Hydropower or water power is power derived from the energy of falling water or fast running water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes. Since ancient times, hydropower from many kinds of watermills has been used as a renewable energy source for irrigation and the operation of various mechanical devices, such as gristmills, textile mills, trip hammers, dock cranes, domestic lifts, ore mills. A trompe, which produces compressed air from falling water, is sometimes used to power other machinery at a distance. In the late 19th century, hydropower became a source for generating electricity. Cragside in Northumberland was the first house powered by hydroelectricity in 1878 and the first commercial hydroelectric power plant was built at Niagara Falls in 1879. In 1881, street lamps in the city of Niagara Falls were powered by hydropower. Since the early 20th century, the term has been used exclusively in conjunction with the modern development of hydroelectric power. International institutions such as the World Bank view hydropower as a means for economic development without adding substantial amounts of carbon to the atmosphere, but dams can have significant negative social and environmental impacts.
In India, water wheels and watermills were built as early as the 4th century BC, although records of that era are spotty at best. In the Roman Empire, water-powered mills produced flour from grain, were used for sawing timber and stone. In China and the rest of the Far East, hydraulically operated "pot wheel" pumps raised water into crop or irrigation canals; the power of a wave of water released from a tank was used for extraction of metal ores in a method known as hushing. The method was first used at the Dolaucothi Gold Mines in Wales from 75 AD onwards, but had been developed in Spain at such mines as Las Médulas. Hushing was widely used in Britain in the Medieval and periods to extract lead and tin ores, it evolved into hydraulic mining when used during the California Gold Rush. In the Middle Ages, Islamic mechanical engineer Al-Jazari described designs for 50 devices, many of them water powered, in his book, The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices, including clocks, a device to serve wine, five devices to lift water from rivers or pools, though three are animal-powered and one can be powered by animal or water.
These include an endless belt with jugs attached, a cow-powered shadoof, a reciprocating device with hinged valves. In 1753, French engineer Bernard Forest de Bélidor published Architecture Hydraulique which described vertical- and horizontal-axis hydraulic machines. By the late nineteenth century, the electric generator was developed by a team led by project managers and prominent pioneers of renewable energy Jacob S. Gibbs and Brinsley Coleberd and could now be coupled with hydraulics; the growing demand for the Industrial Revolution would drive development as well. Hydraulic power networks used pipes to carry pressurized water and transmit mechanical power from the source to end users; the power source was a head of water, which could be assisted by a pump. These were extensive in Victorian cities in the United Kingdom. A hydraulic power network was developed in Geneva, Switzerland; the world-famous Jet d'Eau was designed as the over-pressure relief valve for the network. At the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in Britain, water was the main source of power for new inventions such as Richard Arkwright's water frame.
Although the use of water power gave way to steam power in many of the larger mills and factories, it was still used during the 18th and 19th centuries for many smaller operations, such as driving the bellows in small blast furnaces and gristmills, such as those built at Saint Anthony Falls, which uses the 50-foot drop in the Mississippi River. In the 1830s, at the early peak in the US canal-building, hydropower provided the energy to transport barge traffic up and down steep hills using inclined plane railroads; as railroads overtook canals for transportation, canal systems were modified and developed into hydropower systems. Technological advances had moved the open water wheel into an enclosed water motor. In 1848 James B. Francis, while working as head engineer of Lowell's Locks and Canals company, improved on these designs to create a turbine with 90% efficiency, he applied scientific principles and testing methods to the problem of turbine design. His mathematical and graphical calculation methods allowed the confident design of high-efficiency turbines to match a site's specific flow conditions.
The Francis reaction turbine is still in wide use today. In the 1870s, deriving from uses in the California mining industry, Lester Allan Pelton developed the high efficiency Pelton wheel impulse turbine, which utilized hydropower from the high head streams characteristic of the mountainous California interior. A hydropower resource can be evaluated by its available power. Power is a function of volumetric flow rate; the head is the energy per unit weight of water. The static head is proportional to the difference in height. Dynamic head is related to the velocity of moving water; each unit of water can do an amount of work equal to its weight times the head. The power available from falling water can be calculated from the flow rate and density of water, the height of fall, the local acceleration due to gravity: W ˙ o u t =
The Silurian is a geologic period and system spanning 24.6 million years from the end of the Ordovician Period, at 443.8 million years ago, to the beginning of the Devonian Period, 419.2 Mya. The Silurian is the shortest period of the Paleozoic Era; as with other geologic periods, the rock beds that define the period's start and end are well identified, but the exact dates are uncertain by several million years. The base of the Silurian is set at a series of major Ordovician–Silurian extinction events when 60% of marine species were wiped out. A significant evolutionary milestone during the Silurian was the diversification of jawed fish and bony fish. Multi-cellular life began to appear on land in the form of small, bryophyte-like and vascular plants that grew beside lakes and coastlines, terrestrial arthropods are first found on land during the Silurian. However, terrestrial life would not diversify and affect the landscape until the Devonian; the Silurian system was first identified by British geologist Roderick Murchison, examining fossil-bearing sedimentary rock strata in south Wales in the early 1830s.
He named the sequences for a Celtic tribe of Wales, the Silures, inspired by his friend Adam Sedgwick, who had named the period of his study the Cambrian, from the Latin name for Wales. This naming does not indicate any correlation between the occurrence of the Silurian rocks and the land inhabited by the Silures. In 1835 the two men presented a joint paper, under the title On the Silurian and Cambrian Systems, Exhibiting the Order in which the Older Sedimentary Strata Succeed each other in England and Wales, the germ of the modern geological time scale; as it was first identified, the "Silurian" series when traced farther afield came to overlap Sedgwick's "Cambrian" sequence, provoking furious disagreements that ended the friendship. Charles Lapworth resolved the conflict by defining a new Ordovician system including the contested beds. An early alternative name for the Silurian was "Gotlandian" after the strata of the Baltic island of Gotland; the French geologist Joachim Barrande, building on Murchison's work, used the term Silurian in a more comprehensive sense than was justified by subsequent knowledge.
He divided the Silurian rocks of Bohemia into eight stages. His interpretation was questioned in 1854 by Edward Forbes, the stages of Barrande, F, G and H, have since been shown to be Devonian. Despite these modifications in the original groupings of the strata, it is recognized that Barrande established Bohemia as a classic ground for the study of the earliest fossils; the Llandovery Epoch lasted from 443.8 ± 1.5 to 433.4 ± 2.8 mya, is subdivided into three stages: the Rhuddanian, lasting until 440.8 million years ago, the Aeronian, lasting to 438.5 million years ago, the Telychian. The epoch is named for the town of Llandovery in Wales; the Wenlock, which lasted from 433.4 ± 1.5 to 427.4 ± 2.8 mya, is subdivided into the Sheinwoodian and Homerian ages. It is named after Wenlock Edge in England. During the Wenlock, the oldest-known tracheophytes of the genus Cooksonia, appear; the complexity of later Gondwana plants like Baragwanathia, which resembled a modern clubmoss, indicates a much longer history for vascular plants, extending into the early Silurian or Ordovician.
The first terrestrial animals appear in the Wenlock, represented by air-breathing millipedes from Scotland. The Ludlow, lasting from 427.4 ± 1.5 to 423 ± 2.8 mya, comprises the Gorstian stage, lasting until 425.6 million years ago, the Ludfordian stage. It is named for the town of Ludlow in England; the Přídolí, lasting from 423 ± 1.5 to 419.2 ± 2.8 mya, is the final and shortest epoch of the Silurian. It is named after one locality at the Homolka a Přídolí nature reserve near the Prague suburb Slivenec in the Czech Republic. Přídolí is the old name of a cadastral field area. In North America a different suite of regional stages is sometimes used: Cayugan Lockportian Tonawandan Ontarian Alexandrian In Estonia the following suite of regional stages is used: Ohessaare stage Kaugatuma stage Kuressaare stage Paadla stage Rootsiküla stage Jaagarahu stage Jaani stage Adavere stage Raikküla stage Juuru stage With the supercontinent Gondwana covering the equator and much of the southern hemisphere, a large ocean occupied most of the northern half of the globe.
The high sea levels of the Silurian and the flat land resulted in a number of island chains, thus a rich diversity of environmental settings. During the Silurian, Gondwana continued a slow southward drift to high southern latitudes, but there is evidence that the Silurian icecaps were less extensive than those of the late-Ordovician glaciation; the southern continents remained united during this period. The melting of icecaps and glaciers contributed to a rise in sea level, recognizable from the fact that Silurian sediments overlie eroded Ordovician sediments, forming an unconformity; the continents of Avalonia and Laurentia drifted together near the equator, starting the formation of a second supercontinent known as Euramerica. When the proto-Europe coll
Till or glacial till is unsorted glacial sediment. Till is derived from the entrainment of material by the moving ice of a glacier, it is deposited some distance down-ice to form terminal, lateral and ground moraines. Till is classified into primary deposits, laid down directly by glaciers, secondary deposits, reworked by fluvial transport and other processes. Glacial drift is the coarsely graded and heterogeneous sediment of a glacier. It's content may vary from clays to mixtures of clay, sand and boulders; this material is derived from the subglacial erosion and entrainment by the moving ice of the glaciers of available unconsolidated sediments. Bedrock can be eroded through the action of glacial plucking and abrasion and the resulting clasts of various sizes will be incorporated to the glacier's bed; the sedimentary assemblage forming this bed will be abandoned some distance down-ice from its various sources. This is the process of glacial till deposition; when this deposition occurs at the base of the moving ice of a glacier, the sediment is called lodgement till.
Eroded unconsolidated sediments can be preserved in the till along with their original sedimentary structures. More these sediments lose their original structure through the mixture processes associated with subglacial transport and they contribute to form the more or less uniform matrix of the till. Till is deposited at the terminal moraine, along the lateral and medial moraines and in the ground moraine of a glacier; as a glacier melts a continental glacier, large amounts of till are washed away and deposited as outwash in sandurs by the rivers flowing from the glacier, as varves in any proglacial lakes which may form. Till may contain detectable concentrations of gems or other valuable ore minerals picked up by the glacier during its advance, for example the diamonds found in the U. S. states of Wisconsin, in Canada. Prospectors use trace minerals in tills as clues to follow the glacier upstream to find kimberlite diamond deposits and other types of ore deposits. In cases where till has been indurated or lithified by subsequent burial into solid rock, it is known as the sedimentary rock tillite.
Matching beds of ancient tillites on opposite sides of the south Atlantic Ocean provided early evidence for continental drift. The same tillites provide some support to the Precambrian Snowball Earth glaciation event hypothesis. There are various types of classifying tills: primary deposits – laid down directly by glacier action secondary deposits – reworked by fluvial transport, etc. Traditionally a further set of divisions has been made to primary deposits, based upon the method of deposition. Lodgement tills – sediment, deposited by plastering of glacial debris from a sliding glacier bed. Deformation tills – Sediment, disaggregated and homogenised by shearing in the sub glacial deformed layer. Melt out tills – Released by melting of stagnant or moving debris-rich glacier ice and deposited without subsequent transport or deformation. Split up into sub glacial melt out supraglacial melt-out till. Sublimation till – similar to melt out till, except the ice is lost through sublimation rather than melt.
Occurs only in cold and arid conditions in Antarctica. Van der Meer et al. 2003 have suggested that these till classifications are outdated and should instead be replaced with only one classification, that of deformation till. The reasons behind this are down to the difficulties in classifying different tills, which are based on inferences of the physical setting of the till rather than detailed analysis of the till fabric or particle size. Boulder clay – A deposit of clay full of boulders, formed from the ground moraine material of glaciers and ice-sheets Diamictite – A lithified sedimentary rock of non- to poorly sorted terrigenous sediment in a matrix of mudstone or sandstone
Picea abies, the Norway spruce or European spruce, is a species of spruce native to Northern and Eastern Europe. It has branchlets that hang downwards, the largest cones of any spruce, 9–17 cm long, it is closely related to the Siberian spruce, which replaces it east of the Ural Mountains, with which it hybridises freely. The Norway spruce is planted for its wood, is the species used as the main Christmas tree in several cities around the world, it was the first gymnosperm to have its genome sequenced, one clone has been measured as 9,560 years old. The Latin specific epithet abies means “fir-like”. Norway spruce is a large, fast-growing evergreen coniferous tree growing 35–55 m tall and with a trunk diameter of 1 to 1.5 m. It can grow fast when young, up to 1 m per year for the first 25 years under good conditions, but becomes slower once over 20 m tall; the shoots are glabrous. The leaves are needle-like with blunt tips, 12–24 mm long, quadrangular in cross-section, dark green on all four sides with inconspicuous stomatal lines.
The seed cones are 9–17 cm long, have bluntly to triangular-pointed scale tips. They are reddish, maturing brown 5 -- 7 months after pollination; the seeds are black, 4–5 mm long, with a pale brown 15-millimetre wing. The tallest grows near Ribnica na Pohorju, Slovenia, it can be observed that the roots of spruces pushed over in a storm form a flat disc. This is due to the rocky subsurface, a high clay content or oxygen-depletion of the subsoil and not to a preference of the trees to form a flat root system; the Norway spruce grows throughout Europe from Norway in the northwest and Poland eastward, in the mountains of central Europe, southwest to the western end of the Alps, southeast in the Carpathians and Balkans to the extreme north of Greece. The northern limit is in the just north of 70 ° N in Norway, its eastern limit in Russia is hard to define, due to extensive hybridisation and intergradation with the Siberian spruce, but is given as the Ural Mountains. However, trees showing some Siberian spruce characters extend as far west as much of northern Finland, with a few records in northeast Norway.
The hybrid is known as Picea × fennica, can be distinguished by a tendency towards having hairy shoots and cones with smoothly rounded scales. Norway spruce cone scales are used as food by the caterpillars of the tortrix moth Cydia illutana, whereas Cydia duplicana feeds on the bark around injuries or canker. Populations in southeast Europe tend to have on average longer cones with more pointed scales. & A. B. Jacks, but there is extensive. Some botanists treat Siberian spruce as a subspecies of Norway spruce, though in their typical forms, they are distinct, the Siberian spruce having cones only 5–10 cm long, with smoothly rounded scales, pubescent shoots. Genetically Norway and Siberian spruces have turned out to be similar and may be considered as two related subspecies of P. abies. Another spruce with smoothly rounded cone scales and hairy shoots occurs in the Central Alps in eastern Switzerland, it is distinct in having thicker, blue-green leaves. Many texts treat this as a variant of Norway spruce, but it is as distinct as many other spruces, appears to be more related to Siberian spruce, Schrenk's spruce from central Asia and Morinda spruce in the Himalaya.
Treated as a distinct species, it takes the name Alpine spruce. As with Siberian spruce, it hybridises extensively with Norway spruce. Hybrids are known as Norwegian spruce, which should not be confused with the pure species Norway spruce; the Norway spruce is one of the most planted spruces, both in and outside of its native range, one of the most economically important coniferous species in Europe. It is used as an ornamental tree in gardens, it is widely planted for use as a Christmas tree. Every Christmas, the Norwegian capital city, provides the cities of London and Washington D. C. with a Norway spruce, placed at the most central square of each city. This is a sign of gratitude for the aid these countries gave during the Second World War. In North America, Norway spruce is planted in the northeastern, Pacific Coast, Rocky Mountain states, as well as in southeastern Canada, it is naturalised in some parts of North America. There are naturalized populations occurring from Connecticut to Michigan, it is probable that they occur elsewhere.
Norway spruces are more tolerant of hot, humid weather than many conifers which do not thrive except in cool-summer areas and they will grow up to USDA Growing Zone 8. Seed production begins when the tree is in its fourth decade and total lifespan is up to 300 years in its natural range in Europe. Introduced Norway spruces in the British Isles and North America have a much shorter life expectancy; as the tree ages, its crown thins out and lower branches die off. In the northern US and Canada, Norway spruce is reported as invasive in some locations, however it does not pose a problem in Zones 6 and up as the seeds have a reduced germination rate in areas with hot, humid s
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus of the beech family, Fagaceae. There are 600 extant species of oaks; the common name "oak" appears in the names of species in related genera, notably Lithocarpus, as well as in those of unrelated species such as Grevillea robusta and the Casuarinaceae. The genus Quercus is native to the Northern Hemisphere, includes deciduous and evergreen species extending from cool temperate to tropical latitudes in the Americas, Asia and North Africa. North America contains the largest number of oak species, with 90 occurring in the United States, while Mexico has 160 species of which 109 are endemic; the second greatest center of oak diversity is China, which contains 100 species. Oaks have spirally arranged leaves, with lobate margins in many species. Many deciduous species are marcescent. In spring, a single oak tree produces small female flowers; the fruit is a nut called an oak nut borne in a cup-like structure known as a cupule. The acorns and leaves contain tannic acid, which helps to guard from insects.
The live oaks are distinguished for being evergreen, but are not a distinct group and instead are dispersed across the genus. The oak tree is a flowering plant. Oaks may be divided into two genera and a number of sections: The genus Quercus is divided into the following sections: Sect. Quercus, the white oaks of Europe and North America. Styles are short; the leaves lack a bristle on their lobe tips, which are rounded. The type species is Quercus robur. Sect. Mesobalanus, Hungarian oak and its relatives of Europe and Asia. Styles long; the section Mesobalanus is related to section Quercus and sometimes included in it. Sect. Cerris, the Turkey oak and its relatives of Europe and Asia. Styles long; the inside of the acorn's shell is hairless. Its leaves have sharp lobe tips, with bristles at the lobe tip. Sect. Protobalanus, the canyon live oak and its relatives, in southwest United States and northwest Mexico. Styles short, acorns mature in 18 months and taste bitter; the inside of the acorn shell appears woolly.
Leaves have sharp lobe tips, with bristles at the lobe tip. Sect. Lobatae, the red oaks of North America, Central America and northern South America. Styles long; the inside of the acorn shell appears woolly. The actual nut is encased in a thin, papery skin. Leaves have sharp lobe tips, with spiny bristles at the lobe; the ring-cupped oaks of eastern and southeastern Asia. Evergreen trees growing 10–40 m tall, they are distinct from subgenus Quercus in that they have acorns with distinctive cups bearing concrescent rings of scales. IUCN, ITIS, Encyclopedia of Life and Flora of China treats Cyclobalanopsis as a distinct genus, but some taxonomists consider it a subgenus of Quercus, it contains about 150 species. Species of Cyclobalanopsis are common in the evergreen subtropical laurel forests which extend from southern Japan, southern Korea, Taiwan across southern China and northern Indochina to the eastern Himalayas, in association with trees of genus Castanopsis and the laurel family. Interspecific hybridization is quite common among oaks but between species within the same section only and most common in the white oak group.
Inter-section hybrids, except between species of sections Mesobalanus, are unknown. Recent systematic studies appear to confirm a high tendency of Quercus species to hybridize because of a combination of factors. White oaks are unable to discriminate against pollination by other species in the same section; because they are wind pollinated and they have weak internal barriers to hybridization, hybridization produces functional seeds and fertile hybrid offspring. Ecological stresses near habitat margins, can cause a breakdown of mate recognition as well as a reduction of male function in one parent species. Frequent hybridization among oaks has consequences for oak populations around the world. Frequent hybridization and high levels of introgression have caused different species in the same populations to share up to 50% of their genetic information. Having high rates of hybridization and introgression produces genetic data that does not differentiate between two morphologically distinct species, but instead differentiates populations.
Numerous hypotheses have been proposed to explain how oak species are able to remain morphologically and ecologically distinct with such high levels of gene flow, but the phenomenon is still a mystery to botanists. The Fagaceae, or beech family, to which the oaks belong, is a slow evolving clade compared to other angiosperms, the patterns of hybridization and introgression in Quercus pose a gre
Agriculture in Sweden
Agriculture in Sweden differs by region. This is due to different soils and different climate zones, with many parts of the country being more suitable to forestry, it makes more economic sense to dedicate land to forestry than agriculture in the northern and mountainous parts of the country. The southern tip of Sweden is the most agriculturally productive. Sweden has quite short growing seasons in most parts of the country that limits the species and productivity of agriculture, but the south has the longest growing season, in some parts of the south in excess of 240 days. Wheat and other oil plants, sugar beet are common in southern Sweden, while barley and oat are more important further north. Barley and oat are grown for animal feed for pigs and poultry; the Central Swedish lowland is the traditional centre of agriculture in Sweden. The Swedish agricultural sector employs 177 600 people, 1.5 percent of the Swedish workforce. There are 72 000 farms and other agricultural business, half the number of 1970.
The average farm has 36 hectares of fields. Dairy farming is the largest sector in economical terms, is responsible for 20 per cent of the value of the Swedish agricultural production. Pork and poultry production is relatively large, while sheep and lamb production is quite small. Sheep and lamb production and the production of wool cannot compete with Australian and New Zealand production as these countries have green pastures year around. Agriculture and animal husbandry took place in the area today's Sweden during the stone age. Barley was the most important crop, but wheat and flax were cultivated; the christianization of Sweden, around the year 1000, led to improvements in agriculture due to the influx of knowledge of more advanced cultivation methods from southern countries. During the entire medieval period, monasterial gardens served to spread foreign plants suitable for cultivation, agricultural knowledge. During the time of Gustaf Vasa in the 16th century, who took a personal interest in the improvement of the royal properties, a period of agricultural flourishing started, Sweden was a cereal-exporting country.
This lasted until the wars of Charles XII in the early 18th century, which took a heavy toll on the countryside population and meant that the cereal-producing Baltic provinces were lost. By the mid-18th century land reforms were initiated which meant that scattered land plots around villages were progressively redistributed into coherent holdings, which gave the possibility for more rational farming. Swedish scientists gave attention to the improvement of agriculture, with botanist Carl Linnaeus and agricultural chemist Johan Gottschalk Wallerius as the foremost representatives. However, the mercantilist views of the era guided most governmental activities. In the wake of the Finnish War of 1808-1809, agricultural improvements received significant interest from the Swedish government and private actors. An important role was played by the Royal Swedish Academy of Agriculture, founded in 1811, as well as by the Rural Economy and Agricultural Societies, which were founded in most Swedish counties around this time.
The production of distilled beverages, brännvin, was regulated and the land reforms were continued. New areas wetlands, were used for cultivation, cultivation methods were improved; this was true for the production of fodder, which benefited from the cultivation of nitrogen-fixating plants such as clover and alfalfa. Many meadows were converted to farmed land with fodder crops, which improved the amount of fodder available. Improved crop cultivation received most attention in the first half of the 19th century, while improvement of animal husbandry progressively came more in focus in the century. Selected foreign breeds were made available in breeding stations. From the late 1860s, dairy production, in particular production of butter, became more and more central to the Swedish agricultural economy. A progressively larger portion of the farmland was devoted to fodder production, the farmed area increased until the 1920s. Milk- and dairy-related income was the most important source income for Swedish agricultural business around the turn of the century.
This meant that the earlier Swedish cereal exports vanished, were replaced by imports of cereals for bread making. On the other hand, significant exports of butter started to take place, also of pork and live pigs. In the first years of the 20th century, Sweden exported 16,000-20,000 tons of butter per year. In the late 1940s, milking machines replaced hand milking and tractors started to replace the use of horses. Alfa Laval became a well-known brand of milking machines. In the 1950s, a large-scale mechanisation took place; the Swedish agricultural workforce was reduced by 60 percent from 1945 to 1970, labour was freed up for employment in the industrial sector. In 1989, Sweden deregulated its agricultural policy and scrapped many subsidies and price controls, introduced in the 1930s, when the agricultural sector experienced an economic crisis. In 1995, when Sweden joined the European Union, the Swedish agricultural sector again became subject to various regulations, via the Common Agricultural Policy
Gothenburg is the second-largest city in Sweden, fifth-largest in the Nordic countries, capital of the Västra Götaland County. It is situated by Kattegat, on the west coast of Sweden, has a population of 570,000 in the city center and about 1 million inhabitants in the metropolitan area. Gothenburg was founded as a fortified Dutch, trading colony, by royal charter in 1621 by King Gustavus Adolphus. In addition to the generous privileges given to his Dutch allies from the then-ongoing Thirty Years' War, the king attracted significant numbers of his German and Scottish allies to populate his only town on the western coast. At a key strategic location at the mouth of the Göta älv, where Scandinavia's largest drainage basin enters the sea, the Port of Gothenburg is now the largest port in the Nordic countries. Gothenburg is home to many students, as the city includes the University of Gothenburg and Chalmers University of Technology. Volvo was founded in Gothenburg in 1927; the original parent Volvo Group and the now separate Volvo Car Corporation are still headquartered on the island of Hisingen in the city.
Other key companies are Astra Zeneca. Gothenburg is served by Göteborg Landvetter Airport 30 km southeast of the city center; the smaller Göteborg City Airport, 15 km from the city center, was closed to regular airline traffic in 2015. The city hosts the Gothia Cup, the world's largest youth football tournament, alongside some of the largest annual events in Scandinavia; the Gothenburg Film Festival, held in January since 1979, is the leading Scandinavian film festival with over 155,000 visitors each year. In summer, a wide variety of music festivals are held in the city, including the popular Way Out West Festival; the city was named Göteborg in the city's charter in 1621 and given the German and English name Gothenburg. The Swedish name was given after the Göta älv, called Göta River in English, other cities ending in -borg. Both the Swedish and German/English names were in use before 1621 and had been used for the previous city founded in 1604 and burned down in 1611. Gothenburg is one of few Swedish cities to still have an official and used exonym.
Another example is the province of Scania in southern Sweden. The city council of 1641 consisted of four Swedish, three Dutch, three German, two Scottish members. In Dutch, Scots and German, all languages with a long history in this trade and maritime-oriented city, the name Gothenburg is or was used for the city. Variations of the official German/English name Gothenburg in the city's 1621 charter existed or exist in many languages; the French form of the city name is Gothembourg, but in French texts, the Swedish name Göteborg is more frequent. "Gothenburg" can be seen in some older English texts. In Spanish and Portuguese the city is called Gotemburgo; these traditional forms are sometimes replaced with the use of the Swedish Göteborg, for example by The Göteborg Opera and the Göteborg Ballet. However, Göteborgs universitet designated as the Göteborg University in English, changed its name to the University of Gothenburg in 2008; the Gothenburg municipality has reverted to the use of the English name in international contexts.
In 2009, the city council launched a new logotype for Gothenburg. Since the name "Göteborg" contains the Swedish letter "ö" the idea was to make the name more international and up to date by "turning" the "ö" sideways; as of 2015, the name is spelled "Go:teborg" on a large number of signs in the city. In the early modern period, the configuration of Sweden's borders made Gothenburg strategically critical as the only Swedish gateway to the North Sea and Atlantic, situated on the west coast in a narrow strip of Swedish territory between Danish Halland in the south and Norwegian Bohuslän in the north. After several failed attempts, Gothenburg was founded in 1621 by King Gustavus Adolphus; the site of the first church built in Gothenburg, subsequently destroyed by Danish invaders, is marked by a stone near the north end of the Älvsborg Bridge in the Färjenäs Park. The church was built in 1603 and destroyed in 1611; the city was influenced by the Dutch and Scots, Dutch planners and engineers were contracted to construct the city as they had the skills needed to drain and build in the marshy areas chosen for the city.
The town was designed like Dutch cities such as Amsterdam and New Amsterdam. The planning of the streets and canals of Gothenburg resembled that of Jakarta, built by the Dutch around the same time; the Dutchmen won political power, it was not until 1652, when the last Dutch politician in the city's council died, that Swedes acquired political power over Gothenburg. During the Dutch period, the town followed Dutch town laws and Dutch was proposed as the official language in the town. Robust city walls were built during the 17th century. In 1807, a decision was made to tear down most of the city's wall; the work started in 1810, was carried out by 150 soldiers from the Bohus regiment. Along with the Dutch, the town was influenced by Scots who settled down in Gothenburg. Many became people of high-profile. William Chalmers, the son of a Scottish immigrant, donated his fortunes to set up what became the Chalmers University of Technology. In 1841, the Scotsman Alexander Keiller founded the Götaverken shipbuilding company, in business until 1989.
His son James Keiller donated Keiller Park to the city in 1906. The Gothenburg coat of arms was based on the lion of the coat of arms of Sweden, symbolically holding a shield w