Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
A parasite aircraft is a component of a composite aircraft, carried aloft and air launched by a larger carrier aircraft or mother ship to support the primary mission of the carrier. The carrier craft may or may not be able to recover the parasite during flight; the first parasite aircraft flew in 1916, when the British launched a Bristol Scout from a Felixstowe Porte Baby flying boat. The idea developed into jet bombers carrying capable parasite fighters. With the advent of long-range fighters equipped with air-to-air missiles, aerial refueling, parasite fighters fell out of use; until the middle of the 20th century there was military interest in parasite fighters – fighter aircraft intended to be carried into a combat zone by a larger aircraft, such as a bomber. If the bomber were threatened, the parasite would be released to defend it. Parasite fighters have never been successful and have been used in combat. A major disadvantage of a parasite aircraft was that it reduced the payload capacity of the carrier aircraft.
Projects for this type were designed to overcome the great disparity in range between bombers and their escort fighters. Development of aerial refueling has made parasite fighters obsolete; the first parasite fighters were launched and recovered from trapezes mounted externally to military airships. In 1915 Neville Usborne and another British officer worked on a plan to lift a BE.2C fighter under a SS-class non-rigid airship. This would allow the fighter to reach the height of a raiding Zeppelin while conserving fuel. In the first experimental flight on 21 February 1916, the envelope lost pressure and the plane was prematurely separated from it at 4,000 feet. Both the officers were killed and there was no further experimentation with small airships. In May 1916 a Bristol Scout flown by Flt. Lt. M. J. Day was mounted above the top wing of a Porte Baby flying boat flown by Sqn. Ldr John Cyril Porte, was released at a height of 1000 ft. Although successful the scheme, intended to provide long-range defence against Zeppelins, was not pursued.
In 1918 the Royal Air Force experimented with launching Sopwith Camel fighters from HM Airship 23. The Germans experimented with the idea, suspending an Albatros D. III fighter aeroplane below a Zeppelin and releasing it at altitude: the intention was to use the aeroplane to defend airships against the British seaplane patrols encountered over the North Sea. Although the single trial, made on 25 January 1918, was successful the experiments were not continued. On 12 December 1918, in a test to determine the feasibility of carrying fighter aircraft on dirigibles, the airship C-1 lifted a US Army Curtiss JN-4 aircraft to 2,500 feet over Fort Tilden, New York, at that height released it for a free flight back to base; the airship was piloted by Lieutenant George Crompton, Dirigible Officer at NAS Rockaway, the airplane by Lieutenant A. W. Redfield, USA, commander of the 52nd Aero Squadron based at Mineola; the British Imperial Airship Scheme of 1924 envisaged a commercial airship that could carry five fighter aircraft if put into military use, but this requirement was abandoned.
In 1925 first the DH.53 light aeroplane and Gloster Grebes had been launched from the airship R.33. In 1930, the US Navy airship USS Los Angeles was used to test the trapeze system developed to launch and recover fixed wing aircraft from rigid airships; the tests were a success, the purpose built airships USS Akron and USS Macon were designed to carry parasite aircraft inside a hangar bay within the hull. The airships could carry up to five single-seat Curtiss F9C Sparrowhawks for scouting or two-seat Fleet N2Y-1s for training. In 1934, two two-seat Waco UBF XJW-1 biplanes equipped with skyhooks were delivered to the USS Macon; the temporary system was removed from the Los Angeles, which never carried any aircraft on operational flights. In 1930, the Los Angeles tested the launching of a glider over Lakehurst, New Jersey. Although operations of these parasite aircraft were quite successful, the ultimate loss of both airships put an end to the program; the first bombers to carry parasite fighters did so as part of the Zveno experiments carried out in the Soviet Union by Vladimir Vakhmistrov from 1931.
Up to five fighters of various types were carried by Tupolev Tupolev TB-3 bombers. In August 1941, these combinations would fly the only combat missions undertaken by parasite fighters. TB-3s carrying Polikarpov I-16SPB dive bombers attacked the Cernavodă bridge and Constantsa docks, in Romania. After that, this squadron, based in the Crimea, carried out a tactical attack on a bridge over the river Dneiper at Zaporozhye, captured by advancing German troops. In World War II, the Luftwaffe experimented with the Messerschmitt Me 328 as a parasite fighter, but problems with its pulsejet engines could not be overcome. Other late-war rocket-powered projects such as the Arado E.381 and Sombold So 344 never left the experimental stage. By contrast, the Empire of Japan were able to get the Yokosuka MXY7 Ohka kamikaze rocket plane type into active service using the Mitsubishi G4M bomber class to carry them within range. However, their effectiveness proved minimal in part because Allied air naval defense took advantage of the weight of the parasitical aircraft payload slowing the carrying bombers, making them vulnerable to interception before the rocket plane could launch.
During the early years of the Cold War, the United States Air Force experimented with a variety of parasite fighters to protect its Convair B-36 bombers, including the dedicated XF-85 Goblin, methods of either carrying a Republic F-84 Thunderjet in the bomber's bomb bay, or
Fairchild C-119 Flying Boxcar
The Fairchild C-119 Flying Boxcar is an American military transport aircraft developed from the World War II-era Fairchild C-82 Packet, designed to carry cargo, litter patients, mechanized equipment, to drop cargo and troops by parachute. The first C-119 made its initial flight in November 1947, by the time production ceased in 1955, more than 1,100 C-119s had been built, its cargo-hauling ability and unusual twin-boom design earned it the nickname "Flying Boxcar". The Air Force C-119 and Navy R4Q was a redesign of the earlier C-82 Packet, built between 1945 and 1948; the Packet provided service to the Air Force's Tactical Air Command and Military Air Transport Service for nearly nine years during which time its design was found to have several serious problems. All of these were addressed in the C-119. In contrast to the C-82, the cockpit was moved forward to fit flush with the nose rather than its previous location over the cargo compartment; this resulted in larger loads than the C-82 could accommodate.
The C-119 featured more powerful engines, a wider and stronger airframe. The first C-119 prototype first flew in November 1947, with deliveries of C-119Bs from Fairchild's Hagerstown, Maryland factory beginning in December 1949. In 1951, Henry J. Kaiser was awarded a contract to assemble additional C-119s at the Kaiser-Frazer automotive factory located in the former B-24 plant at Willow Run Airport in Belleville, Michigan; the Kaiser-built C-119F differed from the Fairchild aircraft by the use of Wright R-3350-85 Duplex Cyclone engines in place of Fairchild's use of the Pratt & Whitney R-4360 Wasp Major radial engine. Kaiser built 71 C-119s at Willow Run in 1952 and 1953 before converting the factory for a planned production of the Chase C-123 that never eventuated; the Kaiser sub-contract was frowned upon by Fairchild, efforts were made through political channels to stop Kaiser's production, which may have proven successful. Following Kaiser's termination of C-119 production the contract for the C-123 was instead awarded to Fairchild.
Most Kaiser-built aircraft were issued to the U. S. Marine Corps as R4Qs, with several turned over to the South Vietnamese air force in the 1970s; the AC-119G "Shadow" gunship variant was fitted with four six-barrel 7.62×51mm NATO miniguns, armor plating, flare launchers, night-capable infrared equipment. Like the AC-130 that succeeded it, the AC-119 proved to be a potent weapon; the AC-119 was made more deadly by the introduction of the AC-119K "Stinger" version, which featured the addition of two General Electric M61 Vulcan 20 mm cannon, improved avionics, two underwing-mounted General Electric J85-GE-17 turbojet engines, adding nearly 6,000 lbf of thrust. Other major variants included the EC-119J, used for satellite tracking, the YC-119H Skyvan prototype, with larger wings and tail. In civilian use, many C-119s feature the "Jet-Pack" modification, which incorporates a 3,400 lbf Westinghouse J34 turbojet engine in a nacelle above the fuselage. Number built: 1,183 consisting of: 1,112 built by Fairchild 71 built by Kaiser-Frazer CorpTwo additional airframes were built by Fairchild for static tests The aircraft saw extensive action during the Korean War as a troop and equipment transport.
In July 1950, four C-119s were sent to FEAF for service tests. Two months the C-119 deployed with the 314th Troop Carrier Group and served in Korea throughout the war. In December 1950, after Chinese PLA troops blew up a bridge at a narrow point on the evacuation route between Koto-ri and Hungnam, blocking the withdrawal of U. N. forces, eight U. S. Air Force C-119 Flying Boxcars flown by the 314th Troop Carrier Group. Were used to drop portable bridge sections by parachute; the bridge, consisting of eight separate sixteen-foot long, 2,900-pound sections, was dropped one section at a time, using two parachutes on each section. Four of these sections, together with additional wooden extensions were reassembled into a replacement bridge by Marine Corps combat engineers and the US Army 58th Engineer Treadway Bridge Company, enabling U. N. forces to reach Hungnam. From 1951 to 1962, C-119C, F and G models served with U. S. Air Forces in Europe and Far East Air Forces as the first-line Combat Cargo units, did yeoman work as freight haulers with the 60th Troop Carrier Wing, the 317th Troop Carrier Wing and the 465th Troop Carrier Wing in Europe, based first in Germany and in France with 150 aircraft operating anywhere from Greenland to India.
A similar number of aircraft served in the Far East. In 1958, the 317th absorbed the 465th, transitioned to the C-130s, but the units of the former 60th Troop Carrier Wing, the 10th, 11th and 12th Troop Carrier Squadrons, continued to fly C-119s until 1962, the last non-Air Force Reserve and non-Air National Guard operational units to fly the "Boxcars." The USAF Strategic Air Command had C-119 Flying Boxcars in service from 1955 to 1973. The most remarkable use of the C-119 was the aerial recovery of balloons, UAVs, satellites; the first use of this technique was in 1955, when C-119s were used to recover Ryan AQM-34 Firebee unmanned targets. The 456th Troop Carrier Wing, attached to the Strategic Air Command from 25 April 1955 – 26 May 1956, used C-119s to retrieve instrument packages from high-altitude reconnaissance balloons. C-119s from the 6593rd Test Squadron based at Hickam Air Force Base, Hawaii performed several aerial recoveries of film-return capsules during the early years of the Corona spy satellite program.
On 19 August 1960, the recovery by a C-119 of film from the Corona mission code-named Discoverer 14 was the fi
The Convair Kingfish reconnaissance aircraft design was the ultimate result of a series of proposals designed at Convair as a replacement for the Lockheed U-2. Kingfish competed with the Lockheed A-12 for the Project Oxcart mission, lost to that design in 1959. Before the U-2 became operational in June 1956, CIA officials had estimated that improvements in Soviet air defences meant it would only be able to fly safely over the Soviet Union for between 18 months and two years. After overflights began and the Soviets demonstrated the ability to track and attempt to intercept the U-2, this estimate was adjusted downward. In August 1956, Richard Bissell reduced it to six months. To extend the useful life of the U-2, the CIA started Project Rainbow, which added various countermeasures to confuse the Soviet radars and make planning an intercept more difficult; the anti-radar methods developed under Rainbow consisted of, first, a diffusing coating for the fuselage, second, a series of wires strung along the fuselage and the wing edges that were supposed to cancel out radar reflection from the airframe by "broadcasting" a similar return but out-of-phase.
Several Rainbow-equipped flights were made, but the Soviets proved able to track the aircraft regardless. The weight of the equipment had the side-effect of lowering the aircraft's maximum cruise altitude, making it more vulnerable to interception. Rainbow was cancelled in 1958; as early as 1956 Bissell had started looking for an new aircraft to replace the U-2, with an emphasis on reducing the radar cross-section as much as possible. High-altitude flight would still be useful to avoid interception by aircraft, but did little to help against missiles. By reducing the RCS, the radars guiding the missiles would have less time to track the aircraft, complicating the attack. In August 1957 these studies turned to examining supersonic designs, as it was realized that supersonic aircraft were difficult to track on radars of that era; this was due to an effect known as the blip-to-scan ratio, which refers to the "blip" generated by an aircraft on the radar display. In order to filter out random noise from the display, radar operators would turn down the amplification of the radar signal so that fleeting returns would not be bright enough to see.
Returns from real targets, like an aircraft, would become visible as multiple radar pulses all drawn onto the same location on the screen, produced a single, brighter spot. If the aircraft is moving at high speeds, the returns would be spread out on the display. Like random noise, these returns would become invisible. By 1957 so many ideas had been submitted that Bissell arranged for the formation of a new advisory committee to study the concepts, led by Edwin H. Land under the designation Project Gusto; the committee first met in November to arrange for submissions. At their next meeting, on 23 July 1958, several submissions were studied. Kelly Johnson of Lockheed presented the Archangel I design, which could cruise at Mach 3 for extended periods in order to take advantage of blip/scan spoofing, although it was not designed for reduced RCS. Convair proposed a parasite aircraft, launched in the air from a larger version of their B-58 Hustler, being studied, the B-58B; the Navy introduced a submarine-launched inflatable rubber vehicle that would be lifted to altitude by a balloon, boosted to speed by rockets, cruise using ramjets.
Johnson was asked to provide a second opinion on the Navy design, the committee arranged to meet again shortly. At the next meeting, in September 1958, the designs had been further refined. Johnson reported on the Navy concept and demonstrated that it would require a balloon a mile wide for launching. Boeing presented a new design for a 190-foot long liquid hydrogen powered inflatable design. Lockheed presented several designs. Convair entered their parasite design upgraded and intended to fly at Mach 4. Convair's parasite design was derived from the Super Hustler concept that Convair had proposed to the Air Force; the original version had been a two-part design, the rear portion being an unmanned booster powered by a pair of ramjets, the front portion a manned aircraft with a single ramjet. The Super Hustler could either be launched from under a B-58B Hustler bomber or from a ground trailer using a booster. For the air launch, the Super Hustler would be carried to a speed of Mach 2 at 35,000 ft, released.
All three ramjets would fire for "boost". The unmanned booster could be used as a weapon, if armed. For Project Gusto, the concept had been reduced to a single aircraft. Code-named FISH or First Invisible Super Hustler, the aircraft was based on a lifting body design that bears some resemblance to the ASSET spacecraft of a few years later, it differed in having the nose taper down to a flat horizontal line instead of the rounded delta of the ASSET, the fuselage was not as large at the rear. Two vertical control surfaces were placed on either side of the fuselage at the rear, a small delta wing covered about the rear third of the aircraft, it was to be powered by two Marquardt RJ-59 ramjets during the cruise phase, providing a cruise speed of Mach 4 at 75,000 ft, climbing to 90,000 ft as it burned off fuel. In order to handle the intense heat generated by aerodynamic heating at these speeds, the leading edges of the nose and wings were built of a new "pyroceram" ceramic material, while the r
James R. Schlesinger
James Rodney Schlesinger was an American economist and public servant, best known for serving as Secretary of Defense from 1973 to 1975 under Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. He became America's first Secretary of Energy under Jimmy Carter. While Secretary of Defense, he opposed amnesty for draft resisters and pressed for development of more sophisticated nuclear weapon systems. Additionally, his support for the A-10 and the lightweight fighter program helped ensure that they were carried to completion. James Rodney Schlesinger was born in New York City, the son of Jewish parents, Rhea Lillian and Julius Schlesinger, his mother was a Lithuanian emigrant from what was part of the Russian Empire and his father's family was from Austria. He converted to Lutheranism in his early 20s. Schlesinger was educated at the Horace Mann School and Harvard University, where he earned a B. A. M. A. and Ph. D. in economics. Between 1955 and 1963 he taught economics at the University of Virginia and in 1960 published The Political Economy of National Security.
In 1963, he moved to the RAND Corporation, where he worked until 1969, in the years as director of strategic studies. In 1969, Schlesinger joined the Nixon administration as assistant director of the Bureau of the Budget, devoting most of his time to Defense matters. In 1971, President Nixon appointed Schlesinger a member of the Atomic Energy Commission and designated him as chairman. Serving in this position for about a year and a half, Schlesinger instituted extensive organizational and management changes in an effort to improve the AEC's regulatory performance. On February 2, 1973, he became Director of Central Intelligence. Schlesinger left the CIA to become Secretary of Defense on July 2, aged 44; as a university professor, researcher at Rand, government official in three agencies, he had acquired an impressive resume in national security affairs. Shortly after assuming office, Schlesinger outlined the basic objectives that would guide his administration: maintain a "strong defense establishment".
E must not be forced out at sea, or in the air. Eli Whitney belongs to us, not to our competitors." In particular, Schlesinger saw a need in the post-Vietnam era to restore the morale and prestige of the military services. Analyzing strategy, Schlesinger maintained that the theory and practice of the 1950s and 1960s had been overtaken by events the rise of the Soviet Union to virtual nuclear parity with the United States and the effect this development had on the concept of deterrence. Schlesinger believed, he had grave doubts about the assured destruction strategy, which relied on massive nuclear attacks against an enemy's urban-industrial areas. Credible strategic nuclear deterrence, the secretary felt, depended on fulfilling several conditions: maintaining essential equivalence with the Soviet Union in force effectiveness. S. population or economic targets. To meet these needs, Schlesinger built on existing ideas in developing a flexible response nuclear strategy, with the President's approval, he made public by early 1974.
The United States, Schlesinger said, needed the ability, in the event of a nuclear attack, to respond so as to "limit the chances of uncontrolled escalation" and "hit meaningful targets" without causing widespread collateral damage. The nation's assured destruction force would be withheld in the hope that the enemy would not attack U. S. cities. In rejecting assured destruction, Schlesinger quoted President Nixon: "Should a President, in the event of a nuclear attack, be left with the single option of ordering the mass destruction of enemy civilians, in the face of the certainty that it would be followed by the mass slaughter of Americans?"With this approach, Schlesinger moved to a partial counterforce policy, emphasizing Soviet military targets such as ICBM missile installations, avoiding initial attacks on population centers, minimizing unintended collateral damage. He explicitly disavowed any intention to acquire a destabilizing first-strike capability against the USSR, but he wanted "an offensive capability of such size and composition that all will perceive it as in overall balance with the strategic forces of any potential opponent."Schlesinger devoted much attention to the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, citing the need to strengthen its conventional capabilities.
He rejected the old assumption that NATO did not need a direct counter to Warsaw Pact conventional forces because it could rely on tactical and strategic nuclear weapons, noting that the approximate nuclear parity between the United States and the Soviets in the 1970s made this stand inappropriate. He rejected the argument that NATO could not afford a conventional counterweight to Warsaw Pact forces
Director of Central Intelligence
The Director of Central Intelligence was the head of the American Central Intelligence Agency from 1946 to 2005, acting as the principal intelligence advisor to the President of the United States and the United States National Security Council, as well as the coordinator of intelligence activities among and between the various U. S. intelligence agencies. The office existed from January 1946 to April 21, 2005. After the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act it was replaced by the Director of National Intelligence as head of the Intelligence Community and the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency as head of the CIA; the post of DCI was established by President Harry Truman on January 23, 1946, with Admiral Sidney Souers being the first DCI, followed by General Hoyt Vandenberg who served as DCI from June 1946 to May 1947. The DCI ran the Central Intelligence Group, a predecessor of the CIA; the office of DCI thus predates the establishment of the Central Intelligence Agency. The CIA was created by the National Security Act of 1947, which formally defined the duties of the Director of Central Intelligence.
This 1947 Act created the National Security Council. Until April 2005, the DCI was referred to colloquially as the "CIA Director," though he was head of both the CIA and the broader Intelligence Community. After the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the United States and the subsequent investigation by the 9/11 Commission, a movement grew to re-organize the Intelligence Community; that movement prompted the passage of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act in December 2004, which split the DCI's duties among two new offices. The Office of the Director of National Intelligence would serve as head of the Intelligence Community and advise the NSC on intelligence matters; the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency would serve as chief administrator of the CIA. The reorganization took effect on April 21, 2005; the 19th and last DCI, Porter J. Goss became the first director of the CIA, while John Negroponte became the first DNI. Status As of April 2019, there are six living former Directors of Central Intelligence, the oldest being William H. Webster.
The most recent Director to die was George H. W. Bush, on November 30, 2018. Living former Directors of Central Intelligence Rear Admiral Roscoe H. Hillenkoetter was the third Director of Central Intelligence, but the first who served as the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. During his tenure, a National Security Council Directive on Office of Special Projects, June 18, 1948, further gave the CIA the authority to carry out covert operations "against hostile foreign states or groups or in support of friendly foreign states or groups but which are so planned and conducted that any US Government responsibility for them is not evident to unauthorized persons." Those operations, were conducted by other agencies such as the Office of Policy Coordination. See Approval of Clandestine and Covert Operations and Clandestine HUMINT and Covert Action for details of the eventual merger of these operations with the CIA, as well as how the equivalent functions were done in other countries. During the first years of its existence, other branches of the U.
S. Federal government did not exercise much supervision over the Central Intelligence Agency. Justified by the desire to match and defeat Soviet actions throughout the Eastern Hemisphere, it undertook a task that many believed could be accomplished only through an approach similar to the Soviet intelligence agencies, under names including NKVD, MVD, NKGB, MGB, KGB; those Soviet organizations had domestic responsibilities. The rapid expansion of the CIA, a developed sense of independence under the Director of Central Intelligence Allen Dulles exacerbated the problem of the U. S. Intelligence Community's freedom from independent review. After the armed landing of Cuban exiles in the Bay of Pigs Invasion of Cuba in 1961, President Kennedy discharged and replaced Dulles. Dulles had been an O. S. S. Veteran from World War II, his autobiography is more noteworthy for giving insight into the mindset of key people in the field than it is in giving a detailed description of the CIA and its operations. President John F. Kennedy exercised greater supervision, he appointed a Republican with a general engineering background, John McCone.
McCone, despite a lack of intelligence agency background, is considered one of the most competent DCIs, an excellent manager. The agency stepped up its activity in Southeast Asia under President Lyndon Johnson. McCone resigned from his position of DCI in April 1965, believing himself to have been unappreciated by President Johnson. McCone's final policy memorandum to Johnson argued that expansion of the War in Vietnam would arouse national and world discontent over the war, before it defeated the North Vietnamese regime. Raborn, a distinguished naval officer who directed the design and development of the entire Polaris ballistic missile submarine system, had a somewhat short and unhappy tenure as the DCI, his background included no foreign relations experience, intelligence experience only concerning naval operations. CIA historians have said "Raborn did not'take' to the DCI job", in their opinion. Raborn resigned as the DCI on June 1966, having served for only fourteen months, he was replaced by his deputy, Richard Helms.
Helms was an OSS and CIA veteran, the first DCI to have risen through the ranks at CIA. Helms became the Director of the OSO after the CIA's disastrous role in the attempted Bay of Pigs In