The Jubbulpore Division, named after its capital Jabalpur, was one of the four former administrative divisions of the Central Provinces of British India. It was located in the Mahakoshal region of present-day Madhya Pradesh state of India; the Jubbulpore Division had an area of 48,401 km² with a population of 2,201,633 in 1881. The Central Provinces became the Central Provinces and Berar in 1936 until the Independence of India. After occupation of the area around Jubbulpore the British authorities established a provisional administration under the superintendent of Political Affairs of Bundelkhand. In 1820 a division containing 12 districts was formed, known as the Agency of the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories; this new division was placed under an agent of the general governor at Jubbulpore. Jubbulpore Division was established in 1861 when the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories were merged with Nagpur Province, which the British had annexed in 1853, in order to form the Central Provinces. There were 8501 villages in the Jubbulpore Division.
After the Independence of India it became the Jabalpur division of the state of Madhya Pradesh. The Jubbulpore Division included the following districts: Sagar Damoh Jabalpur Mandla Seoni Central Provinces, Administration Saugor and Nerbudda Territories McEldowney, Philip F.. Colonial Administration and Social Developments in middle India: The Central Provinces, 1861-1921. Ph. D. Dissertation
The Mughal Empire or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by the Timurid dynasty, with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan and Timur, with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; the dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its court culture and administrative customs. The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat. During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was interrupted by the Sur Empire established by Sher Shah Suri; the "classic period" of the Mughal Empire began with the ascension of Akbar to the throne. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar.
All Mughal emperors were Muslims. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in native societies during most of its existence, rather co-opting and pacifying them through concilliatory administrative practices and a syncretic, inclusive ruling elite, leading to more systematic and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. Internal dissatisfaction arose due to the weakness of the empire's administrative and economic systems, leading to its break-up and declarations of independence of its former provinces by the Nawab of Bengal, the Nawab of Awadh, the Nizam of Hyderabad and other small states. In 1739, the Mughals were crushingly defeated in the Battle of Karnal by the forces of Nader Shah, the founder of the Afsharid dynasty in Persia, Delhi was sacked and looted, drastically accelerating their decline.
By the mid-18th century, the Marathas had routed Mughal armies and won over several Mughal provinces from the Punjab to Bengal. During the following century Mughal power had become limited, the last emperor, Bahadur Shah II, had authority over only the city of Shahjahanabad. Bahadur issued a firman supporting the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Consequent to the rebellion's defeat he was tried by the British East India Company for treason and exiled to Rangoon; the last remnants of the empire were formally taken over by the British, the British Parliament passed the Government of India Act 1858 to enable the Crown formally to displace the rights of the East India Company and assume direct control of India in the form of the new British Raj. At its height, the Mughal Empire stretched from Kabul, Afghanistan in the west to Arakan, Myanmar in the east, from Kashmir in the north to the Deccan Plateau in the south, extending over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent, it was the third largest empire in the Indian subcontinent, spanning four million square kilometers at its zenith, 122% of the size of the modern Republic of India.
The maximum expansion was reached during the reign of Aurangzeb, who ruled over more than 150 million subjects, nearly 25% of the world's population at the time. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic and manufacturing power, responsible for 25% of global industrial output until the 18th century; the Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires. The reign of Shah Jahan represented the height of Mughal architecture, with famous monuments such as the Taj Mahal, Moti Masjid, Red Fort, Jama Masjid and Lahore Fort being constructed during his reign. Contemporaries referred to the empire founded by Babur as the Timurid empire, which reflected the heritage of his dynasty, this was the term preferred by the Mughals themselves; the Mughal designation for their own dynasty was Gurkani. The use of Mughal derived from the Arabic and Persian corruption of Mongol, it emphasised the Mongol origins of the Timurid dynasty.
The term remains disputed by Indologists. Similar terms had been used to refer to the empire, including "Mogul" and "Moghul". Babur's ancestors were distinguished from the classical Mongols insofar as they were oriented towards Persian rather than Turco-Mongol culture. Another name for the empire was Hindustan, documented in the Ain-i-Akbari, and, described as the closest to an official name for the empire. In the west, the term "Mughal" was used for the emperor, by extension, the empire as a whole; the Mughal Empire was founded by Babur, a Central Asian ruler, descended from the Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur on his father's side and from Chagatai, the second son of the Mongol ruler Genghis Khan, on his mother's side. Ousted from his ancestral domains in C
Central India Agency
The Central India Agency was created in 1854, by amalgamating the Western Malwa Agency with other smaller political offices which reported to the Governor-General of India. The agency was overseen by a political agent who maintained British relations with the princely states and influence over them on behalf of the Governor-General; the headquarters of the agent were at Indore. British hegemony over the states of Central India began in 1802, when several states in the Bundelkhand and Bagelkhand regions came under British control at the conclusion of the Treaty of Bassein between the British and the Maratha - Peshwa Bajirao II. British control of Bundelkhand expanded at the conclusion of the Second Anglo-Maratha War in 1805; the remaining states, including Gwalior, Bhopal and a number of smaller states in the regions of Malwa and Bundelkhand, came under British control with the end of the Third Anglo-Maratha War in 1818. The estate of Chanderi was ceded to the Sindhia ruler of Gwalior in 1844 by the British, Jhansi State was seized by the British in 1853 under the doctrine of lapse was added to the United Provinces.
In 1921 Gwalior Residency was separated from the Central India Agency, in 1933 the state of Makrai transferred to Central India from the Central Provinces and Berar. The princely states in the area of the Agency, 148 in all, varied in status and in size. Eleven states held treaty relations directly with the British Government, were known as the treaty states: Gwalior State, Indore State, Bhopal State, Dhar State, Dewas Senior and Dewas Junior, Orchha, Datia and Rewa; the 31 sanad states had direct relations with the British Government, but not by treaty. These states, in Bundelkhand and Bagelkhand, were granted deeds confirming rulers in possession of their states, in return for the rulers signing a written bond of allegiance to the British; the remaining smaller states and estates were known as mediatized or guaranteed states. Mediatized states were under the authority of a larger state, with the relationship between the states arranged through British mediation. Guaranteed states, found only in Malwa, were states under the authority of larger states, in which the British guaranteed whatever rights existed at the time of British occupation of the region at the conclusion of the Pindari War.
The princely states were related to one of several political officers, which were rearranged a number of times in the history of the Agency. Upon the British withdrawal from India in 1947, the political offices consisted of Indore Residency and the Bundelkhand and Malwa Agencies. Bundelkhand Agency was bounded by Bagelkhand to the east, the United Provinces to the north, Lalitpur District to the west, the Central Provinces to the south. Bagelkhand Agency was separated from Bundelkhand in 1871. In 1900 it included 9 states, the most important of which were Orchha, Samthar, Chhatarpur, Datia and Ajaigarh; the agency included 13 estates and the pargana of Alampur, the latter belonging to Indore State. In 1931, all of the states under the Baghelkhand Agency apart from Rewa were transferred back to Bundelkhand. Salute states, by precedence: Datia, title Maharaja, Hereditary salute of 15-guns Orchha, title raja, Hereditary salute of 15-guns Ajaigarh, title Maharaja, Hereditary salute of 11-guns Baoni, title Nawab, Hereditary salute of 11-guns Bijawar, title Maharaja, Hereditary salute of 11-guns Charkhari, title Maharaja, Hereditary salute of 11-guns Panna, title Maharaja, Hereditary salute of 11-guns Samthar, title Raja, Hereditary salute of 11-gunsNon-salute states, alphabetically: Alipura, title Rao Beri, title Rao/Raja Bihat Chhatarpur, title Raja Garrauli Gaurihar, title Sardar Sawai.
In 1900, it covered the area of twelve states, including: Salute states, by precedence: Rewa, the largest state in Bagelkhand, title Maharaja, Hereditary salute of 17-guns Baraundha, title Raja, Hereditary salute of 9-guns Maihar, title Raja, Hereditary salute of 9-gunsNon-salute states: Bhaisaunda Jaso Kamta-Rajaula Kothi Nagode Pahra Paldeo Sohawal TaraonIn 1931, all of the states but Rewa were transferred back to Bundelkhand, in 1933 Rewa was transferred to the Indore Residency. Gwalior Residency was placed under the Central India Agency in 1854, separated from Central India Agency in 1921, it included the following, among other smaller states, plus Chhabra pargana of Tonk State: Salute states: Gwalior, title Maharaja Scindia.
Nagpur is the third largest city and winter capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is the 13th largest Indian city by population. According to an Oxford Economics report, Nagpur is projected to be the fifth fastest growing city in the world from 2019-2035 with an average growth of 8.41% It has been proposed as one of the Smart Cities in Maharashtra. Nagpur is the seat of the annual winter session of the Maharashtra state assembly, it is a major political centre of the Vidarbha region of Maharashtra. In addition, the city derives unique importance from being the headquarters for the Hindu nationalist organisation RSS and an important location for the Dalit Buddhist movement. Nagpur is known for Deekshabhoomi, the largest hollow stupa among all the Buddhist stupas in the world. According to a survey by ABP News-Ipsos, Nagpur has been identified as the best city in India topping in livability, public transport, health care indices in 2013; the city has been adjudged the 20th cleanest city in India and the top mover in the western zone as per Swachh Sarvekshan 2016.
It was awarded as the best city for innovation and best practice in Swachh Sarvekshan 2018. It was declared as open defecation free in January 2018 under Swachh Bharat Mission, it is famous for Nagpur oranges and is sometimes known as the Orange City for being a major trade center of oranges cultivated in large part of the region. The city was founded in 1703 by the Gonds King Bakht Buland Shah of Deogarh and became a part of the Maratha Empire under the royal Bhonsale dynasty; the British East India Company took over Nagpur in the 19th century and made it the capital of the Central Provinces and Berar. After the first re-organisation of states, the city lost its status as the capital. Following the informal Nagpur Pact between political leaders, it was made the second capital of Maharashtra. See: Nagpur state One of the earlier names of Nagpur was "Fanindrapura", it derives its origin from hood of a Cobra. In fact, Nagpur's first newspaper was named'Fanindramani', which means a jewel, believed to be suspended over a cobra's hood.
It is this jewel. The river Nag flows through the city. B. R. Ambedkar claimed that both the city and the river are named after "Nag people"; the suffix "pur" means "city" in many Indian languages. During British rule, the name of the city was spelt and pronounced as "Nagpore". In the 18th century, this city was created by the leader of Gond Dynasty named Bakht Buland Shah in the first half of the century. Human existence around present-day Nagpur can be traced back 3000 years to the 8th century BCE. Mehir burial sites at the Drugdhamna indicate that the megalithic culture existed around Nagpur and is still followed; the first reference to the name "Nagpur" is found in a 10th-century copper-plate inscription discovered at Devali in the neighbouring Wardha district. The inscription is a record of grant of a village situated in the Visaya of Nagpura-Nandivardhana during the time of the Rastrakuta king Krsna III in the Saka year 862. Towards the end of the 3rd century, King Vindhyasakti is known to have ruled the Nagpur region.
In the 4th century, the Vakataka Dynasty ruled over the Nagpur region and surrounding areas and had good relations with the Gupta Empire. The Vakataka king Prithvisena I moved his capital to 38 kilometres from Nagpur. After the Vakatakas, the region came under the rule of the Hindu kingdoms of the Badami Chalukyas, the Rashtrakutas; the Paramaras of Malwa appear to have controlled the Nagpur region in the 11th century. A prashasti inscription of the Paramara king Lakshmadeva has been found at Nagpur. Subsequently, the region came under the Yadavas of Devagiri. In 1296, Allauddin Khilji invaded the Yadava Kingdom after capturing Deogiri, after which the Tughlaq Dynasty came to power in 1317. In the 17th century, the Mughal Empire conquered the region, however during Mughal era, regional administration was carried out by the Gond kingdom of Deogarh-Nagpur in the Chhindwara district of the modern-day state of Madhya Pradesh. In the 18th, century Bhonsles of the Maratha Empire established the Nagpur Kingdom based in the city.
After Bhakt Buland Shah, the next Raja of Deogarh was Chand Sultan, who resided principally in the country below the hills, fixing his capital at Nagpur, which he turned into a walled town. On Chand Sultan's death in 1739, Wali Shah, an illegitimate son of Bakht Buland, usurped the throne and Chand Sultan's widow invoked the aid of the Maratha leader Raghoji Bhosale of Berar in the interest of her sons Akbar Shah and Burhan Shah; the usurper was put to the rightful heirs placed on the throne. After 1743, a series of Maratha rulers came to power, starting with Raghoji Bhosale, who conquered the territories of Deogarh and Chhattisgarh by 1751. Nagpur was burnt in 1765 and again in 1811 by marauding Pindaris. However, the development of the city of Nagpur continued. In 1803 Raghoji II Bhosale joined the Peshwa against the British in the Second Anglo-Maratha War, but the British prevailed. After Raghoji II's death in 1816, his son Parsaji was murdered by Mudhoji II Bhosale. Despite the fact that he had entered into a treaty with the British in the same year, Mudhoji joined the Peshwa in the Third Anglo-Maratha War in 1817 against the British but suffered a defeat at Sitabuldi in present-day Nagpur city.
The fierce battle was a turning point as it laid the foundations of the downfall of the Bhosales and paved the way for the British acquisition of Nagpur city. Mudhoji was deposed after a temporary restoration to the throne, after which the Britis
Central Provinces and Berar
The Central Provinces and Berar was a province of British India and the Dominion of India which existed from 1936 to 1950. It was formed by the merger of the Central Provinces with the province of Berar, territory leased by the British from the Hyderabad State. Through an agreement signed on 5 November 1902, 6th Nizam Mahbub Ali Khan, Asaf Jah VI leased Berar permanently to the British for an annual payment of 25 lakhs Rupees. Lord Curzon decided to merge Berar with the Central Provinces, this was proclaimed on 17 September 1903; the Central Provinces was formed in 1861 by the merger of the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories and Nagpur Province. Administration of the Berar region of the Hyderabad princely state was assigned to the Chief Commissioner of the Central Provinces in 1903, for administrative purposes, Berar was merged with the Central Provinces to form the Central Provinces & Berar on October 24, 1936. After Indian Independence in 1947, a number of princely states were merged into the Central Provinces and Berar, when the Constitution of India went into effect in 1950, became the new Indian state of Madhya Bharat, merged with Madhya Pradesh in 1956 meaning Central Province.
As its name suggests, the province was situated in the center of the Indian peninsula. It comprised large portions of the broad belt of hill and plateau which interposes between the plains of the Ganges and the Deccan plateau; the Central Provinces and Berar were bounded on the north and northeast by the Central India Agency, including the Bundelkhand and Bagelkhand agencies, along the northern edge of Sagar District by the United Provinces of Agra & Oudh. The Central Provinces comprised 19th-century British conquests from the Mughals and Marathas in central India, covered much of present-day Chhattisgarh with portions of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra states, its capital was Nagpur. After the defeat of the Marathas in the Third Anglo-Maratha War, the territories north of the Satpura Range ceded in 1817 by the Maratha Peshwa and in 1818 by Appa Sahib, were in 1820, formed into the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories under an agent to the governor-general. In 1835 the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories were included in the newly formed North-Western Provinces.
In 1842, in consequence of an uprising, they were again placed under the jurisdiction of an agent to the governor-general. They were restored to the North-Western Province in 1853. In 1818, the Maratha Bhonsle Maharajas of Nagpur submitted to British sovereignty. In 1853, on the death of Raghoji III without heirs, Nagpur was annexed by the British under the doctrine of lapse; until the formation of the Central Provinces in 1861, Nagpur Province, which consisted of the Nagpur Division and Chhattisgarh, was administered by a commissioner under the central colonial government. The Saugor and Nerbudda Territories were joined with the Nagpur province to constitute the new Central Provinces in 1861. On 1 October 1903 Berar was placed under the administration of the commissioner of the Central Provinces. In October 1905 most of Sambalpur and the princely states of Bamra, Sonpur and Kalahandi were transferred from the Central Provinces and Berar to Bengal, while the Hindi-speaking Chota Nagpur States of Chang Bhakar, British Korea, Surguja and Jashpur were transferred from Bengal to the Central Provinces & Berar.
In 1935 the Government of India Act was passed by the British Parliament. This act provided for the election of a provincial assembly, with an electorate made up of men with a minimum of financial resources, excluding women and the poor. Supervisory powers over the enclaved and attached Princely States were reserved to the Governor and removed from the authority of the popular provincial governments. Elections were held in 1937, the Indian National Congress took a majority of the seats but declined to form the government. A minority provisional government was formed under E. Raghavendra Rao; the Congress reversed its decision and resolved to accept office in July 1937. Therefore, the Governor invited N. B. Khare to form the government in August 1937. Khare resigned in 1938, Ravi Shankar Shukla next became Premier. In 1939, along with Congress leaders from other provinces, Shukla resigned in protest of the Governor-General's declaration of war on Germany without consulting with Indian leaders, the Central Provinces & Berar came under Governor's Rule.
Another round of elections were held in 1946, yielding another Congress majority, Shukla again became Premier. India became independent on 15 August and the Central Provinces & Berar became a province of the Dominion of India; the princely states, which were under the Central Provinces before 1936, were merged into the province, organized into new districts. When the Constitution of India went into effect in 1950, the Central Provinces & Berar was reorganized with territorial changes as the state of Madhya Pradesh, which name means Central Province. After Indian Independence in 1947, the Central Provinces and Berar became part of India as Madhya Pradesh. On 1 November 1956, Madhya Bharat, together with the states of Vindhya Pradesh and Bhopal State, was merged into Madhya Pradesh. In 1956, under pressure from Marathi Irredentists, the Berar and Nagpur divisions were transferred to Bombay state. In 1960, the Bombay State was partitioned into Gujarat. In 2000, the eastern portion of Madhya Pradesh was split off to become the new state of Chhattisgarh.
The 1941 Census of India count
The Narmada called the Rewa and also known as Nerbudda, is a river in central India after the Godavari, the Krishna. It is known as "Life Line of Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh" for its huge contribution to the state of Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh in many ways. Narmada rises from Amarkantak Plateau near Anuppur district, it forms the traditional boundary between North India and South India and flows westwards over a length of 1,312 km before draining through the Gulf of Khambhat into the Arabian Sea, 30 km west of Bharuch city of Gujarat. It is one of only three major rivers in peninsular India that run from east to west, along with the Tapti River and the Mahi River, it is one of the rivers in India that flows in a rift valley, flowing west between the Satpura and Vindhya ranges. The other rivers which flow through rift valley include Damodar River in Chota Nagpur Plateau and Tapti; the Tapti River and Mahi River flow through rift valleys, but between different ranges. It flows through the states of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, (actually along the border between Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra and the border between Maharastra and Gujarat and in Gujarat.
The Periplus Maris Erythraei calls it the Nammadus, the British Raj called it the Nerbudda or Narbada. Narmada' is a Sanskrit word meaning "the Giver of Pleasure"; the source of the Narmada is a small reservoir, known as the Narmada Kund, located at Amarkantak on the Amarkantak Plateau in the Anuppur District, Shahdol zone of eastern Madhya Pradesh. The river descends from Sonmud falls over a cliff as Kapildhara waterfall and meanders in the hills, flowing through a tortuous course crossing the rocks and islands up to the ruined palace of Ramnagar. Between Ramnagar and Mandla, further southeast, the course is comparatively straight with deep water devoid of rocky obstacles; the Banger joins from the left. The river runs north–west in a narrow loop towards Jabalpur. Close to this city, after a fall of some, called the Dhuandhara, the fall of mist, it flows for, in a deep narrow channel through the magnesium limestone and basalt rocks called the Marble Rocks. Beyond this point up to its meeting the Arabian Sea, the Narmada enters three narrow valleys between the Vindhya scarps in the north and the Satpura range in the South.
The southern extension of the valley is wider at most places. These three valley sections are separated by the approaching line of the scarps and the Satpura hills. Emerging from the Marble Rocks the river enters its first fertile basin, which extends about 320 km, with an average width of 35 km, in the south. In the north, the valley is limited to the Barna–Bareli plain terminating at Barkhara Hills opposite Hoshangabad. However, the hills again recede in the Kannod plains; the banks are about high. It is in the first valley of the Narmada that many of its important tributaries from the south join it and bring the waters of the northern slopes of the Satpura Hills. Among them are: the Shakkar, the Dudhi, the Tawa and the Ganjal; the Hiran, the Barna, the Choral, the Karam and the Lohar are the important tributaries joining from the north. Below Handia and Nemawar to Hiran fall, the river is approached by hills from both sides. In this stretch the character of the river is varied; the Omkareshwar island, sacred to the Lord Shiva, is the most important river island in Madhya Pradesh.
At first, the descent is rapid and the stream, quickening in pace, rushes over a barrier of rocks. The Sikta and the Kaveri join it below the Khandwa plain. At two points, at Mandhar, about 40 km below Nemawar, Dadrai, 40 km further down near Punasa, the river falls over a height of about 12 m. A few kilometres further down near Bareli and the crossing ghat of the Agra to Mumbai road, National Highway 3, the Narmada enters the Mandleshwar plain, the second basin about 180 km long and 65 km wide in the south; the northern strip of the basin is only 25 km. The second valley section is broken only by Saheshwar Dhara fall; the early course of about 125 km up to Markari falls is met with a succession of cataracts and rapids from the elevated table land of Malwa to the low level of Gujarat plain. Towards the west of this basin, the hills draw close but soon dwindle down. Below Makrai, the river flows between Vadodara district and Narmada district and meanders through the rich plain of Bharuch district of Gujarat state.
The banks are high between the layers of old alluvial deposits, hardened mud, gravels of nodular limestone and sand. The width of the river spans from about 1.5 km at Makrai to 3 km near Bharuch and to an estuary of 21 km at the Gulf of Cambay. An old channel of the river, 1 km to 2 km south from the present one, is clear below Bharuch; the Karanjan and the Orsing are the most important tributaries in the original course. The former joins at Rundh and the latter at Vyas in Vadodara district of Gujarat, opposite each other and form a Triveni on the Narmada; the Amaravati and the Bhukhi are other tributaries of significance. Opposite the mouth of the Bhukhi is a large drift called Kadaria Bet; the tidal rise is felt up to 32 km above Bharuch, where the neap tides rise to about a metre and spring tide 3.5 m. The river is navigable for vessels of the burthen of 95 tonnes (i.e
Maharashtra is a state in the western peninsular region of India occupying a substantial portion of the Deccan plateau. It is third-largest state by area in India. Spread over 307,713 km2, it is bordered by the Arabian Sea to the west, the Indian states of Karnataka and Goa to the south and Chhattisgarh to the east and Dadra and Nagar Haveli to the north west, Madhya Pradesh to the north, it is the world's second-most populous subnational entity. It was formed by merging the western and south-western parts of the Bombay State and Vidarbha, the north-western parts of the Hyderabad State and splitting Saurashtra by the States Reorganisation Act, it has over 112 million inhabitants and its capital, has a population around 18 million making it the most populous urban area in India. Nagpur hosts the winter session of the state legislature. Pune is known as'Oxford of the East' due to the presence of several well-known educational institutions; the Godavari and the Krishna are the two major rivers in the state.
The Narmada and Tapi Rivers flow near Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat. Maharashtra is the third-most urbanized state of India. Prior to Indian independence, Maharashtra was chronologically ruled by the Satavahana dynasty, Rashtrakuta dynasty, Western Chalukyas, Deccan sultanates and Marathas, the British. Ruins, tombs and places of worship left by these rulers are dotted around the state, they include the UNESCO World Heritage Sites of the Ellora caves. The numerous forts are associated with the life of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj. Maharashtra is the wealthiest state by all major economic parameters and the most industrialized state in India; the state continues to be the single largest contributor to the national economy with a share of 15% in the country's gross domestic product. Maharashtra accounts for 17% of the industrial output of the country and 16% of the country's service sector output; the economy of Maharashtra is the largest state economy in India with ₹27.96 lakh crore in GDP and a per capita GDP of ₹180,000.
The modern Marathi language developed from the Maharashtri Prakrit, the word Marhatta is found in the Jain Maharashtri literature. The terms Maharashtra, Maharashtri and Maratha may have derived from the same root. However, their exact etymology is uncertain; the most accepted theory among the linguistic scholars is that the words Maratha and Maharashtra derived from a combination of Maha and rashtrika, the name of a tribe or dynasty of petty chiefs ruling in the Deccan region. Another theory is that the term is derived from Maha and ratha / rathi, which refers to a skilful northern fighting force that migrated southward into the area. An alternative theory states that the term derives from Rashtra. However, this theory is somewhat controversial among modern scholars who believe it to be the Sanskritised interpretation of writers. Chalcolithic sites belonging to the Jorwe culture have been discovered throughout the state. Maharashtra was ruled by the Maurya Empire in the fourth and third centuries BCE.
Around 230 BCE, Maharashtra came under the rule of the Satavahana dynasty for 400 years. The greatest ruler of the Satavahana dynasty was Gautamiputra Satakarni. In 90 CE, son of the Satavahana king Satakarni, the "Lord of Dakshinapatha, wielder of the unchecked wheel of Sovereignty", made Junnar, 30 miles north of Pune, the capital of his kingdom; the state was ruled by Western Satraps, Gupta Empire, Gurjara-Pratihara, Kadambas, Chalukya Empire, Rashtrakuta Dynasty, Western Chalukya before the Yadava rule. The Buddhist Ajanta Caves in present-day Aurangabad display influences from the Satavahana and Vakataka style; the caves were excavated during this period. The Chalukya dynasty ruled from the sixth to the eighth centuries CE, the two prominent rulers were Pulakeshin II, who defeated the north Indian Emperor Harsha, Vikramaditya II, who defeated the Arab invaders in the eighth century; the Rashtrakuta dynasty ruled Maharashtra from the eighth to the tenth century. The Arab traveller Sulaiman described the ruler of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty as "one of the four great kings of the world".
Shilahara dynasty began as vassals of the Rashtrakuta dynasty which ruled the Deccan plateau between the eighth and tenth centuries. From the early 11th century to the 12th century, the Deccan Plateau, which includes a significant part of Maharashtra, was dominated by the Western Chalukya Empire and the Chola dynasty. Several battles were fought between the Western Chalukya empire and the Chola dynasty in the Deccan Plateau during the reigns of Raja Raja Chola I, Rajendra Chola I, Jayasimha II, Someshvara I, Vikramaditya VI. In the early 14th century, the Yadava Dynasty, which ruled most of present-day Maharashtra, was overthrown by the Delhi Sultanate ruler Ala-ud-din Khalji. Muhammad bin Tughluq conquered parts of the Deccan, temporarily shifted his capital from Delhi to Daulatabad in Maharashtra. After the collapse of the Tughluqs in 1347, the local Bahmani Sultanate of Gulbarga took over, governing the region for the next 150 years. After the break-up of the Bahamani sultanate in 1518, Maharashtra split into five Deccan Sultanates: Nizamshah of Ahmednagar, Adilshah of Bijapur, Qutubshah of Golkonda, Bidarshah of Bidar and Imadshah of Elichpur.
These kingdoms fought with each other. United, they decisively defeated the