International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
International Phonetic Association
The International Phonetic Association is an organization that promotes the scientific study of phonetics and the various practical applications of that science. The IPA’s major contribution to phonetics is the International Phonetic Alphabet—a notational standard for the representation of all languages. The acronym IPA is used to refer to both the association and the alphabet, the IPA publishes the Journal of the International Phonetic Association. In addition, it arranges for the quadrennial International Congress of Phonetic Sciences through its affiliate, the group, led by Paul Passy, called itself initially Dhi Fonètik Tîcerz Asóciécon. The IPA’s early peak of membership and influence in education circles was around 1914, world War I and its aftermath severely disrupted the Associations activities, and the Journal did not resume regular publication until 1922. Since then, there have been several sets of changes to the Alphabet, the IPA has given examinations in phonetics since 1908, awarding Certificates of Proficiency in the phonetics of English, French, or German.
List of phonetics topics Language reform International Phonetic Association, handbook of the International Phonetic Association, A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet
Manner of articulation
In articulatory phonetics, the manner of articulation is the configuration and interaction of the articulators when making a speech sound. One parameter of manner is stricture, that is, how closely the speech organs approach one another, others include those involved in the r-like sounds, and the sibilancy of fricatives. For consonants, the place of articulation and the degree of phonation of voicing are considered separately from manner, homorganic consonants, which have the same place of articulation, may have different manners of articulation. Often nasality and laterality are included in manner, but some phoneticians, such as Peter Ladefoged, from greatest to least stricture, speech sounds may be classified along a cline as stop consonants, fricative consonants and vowels. Affricates often behave as if they were intermediate stops and fricatives, but phonetically they are sequences of a stop and fricative. Over time, sounds in a language may move along this cline toward less stricture in a process called lenition, sibilants are distinguished from other fricatives by the shape of the tongue and how the airflow is directed over the teeth.
Fricatives at coronal places of articulation may be sibilant or non-sibilant and flaps are similar to very brief stops. However, their articulation and behavior are enough to be considered a separate manner, rather than just length. Trills involve the vibration of one of the speech organs, since trilling is a separate parameter from stricture, the two may be combined. Increasing the stricture of a typical trill results in a trilled fricative, nasal airflow may be added as an independent parameter to any speech sound. It is most commonly found in nasal occlusives and nasal vowels, but nasalized fricatives, when a sound is not nasal, it is called oral. Laterality is the release of airflow at the side of the tongue and this can be combined with other manners, resulting in lateral approximants, lateral flaps, and lateral fricatives and affricates. Stop, an oral occlusive, where there is occlusion of the vocal tract. Examples include English /p t k/ and /b d ɡ/, if the consonant is voiced, the voicing is the only sound made during occlusion, if it is voiceless, a stop is completely silent.
What we hear as a /p/ or /k/ is the effect that the onset of the occlusion has on the vowel, as well as the release burst. The shape and position of the tongue determine the resonant cavity that gives different stops their characteristic sounds, nasal, a nasal occlusive, where there is occlusion of the oral tract, but air passes through the nose. The shape and position of the tongue determine the resonant cavity that gives different nasals their characteristic sounds, nearly all languages have nasals, the only exceptions being in the area of Puget Sound and a single language on Bougainville Island. Fricative, sometimes called spirant, where there is continuous frication at the place of articulation, examples include English /f, s/, /v, z/, etc
Close-mid central unrounded vowel
The close-mid central unrounded vowel, or high-mid central unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɘ⟩ and this is a mirrored letter e, and should not be confused with the schwa ⟨ə⟩, which is a turned e. It was added to the IPA in 1993, before that, certain older sources transcribe this vowel ⟨ɤ̈⟩. The ⟨ɘ⟩ letter may be used with a lowering diacritic ⟨ɘ̞⟩, the IPA prefers terms close and open for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms high. To type this symbol on most keyboards and hold the ALT key while typing 600 using the number pad keys and its vowel height is close-mid, known as high-mid, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a close vowel and a mid vowel. Its vowel backness is central, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a front vowel and a back vowel and it is unrounded, which means that the lips are not rounded
Open-mid central rounded vowel
The open-mid central rounded vowel, or low-mid central rounded vowel, is a vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɞ⟩, the symbol is called closed reversed epsilon. It was added to the IPA in 1993, before that, the IPA prefers terms close and open for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms high. The form ⟨ɞ⟩ is considered correct and its vowel height is open-mid, known as low-mid, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between an open vowel and a mid vowel. Its vowel backness is central, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a front vowel and a back vowel and it is rounded, which means that the lips are rounded rather than spread or relaxed
IPA Braille is the modern standard Braille encoding of the International Phonetic Alphabet, as recognized by the International Council on English Braille. A braille version of the IPA was first created by Merrick and Potthoff in 1934 and it was used in France and anglophone countries. However, it was not updated as the IPA evolved, in 1990 it was officially reissued by BAUK, but in a corrupted form that made it largely unworkable. In 1997 BANA created a new system for the United States. However, it was incompatible with braille IPA elsewhere in the world and in addition proved to be cumbersome, in 2008 Robert Englebretson revised the Merrick and Potthoff notation and by 2011 this had been accepted by BANA. It is largely true to the original in consonants and vowels, though the diacritics were completely reworked, the diacritics were made more systematic, and follow rather than precede the base letters. However, it has no procedure for marking tone. IPA Braille does not use the conventions of English Braille and it is set off by slash or square brackets, which indicate that the intervening material is IPA rather than national orthography.
Thus brackets are required in braille even when not used in print, the choice for ⟨ɹ⟩ may reflect the shape of that letter in print. Many of the vowels are used for modified vowels in national alphabets, a few other letters such as ⠹ occur, but only as parts of digraphs. Other IPA letters are indicated with digraphs or even trigraphs usinɡ 5th-decade letters, the component letter ⠲. for example, is equivalent to the tail of the retroflex consonants. This presumably derives from the old IPA practice of using a dot for retroflex consonants. It marks vowels which in print are formed by rotating the letter, is treated as a rotated ⟨o⟩, and ⟨ɯ⟩ as a rotated ⟨u⟩ rather than ⟨m⟩, perhaps facilitated by braille ⟨u⟩ and ⟨m⟩ themselves being a rotated pair. The basic braille letters ⠹ and ⠯, which do not occur on their own in IPA usage, ⠨ is used with letters of the fifth decade for transcriber-defined symbols, which need to be specified for each text, as they have no set meaning. These are ⠨⠂, ⠨⠆, ⠨⠒, ⠨⠲, ⠨⠢, ⠨⠖, ⠨⠶, ⠨⠦, ⠨⠔, ⠨⠴. ⠴ is used for barred vowels. ⠖ is used for other hooks, as in flaps, ⠯ is used for click letters.
These are far more legible in braille than in print, regardless of whether these are written with a tie bar or as actual ligatures in print, are indicated by dot 5, so ⟨t͜ʃ⟩ and ⟨ʧ⟩ are both ⠞⠐⠱. This includes the historic ligatures ⟨ɮ⟩ ⠇⠐⠮ and ⟨ɚ⟩ ⠢⠐⠗, ejectives are written as ligatures with an apostrophe, ⠄, so ⟨tʼ⟩ is ⠞⠐⠄. IPA Braille diacritics are written in two cells, the first indicates the position, whether superscript, mid-line, or subscript
Place of articulation
Along with the manner of articulation and the phonation, it gives the consonant its distinctive sound. The terminology in this article has developed for precisely describing all the consonants in all the worlds spoken languages. No known language distinguishes all of the described here so less precision is needed to distinguish the sounds of a particular language. The human voice produces sounds in the manner, Air pressure from the lungs creates a steady flow of air through the trachea. The vocal folds in the larynx vibrate, creating fluctuations in air pressure and nose openings radiate the sound waves into the environment. The larynx or voice box is a framework of cartilage that serves to anchor the vocal folds. When the muscles of the vocal folds contract, the airflow from the lungs is impeded until the vocal folds are forced apart again by the air pressure from the lungs. The process continues in a cycle that is felt as a vibration. In singing, the frequency of the vocal folds determines the pitch of the sound produced.
Voiced phonemes such as the vowels are, by definition. The lips of the mouth can be used in a way to create a similar sound. A rubber balloon, inflated but not tied off and stretched tightly across the neck produces a squeak or buzz, depending on the tension across the neck, similar actions with similar results occur when the vocal cords are contracted or relaxed across the larynx. k. a. The pharynx The epiglottis at the entrance to the windpipe, above the voice box The regions are not strictly separated. Likewise, the alveolar and post-alveolar regions merge into other, as do the hard and soft palate, the soft palate and the uvula. Terms like pre-velar, post-velar, and upper vs. lower pharyngeal may be used to more precisely where an articulation takes place. The articulatory gesture of the place of articulation involves the more mobile part of the vocal tract. That is unlike coronal gestures involving the front of the tongue, the epiglottis may be active, contacting the pharynx, or passive, being contacted by the aryepiglottal folds.
Distinctions made in these areas are very difficult to observe and are the subject of ongoing investigation
Close central unrounded vowel
The close central unrounded vowel, or high central unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in some languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɨ, both the symbol and the sound are commonly referred to as barred i. In American tradition this symbol denote a different sound, that of the second syllable of roses when distinct from Rosas. Occasionally, this vowel is transcribed ⟨ï⟩ or ⟨ɯ̈⟩, the close central unrounded vowel is the vocalic equivalent of the rare post-palatal approximant. Its vowel backness is central, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a front vowel and a back vowel and it is unrounded, which means that the lips are not rounded. /ɨ/ is uncommon as a phoneme in Indo-European languages, occurring most commonly as an allophone in some Slavic languages, Kaufman & Smith-Stark identify the presence of this vowel phoneme as an areal feature of a Mesoamerican Sprachbund. The sound of Polish ⟨y⟩ is often represented as /ɨ/, but actually it is an advanced central unrounded vowel
Case variants of IPA letters
With the adoption of letters from the International Phonetic Alphabet in various national alphabets, letter case forms have been developed. This usually means capital forms were developed, but in the case of the glottal stop ʔ, the adoption of IPA letters has been particularly notable in Sub-Saharan Africa, in languages such as Hausa, Akan, Gbe languages, Manding languages, and Lingala. The most common are open o ⟨Ɔ ɔ⟩, open e ⟨Ɛ ɛ⟩, and eng ⟨Ŋ ŋ⟩, but several others are found. Kabiyé of northern Togo, for example, has ⟨Ɔ ɔ, Ɛ ɛ, Ɖ ɖ, Ŋ ŋ, Ɣ ɣ, Ʃ ʃ, Ʊ ʊ⟩, as in this newspaper headline, MBƱ AJƐYA KIGBƐNDƱƱ ŊGBƐYƐ KEDIƔZAƔ SƆSƆƆ TƆM SE. Some of the IPA letters that were adopted into language orthographies have since become obsolete in the IPA itself, others letters are the graphic equivalent of IPA capitals, but are not identified with the IPA. Examples are ɟ Ɉ, ʎ , ɹ ꓤ
A retroflex consonant is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate. They are sometimes referred to as cerebral consonants, especially in Indology, other terms occasionally encountered are domal and cacuminal. The Latin-derived word retroflex means bent back, some consonants are pronounced with the tongue fully curled back so that articulation involves the underside of the tongue tip. These sounds are described as true retroflex consonants. Retroflex consonants, like other consonants, come in several varieties. The tongue may be flat or concave, or even with the tip curled back. The point of contact on the tongue may be with the tip, with the blade, the point of contact on the roof of the mouth may be with the alveolar ridge, the area behind the alveolar ridge, or the hard palate. Finally, both sibilant and nonsibilant consonants can have a retroflex articulation, the greatest variety of combinations occurs with sibilants, because for these, small changes in tongue shape and position cause significant changes in the resulting sound.
Retroflex sounds in general have a duller, lower-pitched sound than other alveolar or postalveolar consonants, and especially the grooved alveolar sibilants. The farther back the point of contact with the roof of the mouth, the concave is the shape of the tongue. The main combinations normally observed are, Laminal post-alveolar, with a flat tongue and these occur, for example, in Polish cz, sz, ż, dż and Mandarin zh, ch, sh, r. Apical post-alveolar, with a somewhat concave tongue and these occur, for example, in Hindi and other Indo-Aryan languages. Subapical palatal, with a highly concave tongue and these occur particularly in the Dravidian languages. These are the dullest and lowest-pitched type, and when following a vowel often add strong r-coloring to the vowel and these are not a place of articulation, as the IPA chart implies, but a shape of the tongue analogous to laminal and apical. Apical alveolar, with a somewhat concave tongue and these occur, for example, in peninsular Spanish and Basque.
These sounds dont quite fit on the front-to-back, laminal-to-subapical continuum, with a relatively dull, the subapical sounds are sometimes called true retroflex because of the curled-back shape of the tongue, while the other sounds sometimes go by other names. For example and Maddieson prefer to call the laminal post-alveolar sounds flat post-alveolar, the retroflex approximant /ɻ/ is an allophone of the alveolar approximant /ɹ/ in many dialects of American English, particularly in the Midwestern United States. Polish and Russian possess retroflex sibilants, but no stops or liquids at this place of articulation, in African languages retroflex consonants are very rare, reportedly occurring in a few Nilo-Saharan languages
Phonetic symbols in Unicode
Unicode supports several phonetic scripts and notations through the existing writing systems and the addition of extra blocks with phonetic characters. These phonetic extras are derived of a script, usually Latin. In Unicode there is no IPA script, apart from IPA, extensions to the IPA and obsolete and nonstandard IPA symbols, these blocks contain characters from the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet and the Americanist Phonetic Alphabet. The International Phonetic Alphabet makes use of letters from other writing systems as most phonetic scripts do, IPA notably uses Latin and Cyrillic characters. Combining diacritics adds meaning to the phonetic text, these phonetic alphabets make use of modifier letters, that are specially constructed for the phonetic meaning. For example, ʰ should not occur on its own but modifies the preceding or following symbol, thus, tʰ is a single IPA symbol, distinct from t. In practice, several of these letters are used as full graphemes, e. g. ʿ as transliterating Semitic ayin or Hawaiian okina.
The following tables indicates the Unicode code point sequences for phonemes as used in the International Phonetic Alphabet, a bold code point indicates that the Unicode chart provides an application note such as voiced retroflex lateral for U+026D ɭ LATIN SMALL LETTER L WITH RETROFLEX HOOK. Vowels appearing in pairs in the figure to the right indicate rounded and unrounded variations respectively, characters with Unicode names referring to phonemes are indicated by bold text. Those with explicit application notes are indicated by bold italic text and those from borrowed unchanged from another script are indicated by italics. The characters in the Spacing Modifier Letters block are intended as forming a unity with the preceding letter, diacritics are not always properly rendered, however. These all include several ranges of characters in addition to the IPA, modern Web browsers generally do not need any configuration to display these symbols, provided that a font capable of doing so is available to the operating system.
Further Information, Unicode input#Selection from a screen Many systems provide a way to select Unicode characters visually, ISO14755 refers to this as a screen-selection entry method. Microsoft Windows has provided a Unicode version of the Character Map program since version NT4.0 – appearing in the edition since XP. This is limited to characters in the Basic Multilingual Plane, characters are searchable by Unicode character name, and the table can be limited to a particular code block. More advanced third-party tools of the type are available. MacOS provides a character palette with much the same functionality, along with searching by related characters, glyph tables in a font, etc. It can be enabled in the menu in the menu bar under System Preferences → International → Input Menu or can be viewed under Edit → Emoji & Symbols in many programs
Open-mid central unrounded vowel
The open-mid central unrounded vowel, or low-mid central unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɜ⟩, the IPA symbol is not the digit ⟨3⟩ or the Cyrillic small letter Ze. The symbol is instead a reversed Latinized variant of the lowercase epsilon, the value was specified only in 1993, until then, it had been transcribed ⟨ɛ̈⟩. The IPA prefers terms close and open for vowels, and the name of the article follows this, however, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms high and low. Its vowel height is open-mid, known as low-mid, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a vowel and a mid vowel. Its vowel backness is central, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a front vowel and a back vowel and it is unrounded, which means that the lips are not rounded