heartland of the empire. Mughal emperors Humayun ruled from Delhi. In 1540 an Afghan, Sher Shah Suri, took over the reins of Uttar Pradesh after defeating the Mughal king Humanyun. Sher Shah and his son Islam Shah ruled Uttar Pradesh from their capital at Gwalior.
After the death of Islam Shah Suri, his prime minister Hemu became the de facto ruler of Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, th
Bhopal is the capital city of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh and the administrative headquarters of Bhopal district and Bhopal division. The city was the capital of the former Bhopal State. Bhopal is known as the City of Lakes for its various natural as well as artificial lakes and is one of the greenest cities in India, it is 131st in the world. A Y-class city, Bhopal houses various educational and research institutions and installations of national importance, including ISRO's Master Control Facility, BHEL, AMPRI. Bhopal is home to the largest number of Institutes of National Importance in India, namely IISER, MANIT, SPA, AIIMS, NLIU and IIIT; the city attracted international attention in December 1984 after the Bhopal disaster, when a Union Carbide India Limited pesticide manufacturing plant leaked a mixture of deadly gases composed of methyl isocyanate, leading to one of the worst industrial disasters in the world's history. The Bhopal disaster continues to be a part of the socio-political debate and a logistical challenge for the people of Bhopal.
Bhopal was selected as one of the first twenty Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under PM Narendra Modi's flagship Smart Cities Mission. According to folklore, Bhopal was founded in 11th century by the Paramara king Bhoja, who ruled from his capital at Dhar; this theory states that Bhopal was known as Bhojpal after a dam constructed by the king's minister. No archaeological evidence, inscriptions or historical texts support the claim about an earlier settlement founded by Bhoja at the same place. An alternative theory says. In the early 18th century, Bhopal was a small village in the Gond kingdom; the modern Bhopal city was established by a Pashtun soldier in the Mughal army. After the death of the emperor Aurangzeb, Khan started providing mercenary services to local chieftains in the politically unstable Malwa region. In 1709, he took on the lease of Berasia estate and annexed several territories in the region to establish the Bhopal State. Khan received the territory of Bhopal from the Gond queen Kamlapati in lieu of payment for mercenary services and usurped her kingdom after her death.
In the 1720s, he built the Fatehgarh fort in the village, which developed into the city of Bhopal over the next few decades. Bhopal became a princely state after signing a treaty with the British East India Company in 1818. Between 1819 and 1926, the state was ruled by four women, Begums — unique in the royalty of those days — under British suzerainty. Qudsia Begum was the first woman ruler, succeeded by her granddaughter, Shah Jehan. Between the years 1844-1860, when Shah Jehan was a child, her mother Sikandar ruled as regent, was recognized as ruler in 1860, she ruled until 1868, when Shah Jehan succeeded her and was Begum until 1901. In 1901, Shah Jehan's daughter Kaikhusrau Jahan became Begum, ruled until 1926, was the last of the female line of succession. In 1926, she abdicated in favor of her son, Hamidullah Khan, who ruled until 1947, was the last of the sovereign Nawabs; the rule of Begums gave the city its waterworks, railways, a postal system, a municipality constituted in 1907. Bhopal State was the second-largest Muslim-ruled princely state: the first being Hyderabad.
After the independence of India in 1947, the last Nawab expressed his wish to retain Bhopal as a separate unit. Agitations against the Nawab broke out in December 1948, leading to the arrest of prominent leaders including Shankar Dayal Sharma; the political detainees were released, the Nawab signed the agreement for Bhopal's merger with the Union of India on 30 April 1949. The Bhopal state was taken over by the Union Government of India on 1 June 1949. On December 1984, a Union Carbide India Limited pesticide plant in Bhopal leaked around 32 tons of toxic gases, including methyl isocyanate gas which led to the worst industrial disaster to date; the official death toll was recorded around 4,000. A Madhya Pradesh government report stated 3,787 deaths, while other estimates state the fatalities were higher from the accident and the medical complications caused by the accident in the weeks and years that followed; the higher estimates have been challenged. The impact of the disaster continues to this day in terms of psychological and neurological disabilities, skin, vision and birth disorders.
The soil and ground water near the factory site have been contaminated by the toxic wastes. The Bhopal disaster continues to be the part of the socio-political debate. Bhopal has an average elevation of 500 metres, it is located in the central part of India, is just north of the upper limit of the Vindhya mountain ranges. Located on the Malwa plateau, it is higher than the north Indian plains and the land rises towards the Vindhya Range to the south; the city has small hills within its boundaries. The prominent hills in Bhopal are Idgah hills and Shyamala hills in the northern region, Katara hills in southern region. City's geography has in it two lakes namely lower lake. Bhopal city is divided into two parts where one part, near the VIP and lake is old Bhopal and the other is where malls are situated New bhopal. Bhopal has a humid subtropical climate, with cool, dry winters, a h
Hindi, or Modern Standard Hindi is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language. Hindi, written in the Devanagari script, is one of the official languages of India, along with the English language, it is one of the 22 scheduled languages of the Republic of India. However, it is not the national language of India because no language was given such a status in the Indian constitution. Hindi is the lingua franca of the Hindi belt, to a lesser extent other parts of India. Outside India, several other languages are recognized as "Hindi" but do not refer to the Standard Hindi language described here and instead descend from other dialects of Hindustani, such as Awadhi and Bhojpuri; such languages include Fiji Hindi, official in Fiji, Caribbean Hindustani, a recognized language in Trinidad and Tobago and Suriname. Apart from specialized vocabulary, spoken Hindi is mutually intelligible with Urdu, another recognized register of Hindustani; as a linguistic variety, Hindi is the fourth most-spoken first language in the world, after Mandarin and English.
Alongside Urdu as Hindustani, it is the third most-spoken language in the world, after Mandarin and English. The term Hindī was used to refer to inhabitants of the region east of the Indus, it was borrowed from Classical Persian Hindī, meaning "Indian", from the proper noun Hind "India". The name Hindavī was used by Amir Khusrow in his poetry. Like other Indo-Aryan languages, Hindi is a direct descendant of an early form of Vedic Sanskrit, through Sauraseni Prakrit and Śauraseni Apabhraṃśa, which emerged in the 7th century A. D. Modern Standard Hindi is based on the Khariboli dialect, the vernacular of Delhi and the surrounding region, which came to replace earlier prestige dialects such as Awadhi and Braj. Urdu – another form of Hindustani – acquired linguistic prestige in the Mughal period, underwent significant Persian influence. Modern Hindi and its literary tradition evolved towards the end of the 18th century. However, modern Hindi's earlier literary stages before standardization can be traced to the 16th century.
In the late 19th century, a movement to further develop Hindi as a standardised form of Hindustani separate from Urdu took form. In 1881, Bihar accepted Hindi as its sole official language, replacing Urdu, thus became the first state of India to adopt Hindi. Modern Standard Hindi is one of the youngest Indian languages in this regard. After independence, the government of India instituted the following conventions: standardisation of grammar: In 1954, the Government of India set up a committee to prepare a grammar of Hindi. Standardisation of the orthography, using the Devanagari script, by the Central Hindi Directorate of the Ministry of Education and Culture to bring about uniformity in writing, to improve the shape of some Devanagari characters, introducing diacritics to express sounds from other languages. On 14 September 1949, the Constituent Assembly of India adopted Hindi written in the Devanagari script as the official language of the Republic of India replacing Urdu's previous usage in British India.
To this end, several stalwarts rallied and lobbied pan-India in favor of Hindi, most notably Beohar Rajendra Simha along with Hazari Prasad Dwivedi, Kaka Kalelkar, Maithili Sharan Gupt and Seth Govind Das who debated in Parliament on this issue. As such, on the 50th birthday of Beohar Rajendra Simha on 14 September 1949, the efforts came to fruition following the adoption of Hindi as the official language. Now, it is celebrated as Hindi Day. In Northeast India a pidgin known as Haflong Hindi has developed as a lingua franca for various tribes in Assam that speak other languages natively. In Arunachal Pradesh, Hindi emerged as a lingua franca among locals who speak over 50 dialects natively. Part XVII of the Indian Constitution deals with the official language of the Indian Commonwealth. Under Article 343, the official languages of the Union has been prescribed, which includes Hindi in Devanagari script and English: The official language of the Union shall be Hindi in Devanagari script; the form of numerals to be used for the official purposes of the Union shall be the international form of Indian numerals.
Notwithstanding anything in clause, for a period of fifteen years from the commencement of this Constitution, the English language shall continue to be used for all the official purposes of the Union for which it was being used before such commencement: Provided that the President may, during the said period, by order authorize the use of the Hindi language in addition to the English language and of the Devanagari form of numerals in addition to the international form of Indian numerals for any of the official purposes of the Union. Article 351 of the Indian constitution states It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language, to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment by assimilating without interfering with its genius, the forms and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule, by drawing, wherever necessary or desirable, for its vocabulary on Sanskrit and secondarily on other languages.
It was envisioned that Hindi would become the sole working language of the Union Government by 1965 (per directi
Indian independence movement
The Indian independence movement was a series of activities whose ultimate aim was to end the British Raj and encompassed activities and ideas aiming to end the East India Company rule and the British Raj in the Indian subcontinent. The movement spanned a total of 90 years considering movement against British Indian Empire; the Indian Independence movement includes both protest and militant mechanisms to root out British Administration from India. The first organised militant movements were in Bengal, but they took root in the newly formed Indian National Congress with prominent moderate leaders seeking only their basic right to appear for Indian Civil Service examinations, as well as more rights, economic in nature, for the people of the soil; the early part of the 20th century saw a more radical approach towards political self-rule proposed by leaders such as the Lal, Bal and Aurobindo Ghosh, V. O. Chidambaram Pillai; the last stages of the self-rule struggle from the 1920s onwards saw Congress adopt Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi's policy of non-violence and civil disobedience, several other campaigns.
Nationalists like Subhash Chandra Bose, Bhagat Singh, Bagha Jatin,preached armed revolution to achieve self-rule. Poets and writers such as Subramania Bharati, Rabindranath Tagore, Muhammad Iqbal, Josh Malihabadi, Mohammad Ali Jouhar, Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay and Kazi Nazrul Islam used literature and speech as a tool for political awareness. Feminists such as Sarojini Naidu and Begum Rokeya promoted the emancipation of Indian women and their participation in national politics. B. R. Ambedkar championed the cause of the disadvantaged sections of Indian society within the larger self-rule movement; the period of the Second World War saw the peak of the campaigns by the Quit India Movement led by Congress, the Indian National Army movement led by Subhas Chandra Bose. The Indian self-rule movement was a mass-based movement that encompassed various sections of society, it underwent a process of constant ideological evolution. Although the basic ideology of the movement was anti-colonial, it was supported by a vision of independent capitalist economic development coupled with a secular, democratic and civil-libertarian political structure.
After the 1930s, the movement took on a strong socialist orientation, owing to the influence of Bhagat Singh's demand of Purna Swaraj. The work of these various movements led to the Indian Independence Act 1947, which ended the suzerainty in India and the creation of Pakistan. India remained a Dominion of the Crown until 26 January 1950, when the Constitution of India came into force, establishing the Republic of India. In 1971, East Pakistan declared independence as the People's Republic of Bangladesh. European traders first reached Indian shores with the arrival of the Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama in 1498 at the port of Calicut, in search of the lucrative spice trade. Just over a century the Dutch and English established trading outposts on the subcontinent, with the first English trading post set up at Surat in 1613. Over the course of the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, the British defeated the Portuguese and Dutch militarily, but remained in conflict with the French, who had by sought to establish themselves in the subcontinent.
The decline of the Mughal Empire in the first half of the eighteenth century provided the British with the opportunity to establish a firm foothold in Indian politics. After the Battle of Plassey in 1757, during which the East India Company's Indian Army under Robert Clive defeated Siraj ud-Daulah, the Nawab of Bengal, the Company established itself as a major player in Indian affairs, soon afterwards gained administrative rights over the regions of Bengal and Midnapur part of Odisha, following the Battle of Buxar in 1764. After the defeat of Tipu Sultan, most of South India came either under the Company's direct rule, or under its indirect political control as part a princely state in a subsidiary alliance; the Company subsequently gained control of regions ruled by the Maratha Empire, after defeating them in a series of wars. The Punjab was annexed in 1849, after the defeat of the Sikh armies in the First and Second Anglo-Sikh Wars. English was made the medium of instruction in India's schools in 1835, many Indians disliked British rule.
The English tried to impose the Western standards of education and culture on Indian masses, believing in the 18th century superiority of Western culture and enlightenment. Puli Thevar was one of the opponents of the British rule in India, he was in conflict with the Nawab of Arcot, supported by the British. His prominent exploits were his confrontations with Marudhanayagam, who rebelled against the British in the late 1750s and early 1760s. Nelkatumseval the present Tirunelveli Dist of Tamil Nadu state of India was the headquarters of Puli Thevan Syed Mir Nisar Ali Titumir. Along with his followers, he built a bamboo fort in Narkelberia Village, which passed into Bengali folk legend. After the storming of the fort by British soldiers, Titumir died of his wounds on 19 November 1831; the toughest resistance the Company experienced was offered by Mysore. The Anglo–Mysore Wars were a series of wars fought in over the last three decades of the 18th century between the Kingdom of Mysore on the one hand, the British East India Company (represented chiefly by the Madras Presiden
The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was an Indian power that dominated large portion of Indian subcontinent in the 18th century. The empire formally existed from 1674 with the coronation of Chhatrapati Shivaji and ended in 1818 with the defeat of Puppet Peshwa Bajirao 2 installed by Maratha Nobles under Monarch Chhatrapati Pratapsingh; the Marathas are credited to a large extent for ending Mughal rule in India. The Warrior Maratha were a group of various castes referred to as "Mavla". Maratha Empire had Kshatriya Kings and people from all castes as warriors in the empire from the western Deccan Plateau who rose to prominence by establishing a Hindavi Swarajya; the Maratha became prominent in the 17th century under the leadership of Shivaji, who revolted against the Adil Shahi dynasty, founded the empire with Raigad as his capital. Known for their mobility, the Maratha were able to consolidate their territory during the Mughal–Maratha Wars and controlled a large part of the Indian subcontinent.
After Shivaji his son Sambhaji a talented and clever King,a sanskrit Scholar and having a great Physique ruled the kingdom. After the death of Aurangzeb in 1707,Sambhajis son Chhattrapati Shahu, grandson of Shivaji, was released by the Mughals. Following a brief struggle with his aunt Tarabai, Shahu became the ruler and appointed Bahiroji Pingale and Balaji Vishwanath and his descendants, as the peshwas of the empire. Shahu appointed Ashtapradhan like Chitnis, Sar Senapati, etc Maratha Nobles played a key role in the expansion of Maratha rule; the empire at its peak stretched from Tamil Nadu in the south, to Peshawar in the north, Bengal Subah in the east. The Maratha discussed abolishing the Mughal throne and placing Vishwasrao on the Mughal imperial throne in Delhi but were not able to do so; this lead to a decrease in the power of Peshwa like that of Chhatrapati's In 1761, the Maratha Army lost the Third Battle of Panipat against Ahmad Shah Abdali of the Afghan Durrani Empire, which halted their imperial expansion into Afghanistan.
Ten years after Panipat, the young Peshwa Madhavrao I's Maratha Resurrection reinstated Maratha authority over North India. But after his death Peshwas became puppet of the Maratha Nobles like Shindes, Holkars, Bhonsales of Nagpur In a bid to manage the large empire, Madhavrao gave semi-autonomy to the strongest of the knights, created a confederacy of Maratha states; these leaders became known as the Gaekwads of Baroda, the Holkars of Indore and Malwa, the Scindias of Gwalior and Ujjain, the Bhonsales of Nagpur, the Meheres of Vidharbha and the Puars of Dhar and Dewas. In 1775, the East India Company intervened in a Peshwa family succession struggle in Pune, which led to the First Anglo-Maratha War; the Marathas were victorious. The Maratha remained the pre-eminent power in India until their defeat in the Second and Third Anglo-Maratha Wars, which resulted in the East India Company controlling most of India. A large portion of the Maratha empire was coastline, secured by the potent Maratha Navy under commanders such as Kanhoji Angre.
He was successful at keeping foreign naval ships at bay those of the Portuguese and British nations. Securing the coastal areas and building land-based fortifications were crucial aspects of the Maratha's defensive strategy and regional military history; the Maratha Empire is referred to as the Maratha Confederacy. The historian Barbara Ramusack says that the former is a designation preferred by Indian nationalists, while the latter was that used by British historians, she notes, "neither term is accurate since one implies a substantial degree of centralisation and the other signifies some surrender of power to a central government and a longstanding core of political administrators. Maratha power was fragmented among several discrete fragments". Although at present, the word Maratha refers to a particular caste of warriors and peasants, in the past the word has been used to describe Marathi people; the empire had its head in the Chhatrapati as de facto rulers, but after the death of Shahu the de facto governance was in the hands of the Peshwas.
After the death of Chhatrapati Shahu and with the death of Madhavrao – I, various chiefs played the role of the de facto rulers in their own regions. Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj son of Shahaji Bhonsale and Rajmata Jijabai was a Maratha aristocrat of the Bhosale clan, considered to be the founder of the Maratha empire, it was his parents dream to found a Empire of Self rule referred to as Hindavi Swarajya. Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj led a resistance to free the people from the Sultanate of Bijapur in 1645 by winning the fort Torna, followed by many more forts, placing the area under his control and establishing Hindavi Swarajya, he created an independent Maratha kingdom with Raigad as its capital and fought against the Mughals to defend his kingdom. He was crowned as Chhatrapati of the new Maratha kingdom in 1674; the Maratha kingdom comprised about 4.1% of the subcontinent, but it was spread over large tracts from Tanjavore in Tamil Nadu till Northern Maharashtra. At the time of his death, it was reinforced with about 352 forts, defended by about 50,000 cavalry, 80,000 foot soldiers, as well as naval establishments along the west coast.
He is known as the "Father of Indian Navy". Over time, the kingdom would increase in heterogeneity. Shivaji had two sons: Sam
Jagdalpur is a city in Bastar district in the Indian state of Chhattisgarh. Jagdalpur is the administrative headquarters of Bastar Division, it was earlier the capital of the former princely state of Bastar. As of the year 2016, Jagdalpur Municipal Corporation had a population of 3,10,478; the Municipal Corporation have a sex ratio of 985 females per 1,000 males and 19.0% of the population were under six years old. Effective literacy was 90.44%. Jagdalpur has a agrarian economy, although it has many small scale and a few large scale industries as well. Furniture Industries and rice mills are the most common industries in this region. Nagarnar Steel Plant, being set up at its outskirts, is at an advanced construction and is slated for commissioning in October 2018. Nagarnar Steel Plant NMDC, as part of its diversification, value addition and forward integration programme is setting up a 3 MTPA capacity greenfield Integrated Steel Plant based on HiSmelt technology in Nagarnar, located 16 km from Jagdalpur in Chhattisgarh state with an estimated outlay of Rs 20000 crore.
Construction work for the project is in progress and around 90.59% of civil work, 79.01% structural erection, 60.36% equipment erection have been completed as on 31 December 17. Baijendra Kumar, Chairman cum Managing Director, NMDC has set October 2018 as the deadline to commission the plant; the contribution of Tourism in the Economy of Jagdalpur Tourism is one of the main sources of income for the city. The city is rightly said to frolic in Jagdalpur; the city is an abode of many wildlife, waterfalls, lakes, historic monuments and what not. Some of the must-visit places in Jagdalpur are Chitrakote Falls, Teerathgarh Falls, Kotumsar Cave, Tamda Ghumar waterfalls, Mendri Ghumar waterfalls, Kanger Ghati National Park, Indravati National Park, Danteshwari Temple, the historic Temples in Barsoor, Jagannath temple, Mavli temple, Laxmi-Narayan temple, The Sri Venkateshwara Swamy Temple and more; the Ministry of Tourism, Government of India has identified Jagdalpur-Teerathgarh-Chitrakoot-Barsur-Dantewada-Teerathgarh Circuit as one of the 45 Mega Tourist Destinations/Circuits in India on the basis of footfalls and their future tourism potential.
Road network in and around Jagdalpur can be seen from the road network map of the area. Jagdalpur is connected by road with the Chhattisgarh state Raipur, Visakhapatnam and nearby National Highways providing onward connectivity to major towns and cities of India. Bus Services are available from Jagdalpur to such major cities as Raipur, Nagpur, Warangal, Amravati, Vijayawada etc; the National Highways passing through Jagdalpur are NH 30, NH 63 while passing through Maharashtra. NH 30 at Raipur connects Jagdalpur to Asian Highway 46 leading to Kolkata. NH 30 near Vijayawada connects Jagdalpur to NH 65 leading to Pune. NH 63 at Bhopalpatnam connects with NH 163, which once completed, would connect Jagdalpur to Warangal and Hyderabad. Missing links in NH 63 Even though the NH 63 purports to connect Jagdalpur to Nizamabad in Telangana while passing through Maharashtra, the connectivity has not been established till date due to one missing bridge en route, as of April 2018; this can be seen from the road network map of the area.
Jagdalpur is reasonably well connected by rail line with eastern part of India. There are regular trains connecting Jagdalpur to Howrah and Visakhapatnam; the rail connectivity of Jagdalpur to Durg via Rayagada and Raipur is about 658 km long and takes 14.5 hours of travel time as compared to that by road which takes about 6–7 hours. In order to address this issue and provide connectivity of Jagdalpur with Raipur, Dalli–Rajhara–Jagdalpur line is under construction from Dalli Rajhara side till Rowghat. In parallel, construction between Jagdalpur and Rowghat is slated to commence shortly as preparatory works are underway. Jagdalpur-Rowghat Rail Line Status NMDC, IRCON, SAIL and CMDC have signed an agreement on 20 January 2016 and pursuant to the same, a company named Bastar Railway Private Limited has been formed on 5 May 2016 for undertaking implementation of the railway line from Jagdalpur to Rowghat. NDMC has the biggest shareholding in BRPL at 43 percent while SAIL, IRCON & Govt. of Chhattisgarh have shareholding of 21 percent, 26 percent and 10 percent respectively.
BRPL and IRCON have signed a project execution agreement in July 2017, under which IRCON will construct the railway line between Jagdalpur and Rawghat in Chhattisgarh. The railway line will have 13 new Railway stations and the estimated project cost of this Rail corridor is Rs 2,538 crore approximately. Presently, the Detailed Project Report for this section of the rail line has been sanctioned by the Railways Board. Survey work is underway and the target was earlier set to complete survey work of Jagdalpur-Kondagaon-Narayanpur by the month of March 2016 and of Narayanpur-Rowghat section by the month of May 2016, but there have been delays reported. In a government review carried out in February 2018, it was reported that the survey work for Jagdalpur to Kondagaon railway track laying comprising length of 91.76 km had been completed for Jagdalpur-Rowghat Railway project. It was reported that the survey work for Kondagaon to Rowghat for the 91.6 km to 140 km distance in under progress. The project team was directed by government to complete all the survey work for the project by 15 March 2018.
Prime Minister of Indi