Central and Eastern Europe
Central and Eastern Europe, abbreviated CEE, is a term encompassing the countries in Central Europe, the Baltics, Eastern Europe, Southeastern Europe meaning former communist states from the Eastern Bloc in Europe. Scholarly literature uses the abbreviations CEE or CEEC for this term; the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development uses the term "Central and Eastern European Countries" for a group comprising some of these countries. The term CEE includes the Eastern bloc countries west of the post-World War II border with the former Soviet Union; the CEE countries are further subdivided by their accession status to the European Union: the eight first-wave accession countries that joined the EU on 1 May 2004, the two second-wave accession countries that joined on 1 January 2007 and the third-wave accession country that joined on 1 July 2013. According to the World Bank 2008 analysis, the transition to advanced market economies is over for all 10 countries that joined the EU in 2004 and 2007.
The CEE countries include the former socialist states, which extend west of Russia, Ukraine, Moldova. Baltic states Central Europe Central and Eastern European Online Library European Union East-Central Europe Eastern Europe Eastern European Group Eurovoc#Central and Eastern Europe Regions of Europe Southeastern Europe Three Seas Initiative Visegrád Group
Association of MBAs
The Association of MBAs is a global organisation founded in 1967 which focuses on international business school accreditation and membership. Based in London, AMBA is one of the three main global accreditation bodies in business education and styles itself as the world's impartial authority on postgraduate management education, it differs from AACSB in the US and EQUIS in Brussels as it accredits a school's portfolio of postgraduate management programmes but does not accredit undergraduate programmes. AMBA accredits 2% of the world's business schools, is the most international of the three organisations having accredited schools headquartered in 54 countries, compared with the 52 for AACSB and 38 for EQUIS. Business schools can become associated with AMBA in two ways: by applying for accreditation, or by applying for membership of the AMBA Development Network, which confers institutional membership similar to EFMD or AACSB membership. Schools that cannot meet all of the AMBA accreditation criteria join the ADN, which gives them time to prepare for accreditation with support from AMBA and mentoring from an AMBA-accredited school.
All MBA students and alumni of the 257 accredited member schools join AMBA as individual members free of charge. AMBA accredits generalist MBM programmes and DBA programmes, admits as members students and graduates thereof. AMBA's long-serving president until 2017 was the late Sir Paul Judge, the founding benefactor of Cambridge Judge Business School in Cambridge, UK. AMBA's current Chief Executive is Andrew Main Wilson, who joined the organisation from the Institute of Directors in 2013. Bodo Schlegelmilch was elected Chairman of the AMBA Board of Trustees in 2018; the Association of MBAs was founded in 1967 as an MBA alumni club by eight UK graduates from Harvard Business School, Wharton and Columbia, two graduates from the first intake of London Business School. The founders saw a lack of awareness in Europe of the value of the MBA degree, which at that time was an American qualification, they decided to form a lobby and membership group to promote the benefits of postgraduate business education, under the name of Business Graduates Association.
The organisation's development helped shape the growth of management education in Europe and the UK and coincided with the setting up and growth of London Business School and Manchester Business School in Britain. The Association's first Director General was Vice-Admiral David Clutterbuck who assumed this position in 1969. In 1983 BGA began to accredit the growing number of MBA programmes, while preserving its functions as a membership organization. BGA was renamed Association of MBAs in 1987; until 2017, AMBA's president was the late Sir Paul Judge, who helped establish one of the two business schools in Cambridge, UK. The Association of MBAs accredits MBA, DBA degree programmes; when a school applies for accreditation for its MBA programmes, AMBA requires that the entire portfolio of MBA programmes be put up for consideration and will award accreditation only if all programmes meet its criteria. The Association's process of accrediting a school's MBA programmes portfolio includes reviewing compliance AMBA's criteria, most of them qualitative rather than quantitative.
The criteria fall into seven dimensions: development of the institution. Some of the key AMBA criteria for the accreditation of an MBA programme include: all admitted students should have at least three years of full-time post-graduation work experience upon the start of the MBA course. AMBA holds three annual conferences for business school deans and directors: a Global Conference, an Asia Pacific Conference, a Latin America Conference. Participation is open to both non-accredited schools. AMBA hosts an annual Gala Dinner in London, open only to accredited schools. AMBA organises two annual global forums with the purpose of development and training for specific functions within AMBA-accredited business schools such as accreditation managers. AMBA organises webinars and networking events on a regular basis catering to MBA alumni, current MBA students, prospective MBA students and business school admissions departments; these on-campus events are held at accredited business schools and feature distinguished speakers and practitioners in fields such as leadership and innovation.
List of institutions accredited by AMBA Triple accreditation Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business European Quality Improvement System Association of MBAs official website Accredited schools and logos on
A corporation is an organization a group of people or a company, authorized to act as a single entity and recognized as such in law. Early incorporated entities were established by charter. Most jurisdictions now allow the creation of new corporations through registration. Corporations come in many different types but are divided by the law of the jurisdiction where they are chartered into two kinds: by whether they can issue stock or not, or by whether they are formed to make a profit or not. Corporations can be divided by the number of owners: corporation corporation sole; the subject of this article is a corporation aggregate. A corporation sole is a legal entity consisting of a single incorporated office, occupied by a single natural person. Where local law distinguishes corporations by the ability to issue stock, corporations allowed to do so are referred to as "stock corporations", ownership of the corporation is through stock, owners of stock are referred to as "stockholders" or "shareholders".
Corporations not allowed to issue stock are referred to as "non-stock" corporations. Corporations chartered in regions where they are distinguished by whether they are allowed to be for profit or not are referred to as "for profit" and "not-for-profit" corporations, respectively. There is some overlap between stock/non-stock and for-profit/not-for-profit in that not-for-profit corporations are always non-stock as well. A for-profit corporation is always a stock corporation, but some for-profit corporations may choose to be non-stock. To simplify the explanation, whenever "Stockholder" or "shareholder" is used in the rest of this article to refer to a stock corporation, it is presumed to mean the same as "member" for a non-profit corporation or for a profit, non-stock corporation. Registered corporations have legal personality and their shares are owned by shareholders whose liability is limited to their investment. Shareholders do not actively manage a corporation. In most circumstances, a shareholder may serve as a director or officer of a corporation.
In American English, the word corporation is most used to describe large business corporations. In British English and in the Commonwealth countries, the term company is more used to describe the same sort of entity while the word corporation encompasses all incorporated entities. In American English, the word company can include entities such as partnerships that would not be referred to as companies in British English as they are not a separate legal entity. Late in the 19th century, a new form of company having the limited liability protections of a corporation, the more favorable tax treatment of either a sole proprietorship or partnership was developed. While not a corporation, this new type of entity became attractive as an alternative for corporations not needing to issue stock. In Germany, the organization was referred to as Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung or GmbH. In the last quarter of the 20th Century this new form of non-corporate organization became available in the United States and other countries, was known as the limited liability company or LLC.
Since the GmbH and LLC forms of organization are technically not corporations, they will not be discussed in this article. The word "corporation" derives from corpus, the Latin word for body, or a "body of people". By the time of Justinian, Roman law recognized a range of corporate entities under the names universitas, corpus or collegium; these included the state itself and such private associations as sponsors of a religious cult, burial clubs, political groups, guilds of craftsmen or traders. Such bodies had the right to own property and make contracts, to receive gifts and legacies, to sue and be sued, and, in general, to perform legal acts through representatives. Private associations were granted designated liberties by the emperor. Entities which carried on business and were the subjects of legal rights were found in ancient Rome, the Maurya Empire in ancient India. In medieval Europe, churches became incorporated, as did local governments, such as the Pope and the City of London Corporation.
The point was that the incorporation would survive longer than the lives of any particular member, existing in perpetuity. The alleged oldest commercial corporation in the world, the Stora Kopparberg mining community in Falun, obtained a charter from King Magnus Eriksson in 1347. In medieval times, traders would do business through common law constructs, such as partnerships. Whenever people acted together with a view to profit, the law deemed. Early guilds and livery companies were often involved in the regulation of competition between traders. Dutch and English chartered companies, such as the Dutch East India Company and the Hudson's Bay Company, were created to lead the colonial ventures of European nations in the 17th century. Acting under a charter sanctioned by the Dutch government, the Dutch East India Company defeated Portuguese forces and established itself in the Moluccan Islands in order to profit from the European demand for spices. Investors in the VOC were issued paper certificates as proof of share ownership, were able to trade their shares on the original Amsterdam
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe. Though the term Western Europe is used, there is no agreed-upon definition of the countries that it encompasses. Significant historical events that have shaped the concept of Western Europe include the rise of Rome, the adoption of Greek culture during the Roman Republic, the adoption of Christianity by Roman Emperors, the division of the Latin West and Greek East, the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, the reign of Charlemagne, the Viking invasions, the East–West Schism, the Black Death, the Renaissance, the Age of Discovery, the Protestant Reformation as well as the Counter-Reformation of the Catholic Church, the Age of Enlightenment, the French Revolution, the Industrial Revolution, the two world wars, the Cold War, the formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the expansion of the European Union. Prior to the Roman conquest, a large part of Western Europe had adopted the newly developed La Tène culture; as the Roman domain expanded, a cultural and linguistic division appeared between the Greek-speaking eastern provinces, which had formed the urbanized Hellenistic civilization, the western territories, which in contrast adopted the Latin language.
This cultural and linguistic division was reinforced by the political east-west division of the Roman Empire. The Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire controlled the two divergent regions between the 3rd and the 5th centuries; the division between these two was enhanced during Late antiquity and the Middle Ages by a number of events. The Western Roman Empire collapsed. By contrast, the Eastern Roman Empire known as the Greek or Byzantine Empire and thrived for another 1000 years; the rise of the Carolingian Empire in the west, in particular the Great Schism between Eastern Orthodoxy and Roman Catholicism, enhanced the cultural and religious distinctiveness between Eastern and Western Europe. After the conquest of the Byzantine Empire, center of the Eastern Orthodox Church, by the Muslim Ottoman Empire in the 15th century, the gradual fragmentation of the Holy Roman Empire, the division between Roman Catholic and Protestant became more important in Europe than that with Eastern Orthodoxy.
In East Asia, Western Europe was known as taixi in China and taisei in Japan, which translates as the "Far West". The term Far West became synonymous with Western Europe in China during the Ming dynasty; the Italian Jesuit priest Matteo Ricci was one of the first writers in China to use the Far West as an Asian counterpart to the European concept of the Far East. In Ricci's writings, Ricci referred to himself as "Matteo of the Far West"; the term was still in use in the late early 20th centuries. Christianity is still the largest religion in Western Europe, according to a 2018 study by the Pew Research Center, 71.0% of the Western European population identified themselves as Christians. The East–West Schism, which has lasted since the 11th century, divided Christianity in Europe, the world, into Western Christianity and Eastern Christianity. With certain simplifications, Western Europe is thus Catholic or Protestant and uses the Latin alphabet. Eastern Europe uses the Greek alphabet or Cyrillic script.
According to this definition, Western Europe is formed by countries with dominant Roman Catholic and Protestant churches, including countries which are considered part of Central Europe now: Austria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia, Sweden and United Kingdom. Eastern Europe, meanwhile is formed by countries with dominant Eastern Orthodox churches, including Greece, Bulgaria, Romania and Ukraine for instance; the schism is the break of communion and theology between what are now the Eastern and Western churches. This division dominated Europe for centuries, in opposition to the rather short-lived Cold War division of four decades. Since the Great Schism of 1054, Europe has been divided between Roman Catholic and Protestant churches in the West and the Eastern Orthodox Christian churches in the east. Due to this religious cleavage, Eastern Orthodox countries are associated with Eastern Europe. A cleavage of this sort is, however problematic.
During the four decades of the Cold War, the definition of East and West was rather simplified by the existence of the Eastern Bloc. Historians and social scientists view the Cold War definition of Western and Eastern Europe as outdated or relegating. During the final stages of World War II, the future of Europe was decided between the Allies in the 1945 Yalta Conference, between the British Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, the U. S. President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, the Premier of the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin. Post-war Europe would be divided into two major spheres: the Western Bloc, influenced by the United States, the Eastern Bloc, influenced by the Soviet Union. With the onset of the Cold War, Europe was divided by the Iron Curtain; this term had been used during World War II by German Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels and Count Lutz Schwerin von Krosigk in the last days of the war.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the continent of Europe and the continental landmass of Afro-Eurasia with both Europe and Africa. Asia covers an area of 44,579,000 square kilometres, about 30% of Earth's total land area and 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area. The continent, which has long been home to the majority of the human population, was the site of many of the first civilizations. Asia is notable for not only its overall large size and population, but dense and large settlements, as well as vast populated regions, its 4.5 billion people constitute 60% of the world's population. In general terms, Asia is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean, on the south by the Indian Ocean, on the north by the Arctic Ocean; the border of Asia with Europe is a historical and cultural construct, as there is no clear physical and geographical separation between them. It has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity.
The division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East–West cultural and ethnic differences, some of which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The most accepted boundaries place Asia to the east of the Suez Canal separating it from Africa. China and India alternated in being the largest economies in the world from 1 to 1800 CE. China was a major economic power and attracted many to the east, for many the legendary wealth and prosperity of the ancient culture of India personified Asia, attracting European commerce and colonialism; the accidental discovery of a trans-Atlantic route from Europe to America by Columbus while in search for a route to India demonstrates this deep fascination. The Silk Road became the main east–west trading route in the Asian hinterlands while the Straits of Malacca stood as a major sea route. Asia has exhibited economic dynamism as well as robust population growth during the 20th century, but overall population growth has since fallen. Asia was the birthplace of most of the world's mainstream religions including Hinduism, Judaism, Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Sikhism, as well as many other religions.
Given its size and diversity, the concept of Asia—a name dating back to classical antiquity—may have more to do with human geography than physical geography. Asia varies across and within its regions with regard to ethnic groups, environments, historical ties and government systems, it has a mix of many different climates ranging from the equatorial south via the hot desert in the Middle East, temperate areas in the east and the continental centre to vast subarctic and polar areas in Siberia. The boundary between Asia and Africa is the Red Sea, the Gulf of Suez, the Suez Canal; this makes Egypt a transcontinental country, with the Sinai peninsula in Asia and the remainder of the country in Africa. The border between Asia and Europe was defined by European academics; the Don River became unsatisfactory to northern Europeans when Peter the Great, king of the Tsardom of Russia, defeating rival claims of Sweden and the Ottoman Empire to the eastern lands, armed resistance by the tribes of Siberia, synthesized a new Russian Empire extending to the Ural Mountains and beyond, founded in 1721.
The major geographical theorist of the empire was a former Swedish prisoner-of-war, taken at the Battle of Poltava in 1709 and assigned to Tobolsk, where he associated with Peter's Siberian official, Vasily Tatishchev, was allowed freedom to conduct geographical and anthropological studies in preparation for a future book. In Sweden, five years after Peter's death, in 1730 Philip Johan von Strahlenberg published a new atlas proposing the Urals as the border of Asia. Tatishchev announced; the latter had suggested the Emba River as the lower boundary. Over the next century various proposals were made until the Ural River prevailed in the mid-19th century; the border had been moved perforce from the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea into which the Ural River projects. The border between the Black Sea and the Caspian is placed along the crest of the Caucasus Mountains, although it is sometimes placed further north; the border between Asia and the region of Oceania is placed somewhere in the Malay Archipelago.
The Maluku Islands in Indonesia are considered to lie on the border of southeast Asia, with New Guinea, to the east of the islands, being wholly part of Oceania. The terms Southeast Asia and Oceania, devised in the 19th century, have had several vastly different geographic meanings since their inception; the chief factor in determining which islands of the Malay Archipelago are Asian has been the location of the colonial possessions of the various empires there. Lewis and Wigen assert, "The narrowing of'Southeast Asia' to its present boundaries was thus a gradual process." Geographical Asia is a cultural artifact of European conceptions of the world, beginning with the Ancient Greeks, being imposed onto other cultures, an imprecise concept causing endemic contention about what it means. Asia does not correspond to the cultural borders of its various types of constituents. From the time of Herodotus a minority of geographers have rejected the three-continent system on the grounds that there is no substantial physical separation between
Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business
The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business known as AACSB International, is an American professional organization. It was founded in 1916 to provide accreditation to schools of business, it was known as the American Association of Collegiate Schools of Business and as the International Association for Management Education. Not all members of the association are accredited. In 2016 it lost recognition by the Council for Higher Education Accreditation; the American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business was founded as an accrediting body in 1916 by a group of seventeen American universities and colleges. The first accreditations took place in 1919. For many years the association accredited only American business schools, but in the latter part of the twentieth century it advocated a more international approach to business education; the first school it accredited outside the United States was the University of Alberta in 1968, the first outside North America was the French business school ESSEC, in 1997.
Robert S. Sullivan, dean of Rady School of Management, became chair of the association in 2013; the association struggled with its Council for Higher Education Accreditation recognition in 2016. At a board meeting on January 26, 2015, the council deferred recognition pending satisfaction of its policy requirements; the association withdrew from CHEA recognition on September 23, 2016, in pursuit of ISO certification in order to pivot towards a more global presence. List of AACSB-accredited schools Regional accreditation Triple accreditation Andrea Everard, Jennifer Edmonds, Kent Pierre; the Longitudinal Effects of the Mission - Driven Focus on the Credibility of the AACSB. Journal of Management Development 32:995–1003 W. Francisco, T. G. Noland, D. Sinclari. AACSB Accreditation: Symbol of Excellence or march toward Mediocrity. Journal of College Teaching & Learning 5:25–30 Harold Hamilton. AACSB Accreditation: Are the Benefits worth the Cost for a Small School? A Case Study. Proceedings of the American Society of Business and Behavioral Sciences Track Section of Management February 17-21, 2000, Las Vegas, Nevada: 205–206 Anthony Lowrie, Hugh Willmott.
Accreditation Sickness in the Consumption of Business Education: The Vacuum in AACSB Standard Setting. Management Learning 40:411–420 N. Orwig, R. Z. Finney. Analysis of the Mission Statements of AACSB – Accredited Schools. Competitiveness Review 17:261–273 E. J Romero. AACSB Accreditation: Addressing Faculty Concerns. Academy of Management Learning and Education 7:245~255 J. A. Yunker. Doing Things the Hard Way – Problems with Mission-Linked AACSB Accreditation Standards and Suggestions for Improvement. Journal of Education for Business 75:348–353
A business school is a university-level institution that confers degrees in business administration or management. According to Kaplan business schools are "educational institutions that specialize in teaching courses and programs related to business and/or management"; such a school can be known as school of management, school of business administration, or colloquially b-school or biz school. A business school teaches topics such as accounting, strategy, entrepreneurship, human resource management, management science, management information systems, international business, marketing, organizational psychology, organizational behavior, public relations, research methods and real estate among others. There are several forms of business schools, including a school of business, business administration, management. Most of the university business schools consist of faculties, colleges, or departments within the university, predominantly teach business courses. In North America, a business school is understood to be a university program that offers a graduate Master of Business Administration degrees and/or undergraduate bachelor's degrees.
In Europe and Asia, some universities teach predominantly business courses. Owned business school, not affiliated with any university. Kaplan classifies business schools along four Corners: Culture: Independent of their actual location, business schools can be classified according to whether they follow the European or the US model. Compass: Business schools can be classified along a continuum, with international/ global schools on one end and regional/ local schools on the other. Capital: Business schools can either be publicly funded or funded, for example through endowments or tuition fees. Content: Business school can be classified according to whether a school considers teaching or research to be its primary focus. 1759 – The Aula do Comércio in Lisbon was the first institution to specialise in the teaching of accounting in the world. It provided a model for development of similar government-sponsored schools across Europe, closed in 1844. Therefore, the Aula do. 1819 -- The world's first business school, ESCP Europe was in France.
It is the oldest business school in the world and now has campuses in Berlin, Madrid, Paris and Warsaw. 1855 – The Institut Supérieur de Commerce d'Anvers and the Institut Saint-Ignace – École Spéciale de Commerce et d'Industrie were founded in the same year in the city of Antwerp, Belgium. After getting university status in 1965 and after 150 years of business education and rivalry between each other, both merged in 2003 into what became the University of Antwerp. 1857 – The world's first public business school, Budapest Business School was founded in Budapest in Austria-Hungary as the first business school in Central Europe. 1868 – The Ca' Foscari University was founded in Venice. It is one of the oldest in the world. 1871 – The Rouen Business School which has merged with Reims Management School under the name of NEOMA Business School. Rouen Business School is the second oldest French business school. 1871 – The ESC Le Havre was created. Created the same year than Rouen Business School it is the second oldest French business school.
1881 – The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania is the United States' first business school. HEC Paris was established by the Paris Chamber of Commerce. 1892 – The ESC Lille in northern France which has mergered with CERAM Business School under the name of Skema Business School since 2009. 1898 – On the west coast Haas School of Business is established as the College of Commerce of the University of California with Carl Copping Plehn as the Dean in 1898 and became the first public business school. The Booth School of Business The University of Chicago Booth School of Business traces its beginnings to 1898 when university faculty member James Laurence Laughlin chartered the College of Commerce and Politics. 1898 – Handelshochschule Leipzig, today Leipzig Graduate School of Management, was founded as the first Business School in Germany, so it is the oldest university teaching economics in German speaking regions. 1898 – The University of St. Gallen established the first university in Switzerland teaching business and economics.
1900 – The first graduate school of business in the United States, the Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth College, was founded. The school conferred the first advanced degree in business a Master of Science in Commercial Sciences, the predecessor to the MBA. 1902 – The Birmingham Business School of University of Birmingham is the United Kingdom's first business school. Established as the School of Commerce in Birmingham, United Kingdom. 1903 – The Solvay Brussels School of Economics and Management of Université Libre de Bruxelles is the Belgium's first business school created by an entrepreneur Ernest Solvay, founder of the chemistry company Solvay. 1906 – The Department of Commerce was founded as part of McGill University in Montreal, Canada developing into the Desautels Faculty of Management. 1906 – The Warsaw School of Economics was established as the first university in Poland dedicated to teaching commerce and economics. 1907 – HEC Montréal is founded in Montreal, being the first Schoo