Australia Day is the official national day of Australia. Celebrated annually on 26 January, it marks the anniversary of the 1788 arrival of the First Fleet of British ships at Port Jackson, New South Wales, the raising of the Flag of Great Britain at Sydney Cove by Governor Arthur Phillip. In present-day Australia, celebrations reflect the diverse society and landscape of the nation and are marked by community and family events, reflections on Australian history, official community awards and citizenship ceremonies welcoming new members of the Australian community; the meaning and significance of Australia Day has evolved and been contested over time, not all states have celebrated the same date as their date of historical significance. Unofficially, or the date has been variously named "Anniversary Day", "Foundation Day" and "ANA Day", it has been known as "Invasion Day" and "National Day of Mourning". The date of 26 January 1788 marked the proclamation of British sovereignty over the eastern seaboard of Australia.
Although it was not known as Australia Day until over a century records of celebrations on 26 January date back to 1808, with the first official celebration of the formation of New South Wales held in 1818. On New Year's Day 1901, the British colonies of Australia formed a federation, marking the birth of modern Australia. A national day of unity and celebration was looked for, it was not until 1935 that all Australian states and territories adopted use of the term "Australia Day" to mark the date, not until 1994 that the date was marked by a public holiday on that day by all states and territories. In contemporary Australia, the holiday is marked by the presentation of the Australian of the Year Awards on Australia Day Eve, announcement of the Australia Day Honours list and addresses from the Governor-General and the Prime Minister, it is an official public holiday in every territory. With community festivals and citizenship ceremonies, the day is celebrated in large and small communities and cities around the nation.
Australia Day has become the biggest annual civic event in Australia. Some Indigenous Australian events are now included. However, since at least 1938, the date of Australia Day has been marked by Indigenous Australians, those sympathetic to their cause, mourning what they see as the invasion of their land by Europeans and protesting its celebration as a national holiday; these groups sometimes refer to 26 January as Invasion Day, Survival Day, or Day of Mourning and advocate that the date should be changed, or that the holiday should be abolished entirely. On 13 May 1787 a fleet of 11 ships, which came to be known as the First Fleet, was sent by the British Admiralty from England to New Holland. Under the command of Captain Arthur Phillip, the fleet sought to establish a penal colony at Botany Bay on the coast of New South Wales, explored and claimed by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770; the settlement was seen as necessary because of the loss of the Thirteen Colonies in North America. The Fleet arrived between 18 and 20 January 1788, but it was apparent that Botany Bay was unsuitable.
On 21 January, Phillip and a few officers travelled to Port Jackson, 12 kilometres to the north, to see if it would be a better location for a settlement. They stayed there until 23 January, they made contact with the local Aboriginal people. They returned to Botany Bay on the evening of 23 January, when Phillip gave orders to move the fleet to Sydney Cove the next morning, 24 January; that day, there was a huge gale blowing, making it impossible to leave Botany Bay, so they decided to wait till the next day, 25 January. However, during 24 January, they spotted the ships Astrolabe and Boussole, flying the French flag, at the entrance to Botany Bay. On 25 January the gale was still blowing. On 26 January, early in the morning, Phillip along with a few dozen marines and oarsmen, rowed ashore and took possession of the land in the name of King George III; the remainder of the ship's company and the convicts watched from on board Supply. Meanwhile, back at Botany Bay, Captain John Hunter of HMS Sirius made contact with the French ships, he and the commander, Captain de Clonard, exchanged greetings.
Clonard advised Hunter that the fleet commander was comte de La Pérouse. Sirius cleared Botany Bay, but the other ships were in great difficulty. Charlotte was blown dangerously close to rocks. Despite these difficulties, all the remaining ships managed to clear Botany Bay and sail to Sydney Cove on 26 January; the last ship anchored there at about 3 pm. The formal establishment of the Colony of New South Wales did not occur on 26 January as is assumed, it did not occur until 7 February 1788, when the formal proclamation of the colony and of Arthur Phillip's governorship were read out. The vesting of all land in the reigning monarch King George III dates from 7 February 1788. Although there was no official recognition of the colony's anniversary, with the New South Wales Almanacks of 1806 and 1808 placing no special significance on 26 January, by 1808 the date was being used by the colony's immigrants, es
Papunya is a small Indigenous Australian community 240 km northwest of Alice Springs in the Northern Territory, Australia. It is now home to a number of displaced Aboriginal people from the Pintupi and Luritja groups. At the 2006 census, Papunya had a population of 299. Papunya requires a permit to enter or travel through; the predominant religion at Papunya is Lutheranism, with 258 members or 86.3% of the population, based on the 2006 census. It is the closest town to the Australian continental pole of inaccessibility. Warumpi Band were an Australian country and Aboriginal rock group. Pintupi and Luritja people were forced off their traditional country in the 1930s and moved into Hermannsburg and Haasts Bluff where there were government ration depots. There were tragic confrontations between these people, with their nomadic hunter-gathering lifestyle, the cattlemen who were moving into the country and over-using the limited water supplies of the region for their cattle; the Australian government built a water bore and some basic housing at Papunya in the 1950s to provide room for the increasing populations of people in the already-established Aboriginal communities and reserves.
The community grew to over a thousand people in the early 1970s and was plagued by poor living conditions, health problems, tensions between various tribal and linguistic groups. These festering problems led many people the Pintupi, to move further west closer to their traditional country. After settling in a series of outstations, with little or no support from the government, the new community of Kintore was established about 250 km west of Papunya in the early 1980s. During the 1970s a striking new art style emerged in Papunya, which by the 1980s began to attract national and international attention as a significant art movement. Leading exponents of the style included Clifford Possum Tjapaltjarri, Billy Stockman Tjapaltjarri, Kaapa Tjampitjinpa, Turkey Tolson Tjupurrula, Pansy Napangardi. A substantial bibliography about Papunya art and artists is available from the National Museum of Australia. Papunya Tjupi Aboriginal Arts, a community based arts organisation, commenced in 2007 and hosts around 100 regional artists.
These include Doris Bush Nungarrayi. Contemporary Indigenous Australian art Geoffrey Bardon Honey ant dreaming Papunya Tula Papunya Painting: Out of the Desert An online exhibition of Papunya artworks held by the National Museum of Australia; the website includes the works, biographies of the artists, installation images and a bibliography
Gulf of Carpentaria
The Gulf of Carpentaria is a large, shallow sea enclosed on three sides by northern Australia and bounded on the north by the Arafura Sea. The northern boundary is defined as a line from Slade Point, Queensland in the northeast, to Cape Arnhem, Northern Territory in the west. At its mouth, the Gulf is 590 km wide, further south, 675 km; the north-south length exceeds 700 km. It covers a water area of about 300,000 km²; the general depth does not exceed 82 metres. The tidal range in the Gulf of Carpentaria is between three metres; the Gulf and adjacent Sahul Shelf were dry land at the peak of the last ice age 18,000 years ago when global sea level was around 120 m below its present position. At that time a large, shallow lake occupied the centre of; the Gulf hosts a submerged coral reef province, only recognised in 2004. The first European explorer to visit the region was the Dutch Willem Janszoon in his 1605–6 voyage, his fellow countryman, Jan Carstenszoon, visited in 1623 and named the gulf in honour of Pieter de Carpentier, at that time the Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies.
Abel Tasman explored the coast in 1644. The region was explored and charted by Matthew Flinders in 1802 and 1803; the first overland expedition to reach the Gulf was the Burke and Wills expedition, led by Robert O'Hara Burke and William John Wills which left Melbourne, Victoria in August 1860 and reached the mouth of the Bynoe River in February 1861. The land bordering the Gulf is flat and low-lying. To the west is Arnhem Land, the Top End of the Northern Territory, Groote Eylandt, the largest island in the Gulf. To the east is the Cape York Peninsula and Torres Strait which joins the Gulf to the Coral Sea; the area to the south is known as the Gulf Country. The Gulf country supports the worlds largest intact savanna woodlands as well as native grasslands; the woodlands extend up the west and east coast of the Gulf. They are dominated by Melaleuca species from the family Myrtaceae; the climate is humid with two seasons per year. The dry season lasts from about April until November and is characterized by dry southeast to east winds, generated by migratory winter high pressure systems to the south.
The wet season lasts from December to March. Most of the year's rainfall is compressed into these months, during this period, many low-lying areas are flooded; the Gulf is prone to tropical cyclones during the period between April. The gulf experiences an average of three cyclones each year that are thought to transport sediments in a clockwise direction along the Gulf's coast. In many other parts of Australia, there are dramatic climatic transitions over short distances; the Great Dividing Range, which parallels the entire east and south-east coast, is responsible for the typical pattern of a well-watered coastal strip, a narrow band of mountains, a vast, inward-draining plain that receives little rainfall. In the Gulf Country, there are no mountains to restrict rainfall to the coastal band and the transition from the profuse tropical growth of the seaside areas to the arid scrubs of central Australia is gradual. In September and October the Morning Glory cloud appears in the Southern Gulf; the best vantage point to see this phenomenon is in the Burketown area shortly after dawn.
It has been hypothesized that the Gulf experienced a major asteroid impact event in 536 A. D; the Gulf of Carpentaria is known to contain fringing reefs and isolated coral colonies, but no near-surface patch or barrier reefs exist in the Gulf at the present time. However, this has not always been the case. Expeditions carried out by Geoscience Australia in 2003 and in 2005 aboard the RV Southern Surveyor revealed the presence of a submerged coral reef province covering at least 300 km2 in the southern Gulf; the patch reefs have their upper surfaces at a mean water depth of 28.6 ± 0.5 m, were undetected by satellites or aerial photographs, were only recognised using multibeam swath sonar surveys supplemented with seabed sampling and video. Their existence points to an earlier, late Quaternary phase of framework reef growth under cooler-climate and lower sea level conditions than today. In the Top End the Roper River, Walker River and Wilton River flow into the Gulf; the Cox River, Calvert River, Leichhardt River, McArthur River, Flinders River, Norman River and the Gilbert River drain the Gulf Country.
A number of rivers flow from the Cape York Peninsula into the Gulf, including Smithburne River, Mitchell River, Alice River, Staaten River, Mission River, Wenlock River and Archer River. Extensive areas of seagrass beds have allowed commercial shrimp operations in the Gulf. Zinc and silver is mined from the McArthur River zinc mine and exported via the Gulf. Another zinc mine, Century Zinc is in the gulf on the Queensland side of the border, it exports its product through the port facility at Karumba. The cattle industry is a important part of the regional economy in the gulf. According to the Chairman of the Gulf of Carpentaria's Commercial Fisherman's Organisation, Gary Ward, the number of sightings of Indonesian vessels fishing illegally in the gulf's waters increased in early 2005. By 2011 the numbers of illegal fishing boat interceptions had declined with the cause attributed to enforcement efforts and education programs in Indonesia. In 2012, a major new port located to the west of Karumba and rail conne
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Half-caste is a term for a category of people of mixed race or ethnicity. It is derived from the term caste, which comes from the Latin castus, meaning pure, the derivative Portuguese and Spanish casta, meaning race, it can sometimes be used or seen as an offensive term. The terms half-caste, quarter-caste, "mix-breed" etc. were used by ethnographers in British colonies to try to classify natives. In Latin America, the equivalent term for half-castes was Zambo. In Australia, the term half-caste was used in the 19th- and early-20th-century British commonwealth laws to refer to the offspring of white colonists and the Aboriginal natives of the continent. For example, the Aborigines Protection Act of 1886 mentioned half-castes habitually associating with or living with an Aborigine, while the Aborigines Amendments between 1934 and 1937 refer to it in various terms, including as a person with less than quadroon blood. Literature, such as by Tindale, refers to it in terms of half, quadroon and other hybrids.
The term half-caste was not a term of legal convenience. It became a term of common cultural discourse and appeared in religious records. For example, John Harper notes, from records of Woolmington Christian mission, that half-castes and anyone with any aborigine connection were considered "degraded as to divine things on a level with a brute, in a state of moral unfitness for heaven"; the term "Half-Caste Act" was given to laws passed by colonial governments allowing the seizure of half-caste children and forcible removal from their parents. This was theoretically to provide them with better homes than those afforded by typical Aborigines, where they could grow up to work as domestic servants and for social engineering; the removed children are known as Stolen Generations. Other British commonwealth Acts on half-castes and Aborigines enacted between 1909 and 1943 were in theory, called Welfare Acts, in statutes passed deprived these people of basic civil and economic rights and made it illegal to enter public places such as pubs and government institutions, marry, or meet relatives.
The term half-caste to classify people based on their birth and ancestry became popular in New Zealand from the early 19th century. Terms such as Anglo-New Zealander suggested by John Polack in 1838, Utu Pihikete and Huipaiana were alternatively but less used. In Burma, a half-caste was anyone with mixed ethnicity from Burmese and British, or Burmese and Indian. During the British colonial rule, half-caste people were ostracised and criticised in literary and political media. For example, a local publication in 1938 published the following: "You Burmese women who fail to safeguard your own race, after you have married an Indian, your daughter whom you have begotten by such a tie takes an Indian as her husband; as for your son, he tries to get a pure Burmese woman. Not only you but your future generation is those who are responsible for the ruination of the race." Pu Gale in 1939 wrote Kabya Pyatthana, censured Burmese women for enabling half-caste phenomenon, with the claim, "a Burmese woman’s degenerative intercourse with an Indian threatened a spiraling destruction of Burmese society."
Such criticism was not limited to a few isolated instances, or just against Burmese girls and British husbands. Starting in early 1930s through 1950s, there was an explosion of publications, newspaper articles and cartoons with such social censorship. Included in the criticism were Chinese-Burmese half-castes. Prior to the explosion in censorship of half-castes in early-20th-century Burma, Thant claims inter-cultural couples such as Burmese-Indian marriages were encouraged by the local population; the situation began to change as colonial developments, allocation of land, rice mills and socio-economic privileges were given to European colonial officials and to Indians brought in Burma by the British with economic incentives. In the late 19th century, the British colonial administration viewed intermarriage as a socio-cultural problem; the colonial administration issued circulars prohibiting European officials from conjugal liaisons with indigenous women. In Burma, as in other colonies in Southeast Asia, intimate relations between colonised women and colonising men, the half-caste progeny of such unions were considered harmful to white minority rule founded upon maintained racial hierarchies.
Half-caste in Malaysia referred to other people of mixed descents. They were commonly referred to as hybrids, in certain sociological literature the term hybridity is common. With Malaysia experiencing a wave of immigrations from China, the Middle East and southeast Asia, a wave of different colonial powers, many other terms have been used for half-castes; some of these include half-breed, mesticos. These terms are considered pejorative. Half-castes of Malaya and other British colonies in Asia have been part of non-fiction and fictional works. Brigitte Glaser notes that the half-caste characters in literary works of the 18th through 20th century were predominantly structured with prejudice, as degenerate, inferior, deviant or barbaric. Ashcroft in his review considers the literary work structure as consistent with morals and values of colonial era where the colonial powers considered people from different ethnic groups as unequal by birth in their abilities and potential, where laws were enacted that made sexual relations and marriage between ethnic groups as illegal.
Fijian people of mixed descent w
The Northern Territory is an Australian territory in the central and central northern regions of Australia. It shares borders with Western Australia to the west, South Australia to the south, Queensland to the east. To the north, the territory looks out to the Timor Sea, the Arafura Sea and the Gulf of Carpentaria, including Western New Guinea and other Indonesian islands; the NT covers 1,349,129 square kilometres, making it the third-largest Australian federal division, the 11th-largest country subdivision in the world. It is sparsely populated, with a population of only 246,700, making it the least-populous of Australia's eight states and major territories, with fewer than half as many people as Tasmania; the archaeological history of the Northern Territory begins over 40,000 years ago when Indigenous Australians settled the region. Makassan traders began trading with the indigenous people of the Northern Territory for trepang from at least the 18th century onwards; the coast of the territory was first seen by Europeans in the 17th century.
The British were the first Europeans to attempt to settle the coastal regions. After three failed attempts to establish a settlement, success was achieved in 1869 with the establishment of a settlement at Port Darwin. Today the economy is based on tourism Kakadu National Park in the Top End and the Uluṟu-Kata Tjuṯa National Park in central Australia, mining; the capital and largest city is Darwin. The population is concentrated along the Stuart Highway; the other major settlements are Palmerston, Alice Springs, Katherine and Tennant Creek. Residents of the Northern Territory are known as "Territorians" and as "Northern Territorians", or more informally as "Top Enders" and "Centralians". Indigenous Australians have lived in the present area of the Northern Territory for an estimated 40,000 years, extensive seasonal trade links existed between them and the peoples of what is now Indonesia for at least five centuries. With the coming of the British, there were four early attempts to settle the harsh environment of the northern coast, of which three failed in starvation and despair.
The Northern Territory was part of colonial New South Wales from 1825 to 1863, except for a brief time from February to December 1846, when it was part of the short-lived colony of North Australia. It was part of South Australia from 1863 to 1911. Under the administration of colonial South Australia, the overland telegraph was constructed between 1870 and 1872. From its establishment in 1869 the Port of Darwin was the major Territory supply for many decades. A railway was built between Palmerston and Pine Creek between 1883 and 1889; the economic pattern of cattle raising and mining was established so that by 1911 there were 513,000 cattle. Victoria River Downs was at one time the largest cattle station in the world. Gold was found at Grove Hill in 1872 and at Pine Creek, Brocks Creek and copper was found at Daly River. On 1 January 1911, a decade after federation, the Northern Territory was separated from South Australia and transferred to federal control. Alfred Deakin opined at this time "To me the question has been not so much commercial as national, second and last.
Either we must accomplish the peopling of the northern territory or submit to its transfer to some other nation." In late 1912 there was growing sentiment. The names "Kingsland", "Centralia" and "Territoria" were proposed with Kingsland becoming the preferred choice in 1913. However, the name change never went ahead. For a brief time between 1927 and 1931 the Northern Territory was divided into North Australia and Central Australia at the 20th parallel of South latitude. Soon after this time, parts of the Northern Territory were considered in the Kimberley Plan as a possible site for the establishment of a Jewish Homeland, understandably considered the "Unpromised Land". During World War II, most of the Top End was placed under military government; this is the only time since Federation that part of an Australian state or territory has been under military control. After the war, control for the entire area was handed back to the Commonwealth; the Bombing of Darwin occurred on 19 February 1942. It was the largest single attack mounted by a foreign power on Australia.
Evidence of Darwin's World War II history is found at a variety of preserved sites in and around the city, including ammunition bunkers, oil tunnels and museums. The port was damaged in the 1942 Japanese air raids, it was subsequently restored. In the late 1960s improved roads in adjoining States linking with the territory, port delays and rapid economic development led to uncertainty in port and regional infrastructure development; as a result of the Commission of Enquiry established by the Administrator, port working arrangements were changed, berth investment deferred and a port masterplan prepared. Extension of rail transport was not considered because of low freight volumes. Indigenous Australians had struggled for rights to fair wages and land. An important event in this struggle was the strike and walk off by the Gurindji people at Wave Hill Cattle Station in 1966; the federal government of Gough Whitlam set up the Woodward Royal Commission in February 1973, which set to enquire into how land rights might be achieved in the Northern Territory.
Justice Woodward's first report in July 1973 recommended that a Central Land Council and a Northern Land Council be established to present to him the views of
Australian Aboriginal Flag
The Australian Aboriginal Flag represents Aboriginal Australians. It is one of the official flags of Australia, holds special legal and political status, it is flown together with the national flag and with the Torres Strait Islander Flag, an official flag of Australia. The Australian Aboriginal Flag was designed in 1971 by Aboriginal artist Harold Thomas, descended from the Luritja people of Central Australia and holds intellectual property rights to the flag's design; the flag was designed for the land rights movement, it became a symbol of the Aboriginal people of Australia. The flag's width is 1.5 times its height. It is horizontally divided into a red region. A yellow disc is superimposed over the centre of the flag; the Government of Australia granted it Flag of Australia status, under the Flags Act 1953, by proclamation on 14 July 1995. Due to an "administrative oversight", the 1995 proclamation was not lodged so that it would continue in force indefinitely, it was therefore identically replaced, on 25 January 2008, with effect as from 1 January.
In the 2008 proclamation, the flag "is recognised as the flag of the Aboriginal peoples of Australia and a flag of significance to the Australian nation generally" and appointed "to be the flag of the Aboriginal peoples of Australia and to be known as the Australian Aboriginal Flag". The design is reproduced in Schedule 1 and described in Schedule 2; the symbolic meaning of the flag colours is: Black – represents the Aboriginal people of Australia Yellow circle – represents the Sun, the giver of life and protector Red – represents the red earth, the red ochre used in ceremonies and Aboriginal peoples’ spiritual relation to the land The official colour specifications of the Australian Aboriginal Flag are: In most cases, on-screen or digital reproductions of the flag should use the RGB colours as in the table above. This version of the flag can be seen at the top of this page; when displaying in physical fabric formats, it is much preferred to use the Pantone specifications. When printing on paper, the CMYK colours are superior.
The flag was first flown on National Aborigines Day in Victoria Square in Adelaide on 12 July 1971. It was used in Canberra at the Aboriginal Tent Embassy from late 1972. In the early months of the embassy—which was established in February that year—other designs were used, including a black and red flag made by supporters of the South Sydney Rabbitohs rugby league club, a flag with a red-black field containing a spear and four crescents in yellow. Cathy Freeman caused controversy at the 1994 Commonwealth Games by carrying the Aboriginal flag as well as the Australian national flag during her victory lap of the arena, after winning the 200 metres sprint. Despite strong criticism from both Games officials and Australian team president Arthur Tunstall, Freeman carried both flags again after winning the 400 metres; the decision in 1995 by Labor Prime Minister Paul Keating that the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander flags should be given the status of national flags was opposed by the Liberal Opposition at the time, Opposition Leader John Howard stating that "any attempt to give the flags official status under the Flags Act would rightly be seen by many in the community not as an act of reconciliation but as a divisive gesture".
Nonetheless, since Howard became Prime Minister in 1996 and under subsequent Labor governments, these flags have remained national flags. However, this decision was differently criticised by Thomas himself, who said that the Aboriginal flag "doesn't need any more recognition". In 1997, in the case Thomas v Brown and Tennant, the Federal Court of Australia declared that Harold Thomas was the owner of copyright in the design of the Australian Aboriginal flag, thus the flag has protection under Australian copyright law. Thomas had sought legal recognition of his ownership and compensation following the Federal Government's 1995 proclamation of the design, his claim was contested by George Brown and James Tennant. Since Thomas has awarded rights to Carroll & Richardson – Flagworld Pty Ltd and Birubi Art Pty Ltd for the manufacture and marketing of the flag and of products featuring the flag's image; the National Indigenous Advisory Committee campaigned for the Aboriginal flag to be flown at Stadium Australia during the 2000 Summer Olympics.
SOCOG announced. The flag has been flown over the Sydney Harbour Bridge during the march for reconciliation of 2000 and many other events, including Australia Day. On the 30th anniversary of the flag in 2001, thousands of people were involved in a ceremony where the flag was carried from the Parliament of South Australia to Victoria Square. Since 8 July 2002, after recommendations of the Council's Reconciliation Committee, the Aboriginal Flag has been permanently flown in Victoria Square and in front of the Town Hall. Many buildings in Australia fly the Aboriginal flag as well as the Australian flag, the Melbourne Trades Hall being an example. Various councils in Australian towns fly the Aboriginal flag from the town halls, such as Bendigo; the first city council to fly the Aboriginal flag was Newcastle City Council in 1977. And it is used as the team colours of the all-aboriginal AFL team The Fitzroy Stars; the Aboriginal flag is sometimes substituted for the Union Flag in the canton of Australia's flag in proposed new Australian flag designs.
Such flags have been presented in science fiction as futuristic Australian flags, as in the film Event Horizon, where it was worn by Sam Neill. Many Aboriginal people object to this use, in