The Central Kansas League known as the Kansas State League, was a Class D baseball league established in 1908. The original Kansas State League ceased independent operations in 1911, combined with the CKL, the CKL subsequently changed its name to Kansas State League for the 1913 and 1914 seasons before disestablishing; the league champions in 1910 and 1911 were the Concordia Travelers. There is an ongoing debate about whether former US President Dwight Eisenhower played professional baseball in 1911 for the Junction City Soldiers prior to attending West Point; this is a complete list of the teams which played under the CKL. Ellsworth Worthies Little River McPherson Merry Macks Minneapolis Minnies Newton Browns Salina Trade Winners Abilene Red Sox Beloit Clay Center Cubs Ellsworth Worthies Junction City Soldiers Manhattan Maroons Minneapolis Minnies Salina Trade Winners Abilene Reds Beloit Chapman Clay Center Cubs Concordia Travelers Ellsworth Blues Junction City Soldiers Manhattan Maroons Salina Trade Winners Clay Center Cubs Concordia Travelers Junction City Soldiers Manhattan Maroons Great Bend Millers Junction City Soldiers Lyons Lions Manhattan Elks Minneapolis Minnies Newton Railroaders Salina Insurgents Clay Center Cubs Great Bend Millers Junction City Soldiers Lyons Lions Manhattan Elks Salina Insurgents Emporia Bidwells Great Bend Millers Hutchinson Packers Salina Coyotes Fred Blanding Harry Chapman John Misse Ross Reynolds Harry Short Chick Smith
Tumour heterogeneity describes the observation that different tumour cells can show distinct morphological and phenotypic profiles, including cellular morphology, gene expression, motility and metastatic potential. This phenomenon occurs both within tumours. A minimal level of intra-tumour heterogeneity is a simple consequence of the imperfection of DNA replication: whenever a cell divides, a few mutations are acquired—leading to a diverse population of cancer cells; the heterogeneity of cancer cells introduces significant challenges in designing effective treatment strategies. However, research into understanding and characterizing heterogeneity can allow for a better understanding of the causes and progression of disease. In turn, this has the potential to guide the creation of more refined treatment strategies that incorporate knowledge of heterogeneity to yield higher efficacy. Tumour heterogeneity has been observed in leukemias, prostate, brain, esophagus and neck, bladder and gynecological carcinomas and multiple myeloma.
There are two models used to explain the heterogeneity of tumour cells. These are the clonal evolution model; the models are not mutually exclusive, it is believed that they both contribute to heterogeneity in varying amounts across different tumour types. The cancer stem cell model asserts that within a population of tumour cells, there is only a small subset of cells that are tumourigenic; these cells are termed cancer stem cells, are marked by the ability to both self-renew and differentiate into non-tumourigenic progeny. The CSC model posits that the heterogeneity observed between tumour cells is the result of differences in the stem cells from which they originated. Stem cell variability is caused by epigenetic changes, but can result from clonal evolution of the CSC population where advantageous genetic mutations can accumulate in CSCs and their progeny. Evidence of the cancer stem cell model has been demonstrated in multiple tumour types including leukemias, breast cancer, prostate cancer.
However, the existence of CSCs is still under debate. One reason for this is that markers for CSCs have been difficult to reproduce across multiple tumours. Further, methods for determining tumourigenic potential utilize xenograft models; these methods suffer from inherent limitations such as the need to control immune response in the transplant animal, the significant difference in environmental conditions from the primary tumour site to the xenograft site. This has caused some doubt about the accuracy of CSC results and the conclusions about which cells have tumourigenic potential; the clonal evolution model was first proposed in 1976 by Peter Nowell. In this model, tumours arise from a single mutated cell, accumulating additional mutations as it progresses; these changes give rise to additional subpopulations, each of these subpopulations has the ability to divide and mutate further. This heterogeneity may give rise to subclones that possess an evolutionary advantage over the others within the tumour environment, these subclones may become dominant in the tumour over time.
When proposed, this model allowed for the understanding of tumour growth, treatment failure, tumour aggression that occurs during the natural process of tumour formation. Evolution of the initial tumour cell may occur by two methods: Sequentially ordered mutations accumulate in driver genes, tumour suppressor genes, DNA repair enzymes, resulting in clonal expansion of tumour cells. Linear expansion is less to reflect the endpoint of a malignant tumour because the accumulation of mutations is stochastic in heterogeneic tumours. Expansion into multiple subclonal populations occurs through a splitting mechanism; this method is more associated with tumour heterogeneity than linear expansion. The acquisition of mutations is random as a result of increased genomic instability with each successive generation; the long-term mutational accumulation may provide a selective advantage during certain stages of tumour progression. The tumor microenvironment may contribute to tumour expansion, as it is capable of altering the selective pressures that the tumour cells are exposed to.
Multiple types of heterogeneity have been observed between tumour cells, stemming from both genetic and non-genetic variability. Genetic heterogeneity is a common feature of tumour genomes, can arise from multiple sources; some cancers are initiated when exogenous factors introduce mutations, such as ultraviolet radiation and tobacco. A more common source is genomic instability, which arises when key regulatory pathways are disrupted in the cells; some examples include impaired DNA repair mechanisms which can lead to increased replication errors, defects in the mitosis machinery that allow for large-scale gain or loss of entire chromosomes. Furthermore, it is possible for genetic variability to be further increased by some cancer therapies. Mutational tumor heterogeneity refers to variations in mutation frequency in different genes and samples and can be explored by MutSig; the etiology of mutational processes can vary between tumor samples from the same or different cancer types and can be manifested in different context-dependent mutational profiles.
It can be explored by MutaGene. Tumour cells can show heterogeneity between their expression profiles; this is caused by underlying epigenetic changes. Variation in expressi
John Carrington Brewster-Jones is an Australian guitarist who has played in a number of Australian rock bands, including The Angels and The Party Boys. In 1970, with his brother Rick Brewster and Doc Neeson, formed Moonshine Jug & String Band in Adelaide, the band evolved into The Keystone Angels in 1973. An appearance at the 1975 Sunbury Pop Festival, resulted in touring with AC/DC, with Chuck Berry as his backing band. By the end of 1975 they become The Angels. Other members included Chris Bailey on bass guitar. Brewster left the band and joined The Party Boys in February 1986, he remained with The Party Boys until mid-1989, before teaming up with his friend, Alan Lancaster to form The Bombers. Brewster performed on Jac Dalton's debut album From Both Sides, he is still a member of The Angels and tours with the band which now includes his son, Sam Brewster on bass guitar. John was inducted into the SA Music Hall Of fame on 16 May 2014 alongside his brother Rick, Redgum's John Schumann and Rose Tattoo's Rockin' Rob Riley.
The College of Wooster is a private liberal arts college in Wooster, Ohio. It is known for its emphasis on mentored undergraduate research and enrolls about 2,000 students. Founded in 1866 by the Presbyterian Church as the University of Wooster, it has been non-sectarian since 1969, when ownership ties with the Presbyterian Church ended. From its creation, the college has been a co-educational institution; the school is a member of The Five Colleges of Ohio, Great Lakes Colleges Association, the Association of Presbyterian Colleges and Universities. Founded as the University of Wooster in 1866 by Presbyterians, the institution opened its doors in 1870 with a faculty of five and a student body of thirty men and four women; the wealthy Wooster citizen, Ephraim Quinby, donated the first 22 acres, a large oak grove situated on a hilltop overlooking the town. After being founded with the intent to make Wooster open to everyone, the university's first Ph. D. was granted to a woman, Annie B. Irish, in 1882.
The first black student, Clarence Allen, began his studies in the same decade. It is rumored that when the college was founded, it was gifted a mummy and the head of Nat Turner. While the mummy is still located on campus, at the basement of the art center, the head of Nat Turner was lost in Old Main after a fire broke out. In the pre-dawn hours of December 11, 1901, a fire destroyed the five-story Old Main building, the centerpiece of the campus. Within two years, it was replaced by several new buildings which remain the primary structures for the classes and faculty offices; these include Scovel Hall, Severance Hall and Taylor Hall. About ten years after the fire and rebuilding, there were eight divisions, including a medical school whose faculty outnumbered those in the college of arts and sciences. However, the university had begun to define itself as a liberal arts institution and, in 1915, after a bitter dispute between the faculty and the Trustees, chose to become The College of Wooster in order to devote itself to the education of undergraduate students in the liberal arts.
The enrollment of the college is kept intentionally small, around 2000 students, to allow for close interaction between faculty and students. In the 1920s, during the clashes between liberal and fundamentalists, William Jennings Bryan, a prominent Presbyterian layman, former United States Secretary of State, attacked the college for its teaching of evolution; the subject had been taught at the college for several decades and defended by president Charles F. Wishart. Bryan called for the General Assembly of the church to cut off funding to the college, but in 1923 Wishart defeated Bryan for the position of Moderator of the General Assembly on the evolution issue, the college continued to teach evolution. The 240-acre college has a tree endowment, established in 1987, which supports tree conservation, a tree replacement program; the Oak Grove, a pleasant green space near the center of campus, plays host to commencement ceremonies each May. Several of the Grove's trees are older than the college itself, including an eastern black oak near Galpin Hall that dates to 1681, as well as a 1766 white oak.
Each senior class plants a class tree in the Oak Grove on the day before graduation. On November 10, 2015, the College named Sarah Bolton as its 12th president, first female president, her term began July 1, 2016. Bolton was a physics professor at Williams College. Upon completion of at least 32 courses, students may earn a Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Music, or Bachelor of Music Education degree. In addition to the programs listed below, students may design their own major with approval from the registrar and the Provost; some of the pre-professional programs are cooperative ones in which students spend a certain period of time at the College of Wooster before transferring to accelerated courses at other colleges and universities. The College of Wooster has an Independent Study program, in which all students work one-on-one with a faculty advisor to complete a written thesis or other significant project during the course of the senior year about 50 to 100 pages in length; the student presents an oral defense of the thesis before a faculty committee.
The program, begun in 1947 by Howard Lowry, has received attention from other colleges and universities, a number of other institutions have modeled programs after it. In 2003, the independent study program at Wooster was recognized by US News and World Report as the second best'senior capstone experience' in the US, behind only Princeton University. Wooster ranks 14th in the United States among independent colleges whose graduates earned Ph. D.s between 1920 and 1995. Preparation and completion of the thesis can be time consuming, led to one view in which a student, writing in the weekly The Wooster Voice, suggested that the independent study program be interwoven with career planning as well as applications to graduate schools. Special traditions have been developed surrounding Independent Study. Upon completion, a student receives a yellow button saying'I did it!' as well as the coveted Tootsie Roll. The tradition began in 1974 when the registrar at the time, Lee Culp, gave out candy along with the buttons one year.
Beginning in 1989, buttons were given out to indicate th
John Nathan Hostettler is an American politician who served in the United States House of Representatives from January 3, 1995, to January 3, 2007, representing the Indiana's 8th congressional district. He lost his reelection bid for a seventh term to Democratic challenger Brad Ellsworth in the 2006 midterm election, ending a twelve-year congressional career. In 2010, he was a Republican candidate for the open U. S. Senate seat in the state of Indiana held by retiring Senator Evan Bayh. On December 3, 2009, Hostettler announced his candidacy for the U. S. Senate, but lost the primary to former Senator Dan Coats. Hostettler was born in as the eighth of ten children, he is of Irish descent. He grew up in rural Posey County near the Wabash rivers. After graduating from North Posey High School in 1979, he enrolled in Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology in Terre Haute, Indiana, he graduated with a Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering in 1983. That year, Hostettler married his high school sweetheart, Elizabeth Ann Hamman.
They live in Blairsville, an unincorporated suburban community near Evansville, have four children. He is a longtime member and former deacon of Westwood General Baptist Church in Evansville. Prior to his service in Congress, Hostettler was a power plant performance engineer with Southern Indiana Gas & Electric Company. Hostettler became part of the 104th Congress, the first Republican majority in the House in 40 years. In subsequent years, Hostettler depended on his base of fellow social and fiscal conservatives to keep him in office. While southern Indiana has been traditionally Democratic, the 8th has always had a strong social conservative tint. Hostettler's campaign was distinctive in several respects. One of Hostettler's assets in his run for Congress was his distinctive "Red Army" or "Army of Red Volunteers." Parades and similar events would feature people of varying backgrounds wearing red t-shirts with white lettering that stated "Hostettler for Congress". Hostettler family members were involved in campaign efforts.
Karen Hammonds, Hostettler's sister, was his office manager and a campaign coordinator. Being one of ten children, his brothers and sisters have assisted in campaign efforts. Media has attributed this as an area of success and influence that helped Hostettler achieve six straight victories. Hostettler signed the Contract with America, but he told an Evansville Courier & Press reporter the day he signed it he did not support two provisions: a balanced budget amendment and term limits, he was one of 40 Republicans in the House to vote in March 1995 against a constitutional amendment to set 12-year term limits for Representatives. In 2002, Hostettler met in Washington with eleven breast cancer survivors from Indiana who were seeking support for more research funding. According to the women, during the meeting Hostettler spent time "outlining possible links between abortion and breast cancer." There is no known link between breast abortion. In June 2005, Democratic Representative David Obey introduced a measure to declare congressional opposition to "coercive proselytizing" at the United States Air Force Academy after cadets complained that some of their evangelical Christian superior officers had pressured them about their religious beliefs.
During debate on the measure on the House floor on June 20, 2005, Hostettler said: "Like a moth to a flame the Democrats can't help themselves when it comes to denigrating and demonizing Christians." Democrats threatened to censure Hostettler for his comment. Debate did not resume. In the aftermath of the June 2006 arrests of 17 alleged terrorist bomb-plotters in and around Toronto, Hostettler warned that Toronto was a "breeding ground for Islamic terrorists and that the United States will be under threat as long as passports are not required of all Canadians crossing the border." Hostettler served on the Judiciary Committee. In 1999, Hostettler was appointed vice-chairman of the Armed Services Research and Development Subcommittee for the 106th Congress. In 2003, Hostettler was appointed the Chairman of the Judiciary Committee's Subcommittee on Immigration, Border Security, Claims, he served as chairman of the Congressional Family Caucus, was a member of the conservative Republican Study Committee.
In late 1995, Hostettler was the sponsor of a bill passed by the House to repeal a District of Columbia law that allowed city workers to register domestic partners for health benefits. In January 1996, Hostettler was one of 17 Republicans who voted against a legislation supported by House Speaker Newt Gingrich that ended a federal government shutdown. After the vote, Gingrich canceled plans to visit Evansville for a fund-raising event for Hostettler. Gingrich offered to reschedule, but Hostettler turned him down, saying "I cannot allow my fund raising to be tied in any way to specific votes." That November would be Hostettler's closest re-election, against future Evansville Mayor Jon Weinzapfel. In June 2000, Hostettler was one of 10 Republicans voting against a prescription drug bill that passed the House 217–214. In June 2001, Hostettler and Congressman Walter B. Jones of North Carolina co-authored a bill, H. R. 2357, to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to permit churches and other houses of worship to engage in political campaigns without losing their tax-exempt status.
In October 2002 the bill was defeated in a 178 to 239 vote in the House
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Fall River is an ecclesiastical territory or diocese of the Roman Catholic Church in the New England region of the United States. It is led by the prelature of a bishop administering the diocese from the mother church St. Mary's Cathedral in Fall River, Massachusetts; the diocese was canonically erected by Pope Pius X on March 12, 1904, taking its territories from the Diocese of Providence in Rhode Island. It comprises the counties of Barnstable, Bristol and Nantucket, as well as three towns in Plymouth County. Religious include the bishop, 147 priests serving in parishes, 90 permanent deacons, 16 religious brothers and 295 religious sisters. There are 96 parishes, 11 missions, a health care center, 5 nursing homes; the total Catholic population of the area as of 2013 is 313,115. The diocese maintains one college, five high schools —, two middle schools and fifteen elementary schools; the current Superintendent of Schools is Stephen Perla. The following is a list of superintendents: George A. Milot, PhD Michael S. Griffin, PhD Stephen Perla The following is a list of bishops and their terms of service: William Stang Daniel Francis Feehan James Edwin Cassidy James Louis Connolly Daniel Anthony Cronin, appointed Archbishop of Hartford Seán Patrick O'Malley, O.
F. M. Cap. Appointed Bishop of Palm Beach and Archbishop of Boston George William Coleman Edgar Moreira da Cunha, S. D. V. James Edwin Cassidy James Loius Connolly James Edwin Cassidy, appointed Coadjutor here James Joseph Gerrard John Edward Morris, M. M. appointed Prefect of Peng-Yang in 1930 William Otterwell Brady, appointed Bishop of Sioux Falls in 1939 Humberto Sousa Medeiros, appointed Bishop of Brownsville in 1966. He died in office. Bishop Stang High School was named in his memory. On July 2, 1907, Father Daniel Feehan was appointed Bishop of Fall River. Ordained a bishop on September 19, 1907, by Bishop Thomas Daniel Beaven, he served until incapacitation and died on July 19, 1934, in office. Bishop Feehan High School was named in his honor. Feehan was succeeded by his Coadjutor Bishop and Vicar General for many years. In 1945 Bishop Cassidy received the assistance of a Coadjutor Bishop, the Most Reverend James L. Connolly, who would succeed him. Bishop Cassidy High School, now known as Coyle and Cassidy High School, was named in his honor.
Bishop James Louis Connolly was born in Fall River in 1894 and graduated from B. M. C. Durfee High School in 1913. In 1945, he was named Coadjutor Bishop of Fall River. Following the death of Cassidy, Connolly became Bishop of Fall River in May 1951. One key to his tenure as Bishop was a special concern with providing secondary education in the four urban areas of the Diocese; as a result, four Catholic high schools were constructed under his guidance. Bishop Connolly High School was dedicated in his name in 1967, he founded the diocesan newspaper, The Anchor. Connolly attended all four sessions of the Second Vatican Council, he served as Bishop of Fall River until 1970. Daniel Anthony Cronin became the fifth Bishop in December 1970 upon the retirement of Bishop Connolly. Cronin continued the work of implementing the decrees of the Second Vatican Council and supported liturgical renewal, continuing education of the clergy and the restoration of the permanent diaconate, he devoted himself to the pastoral care of the sick in hospitals, to the expansion of Catholic Counseling and Social Services, to the Family Life Ministry and other various activities.
Late in 1991 Pope John Paul II appointed Bishop Cronin Archbishop of Hartford. On July 3, 2014, Bishop Edgar Moreira da Cunha, S. D. V. was announced as the eighth bishop of the Diocese of Fall River, installed September 24. Edgar M. da Cunha was born in Nova Fatima part of the municipality of Riachão do Jacuípe, Brazil. He studied at the Universidade Catolica Fatima dos Salvados and was ordained a priest on March 27, 1982 by Bishop Joseph A. Francis, S. V. D, he was appointed Auxiliary Bishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Newark as well as titular bishop of Ucres on June 27, 2003 by John Paul II. Da Cunha was consecrated an auxiliary bishop of the Archdiocese of Newark on September 3, 2003 as the only Brazilian-born bishop in the United States. In addition to St. Mary's Cathedral, two other major churches in the diocese are St. Anthony of Padua in New Bedford, Santo Christo Church and Shrine, St. Anne's both in Fall River. Roman Catholic Diocese of Fall River Official Site Catholic Hierarchy Profile of the Diocese of Fall River Cathedral of Saint Mary of the Assumption TheCatholicDirectory.com – Helping People Find Mass Worldwide