SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Central and Eastern Europe

Central and Eastern Europe, abbreviated CEE, is a term encompassing the countries in Central Europe, the Baltics, Eastern Europe, Southeastern Europe meaning former communist states from the Eastern Bloc in Europe. Scholarly literature uses the abbreviations CEE or CEEC for this term; the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development uses the term "Central and Eastern European Countries" for a group comprising some of these countries. The term CEE includes the Eastern bloc countries west of the post-World War II border with the former Soviet Union; the CEE countries are further subdivided by their accession status to the European Union: the eight first-wave accession countries that joined the EU on 1 May 2004, the two second-wave accession countries that joined on 1 January 2007 and the third-wave accession country that joined on 1 July 2013. According to the World Bank 2008 analysis, the transition to advanced market economies is over for all 10 countries that joined the EU in 2004 and 2007.

The CEE countries include the former socialist states, which extend west of Russia, Ukraine, Moldova. Baltic states Central Europe Central and Eastern European Online Library European Union East-Central Europe Eastern Europe Eastern European Group Eurovoc#Central and Eastern Europe Regions of Europe Southeastern Europe Three Seas Initiative Visegrád Group

Kevin Freeman (equestrian)

1968 Mexico Eventing team Kevin John Freeman is an American equestrian who competed at three Olympic Games, winning silver medals in team eventing in 1964 and 1972. Born in Portland, Freeman grew up on a farm in nearby Molalla. After attending Cornell University, Freeman developed his equestrian skills in California, he competed in the 1963 Pan American Games, earning a gold medal in team competition, a silver as an individual. In 1964, Freeman competed in eventing for the United States at the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo aboard Gallopade, earning a silver medal in team competition and finishing 12th individually. Freeman competed again on the US Team in the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico City riding Chalan. Kevin had ridden Chalan only one time before the Olympics and, the day before the team shipped out for Mexico. In spite of a torrential rain storm on cross-country which obliterated some of the take-offs and landings, the team still won the silver medal, he was inducted into the Oregon Sports Hall of Fame in 1991, in 2009, was inducted into the United States Eventing Association Hall of Fame along with Good Mixture, his horse at the 1972 Olympics.

Freeman lives in the Garden Home neighborhood of Portland

International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants

The International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants is the set of rules and recommendations dealing with the formal botanical names that are given to plants, fungi and a few other groups of organisms, all those "traditionally treated as algae, fungi, or plants". It was called the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature; the current version of the code is the Shenzhen Code adopted by the International Botanical Congress held in Shenzhen, China, in July 2017. As with previous codes, it took effect as soon as it was ratified by the congress, but the documentation of the code in its final form was not published until 26 June 2018; the name of the Code is capitalized and not. The lower-case for "algae and plants" indicates that these terms are not formal names of clades, but indicate groups of organisms that were known by these names and traditionally studied by phycologists and botanists; this includes blue-green algae. There are special provisions in the ICN for some of these groups.

The ICN can only be changed by an International Botanical Congress, with the International Association for Plant Taxonomy providing the supporting infrastructure. Each new edition supersedes the earlier editions and is retroactive back to 1753, except where different starting dates are specified. For the naming of cultivated plants there is a separate code, the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants, which gives rules and recommendations that supplement the ICN. Botanical nomenclature is independent of zoological and viral nomenclature. A botanical name is fixed to a taxon by a type; this is invariably dried plant material and is deposited and preserved in a herbarium, although it may be an image or a preserved culture. Some type collections can be viewed online at the websites of the herbaria in question. A guiding principle in botanical nomenclature is priority, the first publication of a name for a taxon; the formal starting date for purposes of priority is 1 May 1753, the publication of Species Plantarum by Linnaeus.

However, to avoid undesirable effects of strict enforcement of priority, conservation of family and species names is possible. The intent of the Code is that each taxonomic group of plants has only one correct name, accepted worldwide, provided that it has the same circumscription and rank; the value of a scientific name is. Names of taxa are treated as Latin; the rules of nomenclature are retroactive unless there is an explicit statement that this does not apply. The rules governing botanical nomenclature have a long and tumultuous history, dating back to dissatisfaction with rules that were established in 1843 to govern zoological nomenclature; the first set of international rules was the Lois de la nomenclature botanique, adopted as the "best guide to follow for botanical nomenclature" at an "International Botanical Congress" convened in Paris in 1867. Unlike modern codes, it was not enforced, it was organized as six sections with 68 articles in total. Multiple attempts to bring more "expedient" or more equitable practice to botanical nomenclature resulted in several competing codes, which reached a compromise with the 1930 congress.

In the meantime, the second edition of the international rules followed the Vienna congress in 1905. These rules were published as the Règles internationales de la Nomenclature botanique adoptées par le Congrès International de Botanique de Vienne 1905. Informally they are referred to as the Vienna Rules; some but not all subsequent meetings of the International Botanical Congress have produced revised versions of these Rules called the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants. The Nomenclature Section of the 18th International Botanical Congress in Melbourne, Australia made major changes: The Code now permits electronic-only publication of names of new taxa; the requirement for a Latin validating diagnosis or description was changed to allow either English or Latin for these essential components of the publication of a new name. "One fungus, one name" and "one fossil, one name" are important changes. As an experiment with "registration of names", new fungal descriptions require the use of an identifier from "a recognized repository".

Some important versions are listed below. Specific to botany Author citation Botanical name Botanical nomenclature International Association for Plant Taxonomy International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants International Plant Names Index Correct name Infraspecific name Hybrid name More general Glossary of scientific naming Binomial nomenclature Nomenclature codes Scientific classification Undescribed species