Cayuga County, New York
Cayuga County is a county in the U. S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 80,026, its county seat is Auburn. The county was named for one of the tribes of Indians in the Iroquois Confederation. Cayuga County comprises the Auburn, NY Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Syracuse-Auburn, NY Combined Statistical Area; when counties were established in the Province of New York in 1683, the present Cayuga County was part of Albany County. This was an enormous county, including the northern part of the present state of New York and all of the present state of Vermont and, in theory, extending westward to the Pacific Ocean; this county was reduced in size on July 3, 1766 by the creation of Cumberland County, further on March 16, 1770, by the creation of Gloucester County, both containing territory now in Vermont. On March 12, 1772, what was left of Albany County was split into three parts, one remaining under the name Albany County. One of the other pieces, Tryon County, contained the western portion.
The eastern boundary of Tryon County was five miles west of the present city of Schenectady, the county included the western part of the Adirondack Mountains and the area west of the West Branch of the Delaware River. The area designated as Tryon County now includes 37 counties of New York State; the county was named for colonial governor of New York. In the years prior to 1776, most of the Loyalists in Tryon County fled to Canada. In 1784, following the peace treaty that ended the American Revolutionary War, the name of Tryon County was changed to Montgomery County in honor of the general, Richard Montgomery, who had captured several places in Canada and died attempting to capture the city of Quebec, replacing the name of the hated British governor. In 1789, Montgomery County was reduced in size by the splitting off of Ontario County; the actual area split off from Montgomery County was much larger than the present county including the present Allegany, Chautauqua, Genesee, Monroe, Orleans, Wyoming and part of Schuyler and Wayne Counties.
Harriet Tubman visited Auburn, New York, located in Cayuga County, in 1887 with her daughter and her 2nd husband. Herkimer County was one of three counties split off from Montgomery County in 1791. Onondaga County was formed in 1794 by the splitting of Herkimer County. Cayuga County was formed in 1799 by the splitting of Onondaga County; this county was, much larger than the present Cayuga County. It included the present Seneca and Tompkins Counties. In 1804, Seneca County was formed by the splitting of Cayuga County. In 1817, in turn, a portion of Seneca County was combined with a piece of the remainder of Cayuga County to form Tompkins County. In the late 19th and early 20th century, this region attracted European immigrants who developed farms or took over existing ones from Italy and Poland. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 864 square miles, of which 692 square miles is land and 172 square miles is water. Cayuga County is located in the Finger Lakes region.
Owasco Lake is in the center of the county, Cayuga Lake forms part of the western boundary. Lake Ontario is on the northern border, Skaneateles Lake and Cross Lake form part of the eastern border. Cayuga County has more waterfront land than any other county in the state not adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean. Oswego County – northeast Onondaga County – east Cortland County – southeast Tompkins County – south Seneca County – west Wayne County – west Prince Edward County, Ontario – north Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge As of the census of 2000, there were 81,963 people, 30,558 households, 20,840 families residing in the county; the population density was 118 people per square mile. There were 35,477 housing units at an average density of 51 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 93.34% White, 3.99% Black or African American, 0.31% Native American, 0.42% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.88% from other races, 1.03% from two or more races. 1.97% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
16.3% were of Irish, 16.0% English, 15.7% Italian, 11.3% German, 9.5% American and 6.3% Polish ancestry according to Census 2000. 94.9 % spoke 2.0 % Spanish and 1.0 % Italian as their first language. There were 30,558 households out of which 32.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.00% were married couples living together, 11.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.80% were non-families. 26.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.04. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.10% under the age of 18, 8.20% from 18 to 24, 29.70% from 25 to 44, 22.60% from 45 to 64, 14.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 102.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $37,487, the median income for a family was $44,973.
Males had a median income of $33,356 versus $23,919 for females. The per capita income for the county was $18,003. About 7.80% of families and 11.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.90% of those under age 18 and 8.20% of those age 65 or over. Cayuga County is considered a swing county in national elections. In 2000, Democrat
Western New York
Western New York is the westernmost region of the state of New York. It includes the cities of Buffalo, Niagara Falls, the surrounding suburbs, as well as the outlying rural areas of the Great Lakes lowlands, the Genesee Valley, the Southern Tier; the historic beginnings of the region can be defined by its original eastern boundary of Preemption Line, created by the December 16, 1786 political settlement between the states of New York and Massachusetts, both of which claimed political dominion over the land. This eastern boundary shifted because of changing county borders in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Western New York consists of 17 western counties in New York State: Allegany, Chautauqua, Erie, Livingston, Niagara, Orleans, Seneca, Wayne and Yates, with a land area of 11,764 square miles. Western New York includes the area of the Phelps and Gorham Purchase; the area is served by Buffalo and Rochester media markets, although there is considerable overlap between these two markets, as well as other American and Canadian media markets.
In terms of the combined statistical areas used by the United States Census Bureau, Western New York consists of the Buffalo-Cheektowaga, NY area, the Rochester-Batavia-Seneca Falls, NY area, the Elmira-Corning, NY area. Western New York is in some contexts considered a sub-region of "Upstate New York". While the term includes both the Buffalo and Rochester metropolitan areas "Western New York" describes only the Buffalo-Niagara region, with Greater Rochester being classified as part of the Finger Lakes Region. Western New York has four "sub-regions". One "sub-region" is the Greater Niagara Region, comprising Niagara and Wyoming counties; the second "sub-region" is the Genesee Region. This “sub-region” includes Monroe, Wayne, Orleans and Yates counties; these two sub-regions share Wyoming County. A further subset of the Genesee Region is the GLOW Counties, a collection of rural counties that includes Genesee, Livingston and Orleans Counties; the mountainous southern regions of Chautauqua and Allegany counties make up a third "sub-region" known as Chautauqua–Allegheny Region.
This portion of Western New York takes up most of the western New York counties along the New York–Pennsylvania border. The fourth region is the western Finger Lakes Region, Seneca, Steuben and Chemung counties. A large portion of the Finger Lakes Region is not part of Western New York, but rather Central New York; the first three sub-regions are included in Western New York, while the western Finger Lakes region are included in the Finger Lakes region, though it is at times considered part of Western New York. If it were counted as a single area, the population of Western New York would number just over 2.6 million, would rank as the 24th largest metropolitan area of the United States, between the Pittsburgh metropolitan area and the Sacramento, California metropolitan area. However, the U. S. Census Bureau has classified the Rochester areas as two different metropolitan areas. If it were counted as a state, the population of Western New York would rank as the 37th most populated state in the United States.
Allegany County, population 48,357 Cattaraugus County, population 79,458 Chautauqua County, population 133,539 Chemung County, population 88,911 Erie County, population 919,086 Genesee County, population 59,977 Livingston County, population 64,810 Monroe County, population 747,813 Niagara County, population 215,124 Ontario County, population 108,519 Orleans County, population 42,836 Schuyler County, population 18,514 Seneca County, population 35,305 Steuben County, population 99,063 Wayne County, population 92,962 Wyoming County, population 41,892 Yates County, population 25,344 The following cities are found in the 17 western counties: Batavia, Canandaigua, Dunkirk, Geneva, Lackawanna, Niagara Falls, North Tonawanda, Rochester, Tonawanda. Hornell; the following villages are found in the 17 western counties: Addison, Albion, Alexander, Allegany, Andover, Angola, Arkport, Avoca, Barker, Belmont, Bemus Point, Blasdell, Bolivar, Brocton, Caledonia, Canisteo, Castile, Celoron, Cherry Creek, Clarence, Clifton Springs, Cohocton, Cuba, Delevan, Dresden, Dunkirk, East Aurora, East Randolph, East Rochester, Elba, Elmira Heights, Falconer, Forestville, Fredonia, Geneseo, Hamburg, Hilton, Honeoye Falls, Interlaken, Lakewood, Lancaster, Le Roy, Lewiston, Limestone, Little Valley, Lodi, Lyons, Macedon, Mayville, Middleport, Montour Falls, Mount Morris, Newark, North Collins, North Hornell, North Tonawanda, Oakfield, Orchard Park, Painted Post, Panama, Penn Yan, Perrysburg, Pike, Portville, Red Creek, Riverside, Rushville
Oswego, New York
Oswego is a city in Oswego County, New York, United States. The population was 18,142 at the 2010 census. Oswego is located on Lake Ontario in north-central New York and promotes itself as "The Port City of Central New York", it is the county seat of Oswego County. The city of Oswego is bordered by the towns of Oswego and Scriba to the west and east and by Lake Ontario to the north. Oswego Speedway is a nationally known automobile racing facility; the State University of New York at Oswego is located just outside the city on the lake. Oswego is the namesake for communities in Montana, Oregon and Kansas; the British established a trading post in the area in 1722 and fortified it with a log palisade called Fort Oswego, named after the native Iroquois place name "os-we-go" meaning "pouring out place". The first fortification on the site of the current Fort Ontario was built by the British in 1755 and called the "Fort of the Six Nations". Fort Ontario was destroyed by the French upon capturing it in the Battle of Fort Ontario, during the French and Indian War.
Construction of a second British fort began on the same site in 1759, but Fort Ontario was only used as a cannon emplacement. During the American Revolution, the British abandoned the Fort, in 1778, American troops destroyed it. In 1782, the British reoccupied Fort Ontario, didn't forfeit it to the U. S. until 1796, thirteen years after the cessation of hostilities in the Revolution. During the War of 1812, a weaker American garrison at Fort Ontario was overwhelmed by superior British forces in order to stem the flow of supplies from the interior of New York state, but were defeated near Oswego that month. Throughout the 19th Century, the U. S. military maintained a presence at Fort Ontario. During WWII the Fort was used to house interned persons Jewish refugees. In 1946, the Fort was transferred to the state of New York. At that time, it was used to their families during the post-war period. Development of the fort as a historic site began in 1949, which included the "Safe Haven Museum"; the current fort was built between 1839 and 1844.
Major masonry improvements to the forts outer wall were undertaken, but left incomplete when in 1872, Congress canceled its funding. By 1901, the old fort was abandoned. Today, Fort Ontario is being restored to its 1867–1872 appearance. Costumed interpreters recreate the lives of the officers and civilians who garrisoned the fort in 1868–1869. During the Second World War, the new fort was used as an emergency refugee shelter known as "Safe Haven". A refugee center for victims of the Nazi Holocaust, it was the only one of its kind in the United States. In 1944, President Franklin D. Roosevelt established the camp for victims of the the Holocaust; this was the only attempt by the United States government to shelter Jewish refugees during the war. 1,000 refugees were transferred to the fort from the Ferramonti di Tarsia, a concentration camp in Cosenza, Italy. The refugees came from 18 different European countries, they were placed in Fort Oswego, behind barbed wire, given no official status, having been required to sign papers accepting their eventual return to their home countries at the end of the war.
Due to political pressure, President Harry S. Truman allowed them to apply for citizenship. Oswego was incorporated as a village on March 14, 1828, the Oswego Canal, a branch of the Erie Canal, reached the area in 1829; the city was incorporated in 1848. When the city incorporated, its area and population were removed from the figures reported for the towns. In the 1850s, at the height of a popular water-cure movement occurring in the United States, in turn stimulating growth, Oswego was the home of the Oswego Water Cure establishment, which Stonewall Jackson visited in August 1850. Oswego is home to the Port of Oswego and once was a major railroad hub for several major railroads: the New York Central Railroad, the Delaware and Western Railroad, the New York and Western Railway railways. Both railways operated a coal trestle for fueling steamships at the Port of Oswego. Former NYC and DL&W passenger stations remain. Nothing remains of the O&W, abandoned in its entirety in 1957; the tunnel from the former O&W is used as a rail trail.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 11.2 square miles, of which, 7.7 square miles of it is land and 3.6 square miles of it is water. Oswego is located on the southeastern shore of Lake Ontario at the mouth of the Oswego River, about 35 miles north of Syracuse, New York and 69 miles east of Rochester, New York; the elevation is 298 feet above sea level. The nearest city is Fulton, located north of Syracuse; as Oswego is located on the eastern shore of Lake Ontario, in the center of the Snowbelt, the region sees prodigious lake effect snow accumulations. Oswego is one of the snowiest towns in America, with some winters totaling over 300 inches. In 2007, Oswego gained national attention when 130" of snow fell in a two-week timespan; this broke the record of the Blizzard of 1966. As a result of this storm, the school district closed all facilities for a week shifting the planned winter holiday. Oswego: the town of Oswego Minetto: the town of Minetto south of the city Scriba: the town of Scriba east of the city Southwest Oswego: a hamlet located west of the city Fruit Valley: a hamlet located west of the city New York State Route 481 runs north/south
The Finger Lakes are a group of 11 long, narrow north–south lakes in an area informally called the Finger Lakes region in Central New York, in the United States. This region straddles the northern and transitional edge, known as the Finger Lakes Uplands and Gorges ecoregion, of the Northern Allegheny Plateau and the Ontario Lowlands ecoregion of the Great Lakes Lowlands; the geological term finger lake refers to a long, narrow lake in an overdeepened glacial valley, while the proper name Finger Lakes goes back to the late 19th century. Cayuga and Seneca Lakes are among the deepest in the United States - 435 feet and 618 feet respecitvely - with bottoms well below sea level. Though none of the lakes' width exceeds 3.5 miles, Seneca Lake is 38.1 miles long, 66.9 square miles, the largest in total area. The origin of the name Finger Lakes is uncertain; the oldest known published use of finger lakes for this group of 11 lakes is in a United States Geological Survey paper by Thomas Chamberlin, published in 1883.
This paper was cited and Finger Lakes formally used as a proper name by R. S. Tarr in a Geological Society of America paper published in 1893. Older usage of Finger Lakes in either maps, reports, or any other documents remains to be verified; the 11 Finger Lakes, from east to west, are: Otisco Lake Skaneateles Lake Owasco Lake Cayuga Lake Seneca Lake Keuka Lake Canandaigua Lake Honeoye Lake Canadice Lake Hemlock Lake Conesus LakeOnondaga Lake to the east, although smaller, is sometimes called "the 12th Finger Lake", because it is similar in shape. It is in Appalachian hill terrain, with a historic village linked to other Finger Lakes by US 20, it may have been formed in the same manner as the Finger Lakes, as satellite photos show three valleys similar in character and spacing to the Finger Lakes east of Otisco Lake. The first is the Tully Valley, which includes a chain of small lakes at the south end that could be a "Finger Lake" that never formed because of a terminal moraine; the moraine caused the Tioughnioga River to flow south instead of north, the opposite of the Finger Lakes' waters.
The next two valleys to the east contain Butternut Creek, which flows north, the East Branch of the Tioughnioga River, which flows south. The next valley contains Limestone Creek; the next valley after that contains Cazenovia Lake. Oneida Lake, to the northeast of Syracuse, New York, is sometimes included as the "thumb", although it is shallow and somewhat different in character from the rest. Onondaga Lake, though just north of the Finger Lakes region, is not considered one of the Finger Lakes; as with Oneida and Cazenovia Lakes, it drains into the St. Lawrence River. Chautauqua Lake, Findley Lake and Kinzua Lake to the west are not considered Finger Lakes. Conesus, Canadice and Otisco are considered the minor Finger Lakes. Other, smaller lakes, including Silver and Lamoka lakes, dot this region. Silver Lake, west of Conesus Lake, would seem to qualify because it is in the Great Lakes watershed, but Waneta and Lamoka lakes are part of the Susquehanna River watershed as they drain into a tributary of the Chemung River.
East of Oneida and Cazenovia Lakes are the headwaters of the Susquehanna River and Hudson River watersheds. The 2,000-acre muckland of a valley in Potter, New York, part of Torrey Farms, was a 12th Finger Lake, as the waterline is just below the surface, it lies between Lakes Canandaigua and Seneca, was once a swamp. These glacial finger lakes originated. Around two million years ago, the first of many continental glaciers of the Laurentide Ice Sheet moved southward from the Hudson Bay area, initiating the Pleistocene glaciation; these scouring glaciers widened and accentuated the existing river valleys. Glacial debris terminal moraine left behind by the receding ice, acted as dams, allowing lakes to form. Despite the deep erosion of the valleys, the surrounding uplands show little evidence of glaciation, suggesting the ice was thin, or at least unable to cause much erosion at these higher altitudes; the deep cutting by the ice left some tributaries hanging high above the lakes—both Seneca and Cayuga have tributaries hanging as much as 120 m above the valley floors.
Much of the Finger Lakes area lies upon the Marcellus Shale and the Utica Shale, two prominent natural gas reserves. Due to the recent increase in fracking technology, the natural gas is now accessible to extraction. While some large landowners have leased their lands, a number of small landowners would like to follow suit, many residents of the Finger Lakes oppose the fracking process due to concerns about groundwater contamination and the industrial impact of the extraction related activities; the first direct actions and local legislative actions against fracking occurred in the Finger Lakes bioregion. In December 2014, the government of New York banned all fracking in the state, citing pollution risks; the Finger Lakes region contains evidence of pre-Iroquois habitation, such as The Bluff Point Stoneworks, but little is known about who may have constructed these enigmatic structures. The Finger Lakes region is a central part of the Iroquois homeland; the Iroquois tribes include the Seneca and Cayuga nations, for which the two largest Finger Lakes are named.
The Tuscarora tribe lived in the Finger Lakes region as well, from ca. 1720. The Onondaga and Oneida tribes lived at the
New Hampshire is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, Vermont to the west and the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Canadian province of Quebec to the north. New Hampshire is the 10th least populous of the 50 states. Concord is the state capital, it is personal income taxed at either the state or local level. The New Hampshire primary is the first primary in the U. S. presidential election cycle. Its license plates carry the state motto, "Live Free or Die"; the state's nickname, "The Granite State", refers to its extensive granite quarries. In January 1776, it became the first of the British North American colonies to establish a government independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain's authority, it was the first to establish its own state constitution. Six months it became one of the original 13 colonies that signed the United States Declaration of Independence, in June 1788 it was the ninth state to ratify the United States Constitution, bringing that document into effect.
New Hampshire was a major center for textile manufacturing and papermaking, with Amoskeag Manufacturing Company in Manchester at one time being the largest cotton textile plant in the world. Numerous mills were located along various rivers in the state the Merrimack and Connecticut rivers. Many French Canadians migrated to New Hampshire to work the mills in the late 19th and early 20th century. Manufacturing centers such as Manchester and Berlin were hit hard in the 1930s–1940s, as major manufacturing industries left New England and moved to the southern United States or overseas, reflecting nationwide trends. In the 1950s and 1960s, defense contractors moved into many of the former mills, such as Sanders Associates in Nashua, the population of southern New Hampshire surged beginning in the 1980s as major highways connected the region to Greater Boston and established several bedroom communities in the state. With some of the largest ski mountains on the East Coast, New Hampshire's major recreational attractions include skiing and other winter sports and mountaineering, observing the fall foliage, summer cottages along many lakes and the seacoast, motor sports at the New Hampshire Motor Speedway, Motorcycle Week, a popular motorcycle rally held in Weirs Beach in Laconia in June.
The White Mountain National Forest links the Vermont and Maine portions of the Appalachian Trail, has the Mount Washington Auto Road, where visitors may drive to the top of 6,288-foot Mount Washington. Among prominent individuals from New Hampshire are founding father Nicholas Gilman, Senator Daniel Webster, Revolutionary War hero John Stark, editor Horace Greeley, founder of the Christian Science religion Mary Baker Eddy, poet Robert Frost, astronaut Alan Shepard, rock musician Ronnie James Dio, author Dan Brown, actor Adam Sandler, inventor Dean Kamen, comedians Sarah Silverman and Seth Meyers, restaurateurs Richard and Maurice McDonald, President of the United States Franklin Pierce; the state was named after the southern English county of Hampshire by Captain John Mason. New Hampshire is part of the six-state New England region, it is bounded by Quebec, Canada, to the northwest. New Hampshire's major regions are the Great North Woods, the White Mountains, the Lakes Region, the Seacoast, the Merrimack Valley, the Monadnock Region, the Dartmouth-Lake Sunapee area.
New Hampshire has the shortest ocean coastline of any U. S. coastal state, with a length of 18 miles, sometimes measured as only 13 miles. New Hampshire was home to the rock formation called the Old Man of the Mountain, a face-like profile in Franconia Notch, until the formation disintegrated in May 2003; the White Mountains range in New Hampshire spans the north-central portion of the state, with Mount Washington the tallest in the northeastern U. S. – site of the second-highest wind speed recorded – and other mountains like Mount Madison and Mount Adams surrounding it. With hurricane-force winds every third day on average, over 100 recorded deaths among visitors, conspicuous krumholtz, the climate on the upper reaches of Mount Washington has inspired the weather observatory on the peak to claim that the area has the "World's Worst Weather". In the flatter southwest corner of New Hampshire, the landmark Mount Monadnock has given its name to a class of earth-forms – a monadnock – signifying, in geomorphology, any isolated resistant peak rising from a less resistant eroded plain.
Major rivers include the 110-mile Merrimack River, which bisects the lower half of the state north–south and ends up in Newburyport, Massachusetts. Its tributaries include the Contoocook River, Pemigewasset River, Winnipesaukee River; the 410-mile Connecticut River, which starts at New Hampshire's Connecticut Lakes and flows south to Connecticut, defines the western border with Vermont. The state border is not in the center of that river, as is the case, but at the low-water mark on the Vermont side. Only one town – Pittsburg – shares a land border with the st
Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university in Ithaca, New York. Founded in 1865 by Ezra Cornell and Andrew Dickson White, the university was intended to teach and make contributions in all fields of knowledge—from the classics to the sciences, from the theoretical to the applied; these ideals, unconventional for the time, are captured in Cornell's founding principle, a popular 1868 Ezra Cornell quotation: "I would found an institution where any person can find instruction in any study."The university is broadly organized into seven undergraduate colleges and seven graduate divisions at its main Ithaca campus, with each college and division defining its own admission standards and academic programs in near autonomy. The university administers two satellite medical campuses, one in New York City and one in Education City and Cornell Tech, a graduate program that incorporates technology and creative thinking; the program moved from Google's Chelsea Building in New York City to its permanent campus on Roosevelt Island in September 2017.
Cornell is one of ten private land grant universities in the United States and the only one in New York. Of its seven undergraduate colleges, three are state-supported statutory or contract colleges through the State University of New York system, including its agricultural and human ecology colleges as well as its industrial labor relations school. Of Cornell's graduate schools, only the veterinary college is state-supported; as a land grant college, Cornell operates a cooperative extension outreach program in every county of New York and receives annual funding from the State of New York for certain educational missions. The Cornell University Ithaca Campus comprises 745 acres, but is much larger when the Cornell Botanic Gardens and the numerous university-owned lands in New York City are considered; as of October 2018, 58 Nobel laureates, four Turing Award winners and one Fields Medalist have been affiliated with Cornell University. Since its founding, Cornell has been a co-educational, non-sectarian institution where admission has not been restricted by religion or race.
Cornell counts more than 245,000 living alumni, its former and present faculty and alumni include 34 Marshall Scholars, 30 Rhodes Scholars, 29 Truman Scholars, 7 Gates Scholars, 55 Olympic Medalists, 14 living billionaires. The student body consists of more than 14,000 undergraduate and 8,000 graduate students from all 50 American states and 116 countries. Cornell University was founded on April 27, 1865. Senator Ezra Cornell offered his farm in Ithaca, New York, as a site and $500,000 of his personal fortune as an initial endowment. Fellow senator and educator Andrew Dickson White agreed to be the first president. During the next three years, White oversaw the construction of the first two buildings and traveled to attract students and faculty; the university was inaugurated on October 7, 1868, 412 men were enrolled the next day. Cornell developed as a technologically innovative institution, applying its research to its own campus and to outreach efforts. For example, in 1883 it was one of the first university campuses to use electricity from a water-powered dynamo to light the grounds.
Since 1894, Cornell fulfill statutory requirements. Cornell has had active alumni since its earliest classes, it was one of the first universities to include alumni-elected representatives on its Board of Trustees. Cornell was among the Ivies that had heightened student activism during the 1960s related to cultural issues, civil rights, opposition to the Vietnam War. Today the university has more than 4,000 courses. Cornell is known for the Residential Club Fire of 1967, a fire in the Residential Club building that killed eight students and one professor. Since 2000, Cornell has been expanding its international programs. In 2004, the university opened the Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar, it has partnerships with institutions in India and the People's Republic of China. Former president Jeffrey S. Lehman described the university, with its high international profile, a "transnational university". On March 9, 2004, Cornell and Stanford University laid the cornerstone for a new'Bridging the Rift Center' to be built and jointly operated for education on the Israel–Jordan border.
Cornell's main campus is on East Hill in Ithaca, New York, overlooking Cayuga Lake. Since the university was founded, it has expanded to about 2,300 acres, encompassing both the hill and much of the surrounding areas. Central Campus has laboratories, administrative buildings, all of the campus' academic buildings, athletic facilities and museums. North Campus is composed of ten residence halls that house first-year students, although the Townhouse Community houses transfer students; the five main residence halls on West Campus make up the West Campus House System, along with several Gothic-style buildings, referred to as "the Gothics". Collegetown contains two upper-level residence halls and the Schwartz Performing Arts Center amid a mixed-use neighborhood of apartments and businesses; the main campus is marked by an irregular layout and eclectic architectural styles, including ornate Collegiate Gothic and Neoclassical buildings, the more spare international and modernist structures. The more ornat
Syracuse, New York
Syracuse is a city in and the county seat of Onondaga County, New York, United States. It is the fifth-most populous city in the state of New York following New York City, Buffalo and Yonkers. At the 2010 census, the city population was 145,252, its metropolitan area had a population of 662,577, it is the economic and educational hub of Central New York, a region with over one million inhabitants. Syracuse is well-provided with convention sites, with a downtown convention complex. Syracuse was named after the classical Greek city Syracuse, a city on the eastern coast of the Italian island of Sicily; the city has functioned as a major crossroads over the last two centuries, first between the Erie Canal and its branch canals of the railway network. Today, Syracuse is at the intersection of Interstates 81 and 90, its airport is the largest in the region. Syracuse is home to Syracuse University, a major research university, as well as Le Moyne College, a nationally recognized liberal arts college. In 2010, Forbes rated Syracuse fourth among the top 10 places in the U.
S. to raise a family. French missionaries were the first Europeans to come to this area, arriving to work with the Native Americans in the 1600s. At the invitation of the Onondaga Nation, one of the five nations of the Iroquois confederacy, a group of Jesuit priests and coureurs des bois set up a mission, known as Sainte Marie among the Iroquois, or Ste. Marie de Gannentaha, on the northeast shore of Onondaga Lake. Jesuit missionaries reported salty brine springs around the southern end of what they referred to as "Salt Lake", known today as Onondaga Lake in honor of the historic tribe. French fur traders established trade throughout the New York area among the Iroquois. Dutch and English colonists were traders, the English nominally claimed the area, from their upstate base at Albany. During the American Revolutionary War, the decentralized Iroquois divided into groups and bands that supported the British, two tribes that supported the American-born rebels, or patriots. Settlers came into central and western New York from eastern parts of the state and New England after the American Revolutionary War and various treaties with and land sales by Native American tribes.
The subsequent designation of this area by the state of New York as the Onondaga Salt Springs Reservation provided the basis for commercial salt production. Such production took place from the late 1700s through the early 1900s. Brine from wells that tapped into halite beds in the Salina shale near Tully, New York, 15 miles south of the city, were developed in the 19th century, it is the north-flowing brine from Tully, the source of salt for the "salty springs" found along the shoreline of Onondaga Lake. The rapid development of this industry in the 18th and 19th centuries led to the nicknaming of this area as "The Salt City"; the original settlement of Syracuse was a conglomeration of several small towns and villages, was not recognized with a post office by the United States Government. Establishing the post office was delayed because the settlement did not have a name. Joshua Forman wanted to name Corinth; when John Wilkinson applied for a post office in that name in 1820, it was denied because the same name was in use in Saratoga County, New York.
Having read a poetical description of Syracuse, Wilkinson saw similarities to the lake and salt springs of this area, which had both "salt and fresh water mingling together". On February 4, 1820, Wilkinson proposed the name "Syracuse" to a group of fellow townsmen; the first Solvay Process Company plant in the United States was erected on the southwestern shore of Onondaga Lake in 1884. The village was called Solvay to commemorate Ernest Solvay. In 1861, he developed the ammonia-soda process for the manufacture of soda ash from brine wells dug in the southern end of Tully valley and limestone; the process was an improvement over the earlier Leblanc process. The Syracuse Solvay plant was the incubator for a large chemical industry complex owned by Allied Signal in Syracuse. While this industry stimulated development and provided many jobs in Syracuse, it left Onondaga Lake as the most polluted in the nation; the salt industry declined after the Civil War. Throughout the late 1800s and early 1900s, numerous businesses and stores were established, including the Franklin Automobile Company, which produced the first air-cooled engine in the world.
The Geneva Medical College was founded in 1834. It is now known as Upstate Medical University, one of four medical colleges in the State University of New York system, one of only five medical schools in the state north of New York City. On March 24, 1870, Syracuse University was founded; the State of New York granted the new university its own charter, independent of Genesee College, which had unsuccessfully tried to move to Syracuse the year before. The university was founded as coeducational. President Peck stated at the opening ceremonies, "The conditions of admission shall be equal to all persons... There shall be no invidious discrimination here against woman.... Brains and heart shall have a fair chance... Syracuse attracted a high proportion of women students. In the College of Liberal Arts, the ratio between