Grenfell, New South Wales
Grenfell is a town in Weddin Shire in the Central West of New South Wales, Australia. It is 370 km west of Sydney, it is close to Forbes and Young. At the 2011 census, Grenfell had a population of 1,996; the town is served daily by connecting NSW TrainLink services from Sydney via Lithgow. Grenfell is 5 hours from Sydney and 2 1/2 hours from Canberra. In 1866 shepherd, Cornelius O’Brien discovered a gold bearing quartz outcrop. Within weeks, large parties of miners from the Lambing Flats and Forbes diggings arrived. Tents, bark huts and a business centre grew along the banks of Emu Creek. A few months Grenfell was proclaimed on January 1, 1867 after Gold Commissioner, John Granville Grenfell, wounded by bushrangers near Narromine on 7 December 1866. John Granville Grenfell was driving a coach at the time and refused to stop when bushrangers called him to, he died 24 hours later. Between 1867 and 1869 over 1,100 kilograms of gold were produced each year on the Grenfell goldfields and were the richest gold fields in NSW during this time.
Grenfell was a goldmining town first known as Emu Creek and renamed in honour of John Grenfell, Gold Commissioner at Forbes, killed in 1866 when bushrangers attacked a stagecoach on which he was travelling. "Weddin" Post Office opened on 3 December 1866 and was renamed "Grenfell" on 24 December the same year. By 1870-71 it was producing more gold than any other town in NSW. However, by the mid-1870s gold was in decline. Wheat was first grown in the district in 1871. In late October 1901, the railway from Koorawatha to Grenfell was opened. Unlike most Australian country towns Grenfell has a main street; the town's rugby league team competed for the Maher Cup. In June 2007, the Spirit of the Bush Concert was held on the sporting fields. Acts included the organiser and Australian of the Year Lee Kernaghan and international star Steve Forde & the Flange, Adam Brand, Leo Sayer and The McClymonts. In the 2016 Census, there were 2,573 people in Grenfell. 86.5% of people were born in Australia and 91.7% of people spoke only English at home.
He most common responses for religion were Anglican 27.1%, Catholic 25.6%, No Religion 17.9% and Uniting Church 8.5%. The Grenfell railway station is a heritage listed site. Chrysler Car Museum Ochre Arch Farm Tours Iandra Castle Ben Halls Cave Weddin Mountains National Park Seaton's Farm Bird Watching and Bird Trails Endemic Garden Wallangreen Sculpture Garden Grenfell Art Gallery Patina Gallery Grenfell Museum Historic Railway Station Historic Main Street and George Street Henry Lawson birthplace and statues O'Brians Hill The Big Gold Pick and Pan Sporting Hall of Fame A full calendar of events can be found here or a list of the major events can be found below. Australia Day – January Grenfell Rodeo - March ANZAC Day Commemorations – April Grenfell Picnic Races – April Henry Lawson Festival of Arts – June Grenfell Show – August/September Caragabal Sheep Races – September Jockey Club Races – September Weddin Mountain Muster – September/October Combined Services Club Christmas Carnival - December Carols by Candlelight – December Greenethorpe – George Greene built Iandra Castle between 1886 and 1908 and established Australia's first share farming agreement.
He was instrumental in providing a rail link from Koorawatha to transport wheat. Greenethorpe grew as a support town for the rural population and was named in honour of George Greene. Caragabal – The town developed as a staging post and watering hole for coach drivers and horses on the run between West Wyalong and Grenfell. Caragabal was once a thriving hub for railway and grain; the town has tennis courts, bowling club and hotel. Quandialla – Quandialla is the aboriginal word for spiny anteater. Founded in 1914 as a railway town, Quandialla has a population of 200 people. Services in the village include the historic hotel, general store, swimming pool, bowling club. Quandialla was the setting for the film 1915. Grenfell is an important centre for fossils from the Devonian era which are found in many surrounding outcrops of the Hunter Siltstone geological formation. Henry Lawson, poet Stan McCabe, cricketer Reggie McNamara, cyclist Jan Lehane, tennis player Grenfell Preschool & Long Day Care Centre Grenfell Public School St Joseph's Primary School - Grenfell Henry Lawson High School Media related to Grenfell, New South Wales at Wikimedia Commons Grenfell's web site
Eugowra is a town in the Central West region of New South Wales, Australia. The town is split between Forbes Shire and Cabonne Shire local government area, 341 kilometres west of the state capital, Sydney. At the 2016 census, Eugowra had a population of 779; the town includes a supermarket, two hotels, a newsagent, a butcher and golf and bowling clubs, as well as farm produce suppliers, a lucerne plant and a sawmill. Eugowra is known for its granite, with more than 2000 slabs of local granite used in Parliament House in Canberra. Eugowra is said to be named after the Indigenous Australian word meaning "The place where the sand washes down the hill". Before European settlement, the Wiradjuri people inhabited the Eugowra area. European exploration in the area began in 1815 and was followed two years by John Oxley passing through the area on an expedition to explore the inland. Pastoral settlement began with the establishment of Eugowra station in 1834; the town was established in the 1860s on the site of the station where the route for travellers to the Lachlan gold fields crossed the Mandagery Creek.
The John Bull Hotel was constructed, followed by a bridge over the creek. In 1881, the town was laid out and a police station and school were built, it was near Eugowra. The infamous bushranger, Frank Gardiner and his gang, including Ben Hall ambushed the Forbes-Orange Cobb and Co coach on 15 June 1862; the bushrangers stole £ 3,700 in cash. Eugowra has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Escort Way: Escort Rock Images of Eugowra Media related to Eugowra, New South Wales at Wikimedia Commons
Orange, New South Wales
Orange is a city in the Central West region of New South Wales, Australia. It is 254 kilometres west of Sydney, at an altitude of 862 metres. Orange had an estimated urban population of 39,755 as of June 2016 making the city a significant regional centre. A significant nearby landmark is Mount Canobolas with a peak elevation of 1,395 metres AHD and commanding views of the district. Orange is the birthplace of poets Banjo Paterson and Kenneth Slessor, although Paterson lived in Orange for only a short time as an infant. Walter W. Stone, book publisher and passionate supporter of Australian literature, was born in Orange; the first Australian Touring Car Championship, known today as V8 Supercar Championship Series, was held at the Gnoo Blas Motor Racing Circuit in 1960. In 1822 Captain Percy Simpson marched into the Wellington District and established a convict settlement, called "Blackman's Swamp" after James Blackman. In the late 1820s, the surveyor J. B. Richards worked on a survey of the Macquarie River below Bathurst and of the road to Wellington.
On a plan dated 1829, he indicated a village reserve, in the parish of Orange. Sir Thomas Mitchell named the parish Orange, as he had been an associate of the Prince of Orange in the Peninsular War, when both were aides-de-camp to the Duke of Wellington, whose title was bestowed on the valley to the west by Oxley. Initial occupation by British graziers began in late 1829, tiny settlements turned into larger towns as properties came into connection with the road. In 1844, the surveyor Davidson was sent to check on encroachments onto the land reserved for a village, to advise on the location for a township, his choices were Pretty Plains, or Blackman's Swamp. Blackman's Swamp was chosen, it was proclaimed a village and named Orange by Major Thomas Mitchell in 1846 in honor of Prince William of Orange. At nearby Ophir, a significant gold find in Australia was made in 1851, resulting in a sporadic population movement, known as the Australian gold rush. Additional gold finds in nearby areas led to the establishment of Orange as a central trading centre for the gold.
The growth of Orange continued as the conditions were well suited for agriculture, in 1860 it was proclaimed a municipality. The railway from Sydney reached Orange in 1877. In 1946, 100 years after it was first being established as a village, Orange was proclaimed as a minor city. According to the 2016 census of Population, there were 37,182 people in the Orange urban centre. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 6.6% of the population. 83.2% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were England 1.6%, India 1.0%, New Zealand 0.9%, Philippines 0.5% and China 0.4%. 87.3% of people only spoke English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Malayalam 0.7%, Mandarin 0.4%, Italian 0.3% and Nepali 0.3%. The most common responses for religion were Catholic 30.1%, No Religion 22.0% and Anglican 20.2%. Of the employed people in Orange, 6.2% worked in Hospitals. Other major industries of employment included Gold Ore Mining 4.2%, State Government Administration 3.4%, Other Social Assistance Services 3.2% and Supermarket and Grocery Stores 2.5%.
Owing to its altitude, Orange has a temperate oceanic climate, with warm summers and cool winters with frequent morning frosts and light to moderate, sometimes heavy snowfalls. The city is wet for an inland location owing to orographic effects from Mount Canobolas during the cooler months when snow falls. Compared with most population centres in Australia it has colder winters in terms of its daytime maximum temperatures, owing chiefly to its south-westerly exposure. In summer, the average maximum temperatures are lower than in most inland centres, on account of its elevation. Owing to its inland location, the humidity is low in the summer months with the dewpoint around 10 °C. Having 99.8 clear days annually, it is still cloudier than the coastal areas of Sydney and Wollongong, with a marked lack of sunshine in winter compared to summer The climate has enabled the area to be a major apple and pear producer, more a centre for cool-weather wine production. Orange is a well-known fruit growing district, produces apples and many stone fruits such as cherries, peaches and plums.
In recent years, a large number of vineyards have been planted in the area for expanding wine production. The growth of this wine industry, coupled with the further development of Orange as a gourmet food capital, has ensured Orange's status as a prominent tourism destination. Other large industries include: Cadia gold mine is a large open cut gold and copper mine located about 20 kilometres south of Orange; the mine has been developed throughout the 1990s and is a major employer in the region with an expected lifespan of several decades. Cadia is the second largest open-cut mine in Australia, following the Super Pit at Kalgoorlie, Western Australia. Large mineral deposits are being uncovered from the more developed Ridgeway underground mine, adjacent to the Cadia Mine. An Electrolux white goods factory, closed in 2017. Ora
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, South Australia to the west, its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, Australia's most populous city. In September 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen; the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It comprised more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825; the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemen's Land, Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the colony's area was detached to form separate British colonies that became New Zealand and the various states and territories of Australia.
However, the Swan River Colony has never been administered as part of New South Wales. Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal territory, as have the areas now known as the Australian Capital Territory and the Jervis Bay Territory; the prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago. Before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region; the Wodi Wodi people are the original custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. Speaking a variant of the Dharawal language, the Wodi Wodi people lived across a large stretch of land, surrounded by what is now known as Campbelltown, Shoalhaven River and Moss Vale; the Bundjalung people are the original custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the unmapped eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland, now Australia.
In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land "New Wales", named after Wales. However, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he "revised the wording" to "New South Wales"; the first British settlement was made by. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, a new governor, Lieutenant-Colonel Lachlan Macquarie, was sent from Britain to reform the settlement in 1809. During his time as governor, Macquarie commissioned the construction of roads, wharves and public buildings, sent explorers out from Sydney and employed a planner to design the street layout of Sydney. Macquarie's legacy is still evident today. During the 19th century, large areas were successively separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia and Queensland. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855. Following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840.
In 1841 it was separated from the Colony of New South Wales to form the new Colony of New Zealand. Charles Darwin visited Australia in January 1836 and in The Voyage of the Beagle records his hesitations about and fascination with New South Wales, including his speculations about the geological origin and formation of the great valleys, the aboriginal population, the situation of the convicts, the future prospects of the country. At the end of the 19th century, the movement toward federation between the Australian colonies gathered momentum. Conventions and forums involving colony leaders were held on a regular basis. Proponents of New South Wales as a free trade state were in dispute with the other leading colony Victoria, which had a protectionist economy. At this time customs posts were common on borders on the Murray River. Travelling from New South Wales to Victoria in those days was difficult. Supporters of federation included the New South Wales premier Sir Henry Parkes whose 1889 Tenterfield Speech was pivotal in gathering support for New South Wales involvement.
Edmund Barton to become Australia's first Prime Minister, was another strong advocate for federation and a meeting held in Corowa in 1893 drafted an initial constitution. In 1898 popular referenda on the proposed federation were held in New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania. All votes resulted in a majority in favour, but the New South Wales government under Premier George Reid had set a requirement for a higher "yes" vote than just a simple majority, not met. In 1899 further referenda were held in the same states as well as Queensland. All resulted in yes votes with majorities increased from the previous year. New South Wales met the conditions; as a compromise to the question on where the capital was to be located, an agreement was made that the site was to be within New South Wales but not closer than 100 miles from Sydney, while the provisional capital would be Melbourne. The area that now forms the Australian Capital Territory was ceded by New South Wales when Canberra was selected.
In the years after World War I, the high prices enjoyed durin
Parkes, New South Wales
Parkes is a town in the Central West region of New South Wales, Australia. It is the main settlement in the local government area of Parkes Shire. Parkes had a population of 11,408 as at 30 June 2016. Parkes was founded in 1853 as the settlement Currajong, named for the abundance of kurrajong trees in the local area by the settlers, but was known as Bushman's. In August 1873, Henry Parkes visited the area and in December 1873 the town was renamed Parkes in his honour. In March 1885, Parkes was proclaimed a town. Bushman's Lead Post Office opened on 1 August 1872 and was renamed Parkes in 1873; the railway from Molong via Parkes to Forbes, was opened on 18 December 1893. Parkes attracted significant attention during the gold rush of the 1870s onwards, to this day modern mining companies still have sites in the region. In 1939, Parkes became a sister city with Coventry in the United Kingdom; this was in honour of the fact. Parkes has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 39 Currajong Street: Parkes Post Office May Street: Parkes railway station With the presence of the nearby Parkes Observatory, Parkes has had an important role in the scientific community.
In addition to local research conducted at the radio telescope, Parkes scientists have assisted NASA for several missions as a Southern Hemisphere relay and communications station. A rich variety of farming is conducted in the region surrounding Parkes, although the staple farming products are wheat and wool. Parkes prides itself on its modernising ideology and culturally; the Dish, although set in Parkes, was filmed in Forbes' historic precinct. This is due to few historic buildings remaining in Parkes. Parkes is home to the Parkes Spacemen rugby league club; the area is supported by Northparkes, 27 km north-north-west of the town. Parkes became a key country location after the completion of the railway in 1893, serving as a hub for a great deal of passenger and freight transport until the 1980s; as successive governments reduced the NSW country rail systems, this part of the economy was lost to the community. Periodically governments and businesses have raised the topic of an "inland port" whereby Parkes Regional Airport would be expanded to serve as a starting point for domestic and international freight destined for areas in NSW, Victoria and Queensland.
Environmental studies are complete, development consents are in place, contracts have been exchanged, some properties have changed hands and studies are continuing. Parkes Shire Council, with approval from the State Government, has rezoned 516 hectares of agricultural and industrial land on the western edge of the town for the development of the Parkes National Logistics Hub with an additional reserve of over 100 hectares; the site has been designed for the 24-hour, 7-day-per-week operation of a multi-modal transport facility. FCL runs a significant intermodal operation at Goobang Junction on Parkes' western outskirts. On 20 October 2006, Premier Morris Iemma opened Specialised Container Transport's intermodal terminal nearby on a 296 hectare site, it has 5 km of a 7,400 square metre warehouse and about 40 staff. An larger terminal to be sited nearby is being promoted; the Roads & Maritime Services' Western Regional Office is located in Parkes. Essential Energy is represented by a training and maintenance centre.
Main tourist attractions are the CSIRO Telescope 20 km north of town on the Newell Highway, Bushmans Hill, the War Memorial Lookout. Nearby there is the Goobang National Park, Peak Hill which features an Open Cut Mine that can be toured during holidays. There are many great parks. Parkes has an associated number of schools. Parkes Public School was founded in 1876 under Archibald Booth as educator, Parkes East Public School and Middleton Public School are in the area. Holy Family Catholic School and Parkes Christian School operate in the town, with Saint Patrick's School Trundle and St Joseph's School, Peak Hill operating the shire. Parkes High School is the main public high school for the town. Parkes Christian School offers education for students from Kindergarten to Year 10 in 2013, extending to Year 11 in 2014 and Year 12 in 2015. Many Parkes students attend the nearby Red Bend Catholic College in Forbes. Parkes is located on the Australian transcontinental railway line, the Newell Highway linking Victoria to Queensland.
Parkes has a warm temperate climate, with significant temperature variations between summer and winter. Under the Köppen climate classification, Parkes lies in the transitional zone between humid subtropical and semi-arid climates. Summer maximum temperatures average out at 32 °C, however reach 35 °C, there are a few days that top 40 °C each year. Winters are cool and sunny, however occasional cold fronts can bring prolonged periods of light, misty rain with low maximum temperatures. Rainfall in spring and summer falls as thunderstorms, with an annual average of 587.5 mm of rainfall. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −4.2 to 45.5 °C. Parkes is sunny, having around 135.0 clear days annually. Parkes has a local bus service provided by Western Road Liners, which acquired Harris Bus Lines in March 2006; the Indian Pacifi
Electoral district of Cootamundra
Cootamundra is an electoral district of the Legislative Assembly in the Australian state of New South Wales. Cootamundra is a regional electorate encompassing the local government areas of Bland Shire, Narrandera Shire, Coolamon Shire, Temora Shire, Junee Shire, Weddin Shire, Cowra Shire, part of Hilltops Council and Cootamundra-Gundagai Regional Council. Cootamundra first existed as an electorate from 1904 to 1941; the district elected one member between 1904 and 1920 and between 1927 and 1941. In 1920, it absorbed Burrangong and Yass and elected three members under proportional representation. In 1927, Young and Temora, were separated from it and Cootamundra reverted to being a single member electorate. Cootamundra was recreated for the 2015 state election, combining the western part of the abolished district of Burrinjuck with the eastern part of the abolished district of Murrumbidgee
Greater Blue Mountains Area
The Greater Blue Mountains Area is a World Heritage Site in the Blue Mountains of New South Wales, Australia. The 1,032,649-hectare area was inscribed on the World Heritage List at the 24th Session of the World Heritage Committee, held in Cairns in 2000; this area is one of rugged tablelands, sheer cliffs, inaccessible valleys and rivers and lakes teeming with life. The rare plants and animals that live in this natural place relate an extraordinary story of Australia's antiquity, its diversity of life; this is the story of the evolution of Australia's unique eucalypt vegetation and its associated communities and animals. The Greater Blue Mountains Area consists of 10,300 square kilometres of forested landscape on a sandstone plateau 60 to 180 kilometres inland from the Sydney central business district; the area includes vast expanses of wilderness and is equivalent in area to one third of Belgium, or twice the size of Brunei. The area is called "Blue Mountains" based on the fact that when atmospheric temperature rise, the essential oil of various eucalyptus species evaporates and disperse in the air visible blue spectrum of sunlight propagates more than other colours.
Therefore, the reflected landscape from mountains seems bluish by human eyes. The property, which includes eight protected areas in two blocks separated by a transportation and urban development corridor, is made up of seven outstanding national parks as well as the famous Jenolan Caves Karst Conservation Reserve; these are the Blue Mountains National Park, Wollemi National Park, Yengo National Park, Nattai National Park, Kanangra-Boyd National Park, Gardens of Stone National Park and Thirlmere Lakes National Park. The area does not contain mountains in the conventional sense but is described as a incised sandstone plateau rising from less than 100 metres above sea level to 1,300 metres at the highest point. There are basalt outcrops on the higher ridges; this plateau is thought to have enabled the survival of a rich diversity of plant and animal life by providing a refuge from climatic changes during recent geological history. It is noted for its wide and balanced representation of eucalypt habitats from wet and dry sclerophyll, mallee heathlands, as well as localised swamps and grassland.
Ninety-one species of eucalypts occur in the Greater Blue Mountains Area. Twelve of these are believed to occur only in the Sydney sandstone region; the area has been described as a natural laboratory for studying the evolution of the eucalypts. The largest area of high diversity of eucalypts on the continent is located in south-east Australia; the Greater Blue Mountains Area includes much of this eucalypt diversity. As well as supporting such a significant proportion of the world's eucalypt species, the area provides examples of the range of structural adaptations of the eucalypts to Australian environments; these vary from tall forests at the margins or rainforest in the deep valleys, through open forests and woodlands, to shrublands of stunted mallees on the exposed tablelands. In addition to its outstanding eucalypts, the Greater Blue Mountains Area contains ancient, relict species of global significance; the most famous of these is the discovered Wollemi pine, a "living fossil" dating back to the age of the dinosaurs.
Thought to have been extinct for millions of years, the few surviving trees of this ancient species are known only from three small populations located in remote, inaccessible gorges within the area. The Wollemi pine is one of the world's rarest species. More than 400 different kinds of animals live within the rugged gorges and tablelands of the Greater Blue Mountains Area; these include threatened or rare species of conservation significance, such as the tiger quoll, the koala, the yellow-bellied glider and the long-nosed potoroo as well as rare reptiles and amphibians including the green and golden bell frog and the Blue Mountain water skink. The largest predator of the area is the dingo; these wild dogs hunt for grey kangaroos and other prey. The greater Blue Mountains region has been identified by BirdLife International as an Important Bird Area because it supports a high proportion of the global populations of the range-restricted rockwarbler as well as populations of flame robins, diamond firetails and pilotbirds.
The endangered regent honeyeater is seen there regularly. It is a migration bottleneck for yellow-faced honeyeaters; the Greater Blue Mountains Area was unanimously listed as a World Heritage Area by UNESCO on 29 November 2000. It thus became the fourth area in New South Wales to be listed; the area totals 10,300 square kilometres, including the Blue Mountains, Kanangra-Boyd, Gardens of Stone, Yengo and Thirlmere Lakes National Parks, plus the Jenolan Caves Karst Conservation Reserve. A buffer zone of 86,200 hectares lies outside the protected area. Blue Mountains virtual video tour. Nomination of the Greater Blue Mountains Area for inscription on the World Heritage List by the Government of Australia 1998 Greater Blue Mountains Area at UNESCO World Heritage Centre Blue Mountains World Heritage Institute Blue Mountains, NSW, Australia Aerial video of the Jamison Valley below Katoomba