Gogrial State is one of the 28 states of South Sudan. It is located in the Bahr el Ghazal region and it borders Twic to the north, Aweil East to the northwest, Aweil to the west, Wau to the southwest, Tonj to the southeast, Northern Liech to the northeast. On 2 October 2015, President Salva Kiir issued a decree establishing 28 states in place of the 10 constitutionally established states; the decree established the new states along ethnic lines. A number of opposition parties and civil society groups challenged the constitutionality of the decree. Kiir resolved to take it to parliament for approval as a constitutional amendment. In November the South Sudanese parliament empowered President Kiir to create new states. Gogrial State was created from part of the former Warrap State. Abraham Gum Makuach was appointed Governor on 24 December 2015. Akec Tong Aleu, the previous governor, became governor of Tonj state after the division into 28 states, paving the way for the appointment of Makuach. In February 2016, there were nine cabinet positions, including Deputy Governor.
The state is required to have 21 legislators appointed to the state assembly. Gogrial State is the home state of President Salva Kiir. Governor Makuach divided the state into 13 counties which were created in February 2016: Awan Pajook Awan Chan Awan Riau Aguok West Aguok Centre Aguok North Aguok South Kuac South with headquarters in Yienh-Liet Kuac North with it Headquarters in Malual-Monyjoc Kuach East with Headquarters in Ajiep Kuac West with headquarters in Mayom-Ariech Apuk North Apuk East Apuk West Apuk SouthNine of the counties are in Gogrial West and four are in Gogrial East. Makuach's plan received criticism as the Council of States recommended no more than eight counties per state
Greater Upper Nile
The Greater Upper Nile is a region of northeastern South Sudan. It is named for a tributary of the Nile River in North and East Africa; the region consisted of the erstwhile states of Jonglei and Upper Nile. It borders the Republic of the Sudan to the north; the South Sudanese region of Bahr el Ghazal lies to the west and the region of Equatoria lies to the South of Greater Upper Nile. The Greater Upper Nile region seceded from the Republic of Sudan on 9 July 2011 along with its fellow Southern Sudanese regions of Bahr el Ghazal and Equatoria; the three regions now constitute the Republic of South Sudan. Jonglei State Unity State Upper Nile State White Nile Media related to Greater Upper Nile at Wikimedia Commons
Malakal is a city in South Sudan and second largest city after the national capital Juba. Malakal is the capital of South Sudan, it serves as the headquarters of Malakal County. The city of Malakal is located in Malakal County, Eastern Nile State, in the northeast of South Sudan, close to the International borders with the Republic of Sudan and with Ethiopia; the town is located on the banks of the White Nile, just north of its confluence with the Sobat River. This location lies 650 kilometres, by road, directly north of Juba, the capital of South Sudan and the largest city in that county. During the Second Sudanese Civil War, the town was a garrison town of the Khartoum-based Sudanese Armed Forces. Following South Sudan's independence on 9 July 2011, the troops from the Republic of Sudan have retreated from Malakal. Malakal was the site of the November 2006 Battle of Malakal. Beginning in 2013, Malakal has been the site of numerous battles between government SPLA forces and the Nuer White Army, loosely commanded by the SPLM-IO, headed by Riek Machar.
The city has been overrun on various occasions by both sides. As of October 2015, Malakal had exchanged hands twelve times during the civil war, was utterly destroyed in the process, its cathedral is the episcopal. Malakal has a hot semi-arid climate. A major road linking Malakal with the town of Kurmuk at the border with Ethiopia is under repairs and renovations to asphalt surface; the road is expected to be ready for commissioning by May 2013. The city of Malakal is served by Malakal International Airport, one of the two International airports in South Sudan, the other being Juba International Airport. Water traffic on the White Nile River can travel as far north as Khartoum in the Republic of Sudan, as far south as Adok in Lakes State. Malakal has limited newspapers circulated in hardcopy form. However, the Juba-based'Citizen' is read around the town. In the eve of Independence day on July 9, 2011, The Upper Nile Times online newspaper was launched; the website for this online digital newspaper is no longer active, with the domain name being available for purchase.
As of 2005 the population of Malakal was estimated at about 129,620. The 2008 Sudanese census, boycotted by the South Sudanese government, recorded a population of about 126,500. However, those results are disputed by the authorities in Juba. In 2010, it was estimated that the population of Malakal had grown to about 139,450. Below is a table depicting the estimated population of the city from 1983 until 2010 from all sources: The following points of interest are found in or near the town of Malakal: The offices of Malakal City Council The headquarters of Malakal County Administration The headquarters of Upper Nile State Government Malakal International Airport - A civilian and military airport The White Nile River - Malakal lies on the eastern bank and the town of Kwogo lies on the western bank, across from Malakal Malakal Stadium - A public outdoor sports complex Upper Nile University - A public university, founded in 2007 Malakal Port - Located on the White Nile Upper Nile Primary School A branch of Nile Commercial Bank A branch of Ivory Bank A branch of Equity Bank Malakal Vocational Training Center - A vocational school Malakal Airport Upper Nile Greater Upper Nile List of cities in South Sudan Location of Malkal At Google Maps Malakal Vocational Training Centre.
The Gateway to the Shilluk People of Malakal
Jonglei is a state of South Sudan. On 2 October 2015 the President Salva Kiir Mayardit decreed the creation of the new Jonglei State along with 27 other states replacing 10 previous states; the earlier Jonglei state comprised three counties of Bor, Twic East and Duk and was the largest state by area before reorganisation, with 122,581 km2, as well as the most populous according to the controversial 2008 census conducted during present-day South Sudan's second period of autonomy. Bor is the capital of the state; the current governor of Jonglei State is Colonel Philip Aguer Panyang. Jonglei seceded from Sudan as part of the Republic of South Sudan on 9 July 2011. In the 21st century, Jonglei has been marred by clashes between tribes of the region which the UN estimated in May 2012 had affected the lives of over 140,000 people, has been influenced by the broader South Sudanese conflict since December 2013. In May 2016, the new onglei was reorganized into 14 new counties as follows: FORMER BOR COUNTY 1.
Bor South County 2. Bor Gok County 3. Bor East County 4. Makuach County 5. Bor Center County 6. Bor West County 7. Athooch County 8. Bor North County FORMER TWIC EAST COUNTY 1. Twic South County 2. Twic Center County 3. Twic North County FORMER DUK COUNTY 1. Duk Padiet County 2. Duk Payuel County 3. Duk Panyang County In addition to the 14 counties, Governor Philip Aguer Panyang secretly requested 3 additional counties two o which will add to the former Twic East Counties and one will add to former Duk. Once announced, the total number of counties will hike to 17; the capital of the state, Mading Bor, became an administrative centre under the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan for the Dinka people. It was in Malek, a small settlement, about 19 kilometres, south of Msding Bor that the first modern Christian mission in present-day South Sudan was established by Archibald Shaw in December 1905. Bor became the first area to host a Church Missionary Society station in 1905. Shaw opened the first primary school in Malek; this school produced the first indigenous Anglican bishop to be consecrated in Dinkaland, Daniel Deng Atong.
John Aruor became the first legend to be baptized in 1916 in Mading Bor. In 1912, the British established Pibor Post, a colonial era outpost, called Fort Bruce in the eastern part of Jonglei. From 1919 to 1976, the territory of today's state of Jonglei belonged to the state of the Upper Nile in what was Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. Jonglei has a long history of unrest; the First Sudanese Civil War which lasted from 1955 until 1972 broke out with a Southern rebellion in Torit in Jonglei state) against Northern armed officers. In 1983, the Second Sudanese Civil War broke out on the Nile in Jonglei. In the 1970s, the Jonglei Investigation Team was established by the Sudanese government to investigate affairs and development potential in the region. In 1976, Jonglei was split off from the Upper Nile as a separate province. Construction of the Jonglei Canal project, a 360 km long canal between Mading Bor and where the Sobat River joins the White Nile began construction in 1978 but was halted in 1983-4 for political and technical reasons.
From 1991 to 1994, the territory was again included within the newly defined borders of Upper Nile State. On 14 February 1994, Jonglei was again split off as a separate state. Jonglei has long suffered from tribal infighting. Much of the conflict is over basic resources of food and water, personal grudges related to the abduction of women and children and theft of cattle. In November and December 2007, clashes between Murle and Dinke tribesmen had worsened to revenge attacks, killing over 34 people and injuring over 100. On one outbreak in late November 2007, eight Dinka tribesmen and 7,000 cattle were stole near the village of Padak, about 20 kilometres north-east of Bor. Many fled to the Kakuma Camp in northwestern Kenya, they amounted to some 85 percent of the total 3,000 or so refugees reaching the camp. Violence between Murle and Nuer tribes has been central to the attacks in the state; the Geneva Small Arms Survey concluded that the "Murle–Lou Nuer conflict in Jonglei State is indicative of how tribal and political dynamics are intertwined in the post-CPA period."
A civilian disarmament operation targeting the Nuer communities in 2005-06 resulted in a major outbreak of violence against the authorities, who believed that the crackdown was politically motivated. In August 2007, some 80 people were killed in Murle–Lou Nuer clashes. In 2009 alone, some 86,000 people were displaced, at least 1248 killed as a result of violent clashes. One attack at Lewongole in March 2009 claimed 450 lives. A month 250 were killed, 70 wounded and 15,000 displaced at Akoko. 24,000 were displaced as a result of attack in August 2009 at Panyangor. Between January 2011 and September 2012, some 2600 people died in clashes in Jonglei State. In January 2012 clashes between Murle and Nuer tribes again broke out over cattle. Outbreaks between Nuer and Murle people have been the most severe in Nyirol and Pibor counties but have affected other counties. In May 2012, state governor, Kuol Manyang Juuk stated that 3,651 people had been killed, 385 people wounded, 1,830 children abducted, 3,983,613 cattle stolen.
The UN estimated at the time. The Sudan People's Liberation Army, international defence forces, UN Peacekeepers are struggling to defuse the ongoing conflict and protect civilians against raids; the Jonglei Peace Conference was signed on 6 May 2012 in Bor, has since been trying to improve the situation in the region. Despite the peace agreement, attacks continued to follo
South Sudan known as the Republic of South Sudan, is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa. The country gained its independence from the Republic of the Sudan in 2011, making it the newest country with widespread recognition, its capital and largest city is Juba. South Sudan is bordered by Sudan to the north, Ethiopia to the east, Kenya to the southeast, Uganda to the south, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the southwest and the Central African Republic to the west, it includes the vast swamp region of the Sudd, formed by the White Nile and known locally as the Bahr al Jabal, meaning "Mountain Sea". Sudan was occupied by Egypt under the Muhammad Ali dynasty and was governed as an Anglo-Egyptian condominium until Sudanese independence in 1956. Following the First Sudanese Civil War, the Southern Sudan Autonomous Region was formed in 1972 and lasted until 1983. A second Sudanese civil war soon broke out; that year, southern autonomy was restored when an Autonomous Government of Southern Sudan was formed.
South Sudan became an independent state on 9 July 2011, following 98.83% support for independence in a January 2011 referendum. South Sudan has a population of 12 million of the Nilotic peoples. Christianity is the majority religion. In September 2017 the UN Special Representative for Children and Armed Conflict said that half of South Sudan's inhabitants are under 18 years old, it is a member of the United Nations, the African Union, the East African Community and the Intergovernmental Authority on Development. In July 2012, South Sudan signed the Geneva Conventions. South Sudan has suffered ethnic violence and has been in a civil war since 2013; as of 2018, South Sudan ranks third lowest in the latest UN World Happiness Report, has the highest score on the American Fund for Peace's Fragile States Index. The Nilotic people of South Sudan—the Acholi, Bari, Nuer, Shilluk and others—first entered South Sudan sometime before the 10th century coinciding with the fall of medieval nubia. During the period from the 15th to the 19th centuries, tribal migrations from the area of Bahr el Ghazal, brought the Anyuak, Dinka and Shilluk to their modern locations of both Bahr El Ghazal and Upper Nile Regions, while the Acholi and Bari settled in Equatoria.
The Azande, Mundu and Baka, who entered South Sudan in the 16th century, established the region's largest state of Equatoria Region. The Dinka are the largest, Nuer the second largest, the Azande the third-largest and the Bari are the fourth-largest ethnic group in the country, they are found in the Maridi and Tombura districts in the tropical rainforest belt of Western Equatoria, the Adio of Azande client in Yei, Central Equatoria and Western Bahr el Ghazal. In the 18th century, the Avungara sib rose to power over the rest of Azande society and this domination continued into the 20th century. Geographical barriers, including the swamplands along the White Nile and the British preference for sending Christian missionaries to the southern regions, including its Closed District Ordinance of 1922, helped to prevent the spread of Islam to the southerners, thus enabling them to retain their social and cultural heritage, as well as their political and religious institutions; the major reasons include the long history of British policy preference toward developing the Arab north and its ignoring the Black south.
After Sudan's first independent elections in 1958, the continued ignoring of the south by Khartoum led to uprisings and the longest civil war on the continent. As of 2012, peoples include Acholi, Azande, Balanda Bviri, Boya, Dinka, Kaligi, Lotuka, Murie, Nuer, Shilluk and Zande. Slavery had been an institution of Sudanese life throughout history; the slave trade in the south intensified in the 19th century, continued after the British had suppressed slavery in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Annual Sudanese slave raids into non-Muslim territories resulted in the capture of countless thousands of southern Sudanese, the destruction of the region's stability and economy; the Azande have had good relations with the neighbors, namely the Moru, Mundu, Pöjulu, Avukaya and the small groups in Bahr el Ghazal, due to the expansionist policy of their king Gbudwe, in the 18th century. In the 19th century, the Azande fought the French, the Belgians and the Mahdists to maintain their independence. Egypt, under the rule of Khedive Ismail Pasha, first attempted to control the region in the 1870s, establishing the province of Equatoria in the southern portion.
Egypt's first governor was Samuel Baker, commissioned in 1869, followed by Charles George Gordon in 1874 and by Emin Pasha in 1878. The Mahdist Revolt of the 1880s destabilized the nascent province, Equatoria ceased to exist as an Egyptian outpost in 1889. Important settlements in Equatoria included Lado, Gondokoro and Wadelai. European colonial maneuverings in the region came to a head in 1898, when the Fashoda Incident occurred at present-day Kodok. In 1947, British hopes to join South Sudan with Uganda, as well as leaving Western Equatoria as part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, were dashed by the Rajaf Conference to unify North and South Sudan. South Sudan has an estimated population of 8 million, given the lack of a census in several decades, this estimate may be distorted; the economy relies chiefly on subsistence farming. Around 2005, the economy began a transition from this rural dominance, urban areas within South Suda
Equatoria is a region of southern South Sudan, along the upper reaches of the White Nile. A province of Egypt, it contained most of northern parts of present-day Uganda, including Lake Albert, it was an idealistic effort to create a model state in the interior of Africa that never consisted of more than a handful of adventurers and soldiers in isolated outposts. Equatoria was established by Samuel Baker in 1870. Charles George Gordon took over as governor in 1874, followed by Emin Pasha in 1878; the Mahdist Revolt put an end to Equatoria as an Egyptian outpost in 1889. British Governors included Martin Willoughby Parr. Important settlements in Equatoria included Lado, Gondokoro and Wadelai; the last two are in the part of Equatoria, now in Uganda. Under Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, most of Equatoria became one of the eight original provinces; the state of Bahr el Ghazal was split from Equatoria in 1948. In 1976, Equatoria was further split into the states of West Equatoria; the region has been troubled with violence during both the First and Second Sudanese Civil Wars, as well as the anti-Ugandan insurgencies based in Sudan, such as the Lord's Resistance Army and West Nile Bank Front.
The people of Equatoria are traditionally nomads belonging to numerous ethnic groups. They live in the counties of Budi, Juba, Kajo-keji, Magwi, Lainya, Terekeka, Torit and Yei. Equatoria is inhabited by the ethnolinguistic groups listed below; the following tribes occupy the three states of Greater Equatoria: Acholi, Baka, Bari, Kakwa, Kuku, Lokoya, Lopit, Lulubo, Makaraka, Mundari, Nyangbwara, Pari, Tenet and Azande Avukaya Mundu. Some of these tribes like Bari, Kuku, Kakwa and Nyangbwara share a common language, but their accents, some adjectives and nouns do vary. Other than Arabic and English, the following languages are spoken in Equatoria according to Ethnologue. Due to the many years of the civil war, the culture is influenced by the countries neighboring South Sudan. Many South Sudanese fled to Ethiopia, Uganda, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Central African Republic, where they interacted with the nationals and learnt their languages and culture. For most of those who remained in the country, or went North to Sudan and Egypt, they assimilated Arabic culture.
Most South Sudanese kept the core of their culture while in exile and diaspora. Traditional culture is upheld and a great focus is given to knowing one's origin and dialect. Although the common languages spoken are Arabi Juba and English, Kiswahili is being introduced to the population to improve the country's relations with its East African neighbors. Many music artists from Equatoria use English, Arabi Juba, their language or dialect or a mix of all. Popular artists sing Afro-beat, R&B, Zouk. Dynamiq is popular for his reggae. In the 19th century, Egypt had control of Sudan and established the Equatoria province to further control its interests over the Nile River. Equatoria was established by British explorer Sir Samuel Baker in 1870. Baker was sent by Egyptian authorities to establish trading posts along the White Nile and Gondokoro, a trading center located on the east bank of the White Nile in Southern Sudan. Gondokoro was an important center since it was located within a few kilometres from the cutoff point of navigability of the Nile from Khartoum.
It is presently located near the city of Juba in Equatoria. Baker's attempt to create additional trading posts and control Equatoria was unsuccessful because villages surrounding Gondokoro were bypassed by Arab invaders who wanted to impose their culture and way of life on the people. King Gbudwe who ruled Western part of Equatoria at the time as Azande local ruler despised the Arab culture and way of life and encouraged the tribes to resist the invaders and protect their African culture and their way of life; the invaders were met with such stiff resistance from Equatorian tribes such as the Azande, Lokoya and Pari. At the end of Baker's service as governor, British general Charles George Gordon was appointed governor of Sudan. Gordon took over in 1874 and administered the region until 1876, he was more successful in creating additional trading posts in the area. In 1876, Gordon's views clashed with those of the Egyptian governor of Khartoum forcing him to go back to London. In 1878 Gordon was succeeded by the Chief Medical Officer of the Equatoria province, Mehemet Emin, popularly known as Emin Pasha.
Emin made his headquarters at Lado. Emin Pasha had little influence over the area because the Khartoum governor was uninterested in his development proposals for the Equatoria region. In 1881, Muhammad Ahmad Abdullah, a Muslim religious leader, proclaimed himself the Mahdi and began a holy war to unify the tribes of Western and Central Sudan, including Equatoria. By 1883 the Mahdists had cut off outside communications. However, Emin Pasha managed to request assistance from Britain via Buganda; the British sent a relief expedition, called the "Advance," in February 1887 to rescue Emin. The Advance navigated up the Congo River and through the Ituri Forest, one of the most difficult forest routes in Africa, resulting in the loss of two-thirds of the expedition's personnel. While the Advance succeeded in reaching Emin Pasha by February of the following year, the Mahdists had overrun the bulk of the province, Emin had been deposed as governor by his officers in August 1887; the Advance reached the coast, with Emin, by the end of