Swedish Anarcho-syndicalist Youth Federation
The Swedish Anarcho-Syndicalist Youth Federation, is a youth-based group in Sweden that supports independent working class struggle. The federation was founded in 1993, in part rooted in the militant autonomous youth movement that had begun to grow throughout Scandinavia in the early 1990s. Inspiration came from the anarcho-syndicalist trade union Central Organisation of the Workers of Sweden. From just three groups in 1993 it grew and today it is a nationwide federation made up of around 25 local groups, located throughout the entire country. Aside from the Samordningsgruppen, SOG. Since the early 1990s, the SUF published a magazine called Direkt Aktion. SUF is, in contrast to its anarcho-syndicalist beliefs, not a union, their idea of anarcho-syndicalism expands beyond the daily labour union activity, claims that in a global community where capitalist relations have expanded into all parts of society, a broader movement and a broader definition of class struggle is needed. Thus, they believe it is necessary to confront capitalism not only in workplaces, but in schools, local communities, etc.
The network Planka.nu was initiated as a campaign by SUF in 2001. The campaign dealt with public transportation, seeking a shift from soaring prices to a tax-financed model; the campaign got a lot of attention because of the unorthodox methods. Nu jävlar är det nog, was a nationwide anti-racist campaign initiated by SUF on August 24, 2004 and ended February 1, 2005, it claimed to be different from other anti-racist campaigns in that it took in account factors such as social class. Klasskampen tar inte semester - "There is no vacation for the class struggle" - was SUF's nationwide campaign about summer jobs, it lasted for five months, from May 1 to October 1, 2005. It was criticized for encouraging people to commit illegal acts; the nationwide campaign Osynliga partiet was initiated by SUF. The campaign first received media attention when winner of the political reality show Toppkandidaterna, Petter Nilsson, donated part of his prize to SUF for financing part of the campaign, criticized after the offices of the Centre Party were vandalized following their announcement of their intention to dismantle the Employment Security Act, with the logo of the campaign found at the site.
In addition to this, a few offices of the Christian Democrats were attacked. Central Organisation of the Workers of Sweden, Sveriges Arbetares Centralorganisation Invisible Party, Osynliga Partiet - a campaign initiated by SUF Direkt Aktion Official website A short introduction to SUF
The Riksdag is the national legislature and the supreme decision-making body of Sweden. Since 1971, the Riksdag has been a unicameral legislature with 349 members, elected proportionally and serving, from 1994 onwards, on fixed four-year terms; the constitutional functions of the Riksdag are enumerated in the Instrument of Government, its internal workings are specified in greater detail in the Riksdag Act. The seat of the Riksdag is at Parliament House, on the island of Helgeandsholmen in the central parts of Stockholm; the Riksdag has its institutional roots in the feudal Riksdag of the Estates, by tradition thought to have first assembled in Arboga in 1435, in 1866 following reforms of the 1809 Instrument of Government that body was transformed into a bicameral legislature with an upper chamber and a lower chamber. The most recent general election was held on 9 September 2018; the Swedish word riksdag, in definite form riksdagen, is a general term for "parliament" or "assembly", but it is only used for Sweden's legislature and certain related institutions.
In addition to Sweden's parliament, it is used for the Parliament of Finland and the Estonian Riigikogu, as well as the historical German Reichstag and the Danish Rigsdagen. In Swedish use, riksdagen is uncapitalized. Riksdag derives from the genitive of rike, referring to royal power, dag, meaning diet or conference; the Oxford English Dictionary traces English use of the term "Riksdag" in reference to the Swedish assembly back to 1855. The roots of the modern Riksdag can be found in a 1435 meeting of the Swedish nobility in the city of Arboga; this informal organization was modified in 1527 by the first modern Swedish king Gustav I Vasa to include representatives from all the four social estates: the nobility, the clergy, the burghers, the yeomanry. This form of Ständestaat representation lasted until 1865, when representation by estate was abolished and the modern bicameral parliament established. However, it did not become a parliament in the modern sense until parliamentary principles were established in the political system in Sweden, in 1917.
On 22 June 1866, the Riksdag decided to reconstitute itself as a bicameral legislature, consisting of Första kammaren or the First Chamber, with 155 members and Andra kammaren or the Second Chamber with 233 members. The First Chamber was indirectly elected by county and city councillors, while the Second Chamber was directly elected by universal suffrage; this reform was a result of great malcontent with the old Estates, following the changes brought by the beginnings of the industrial revolution, was no longer able to provide representation for large segments of the population. By an amendment to the 1809 Instrument of Government, the general election of 1970 was the first to a unicameral assembly with 350 seats; the following general election to the unicameral Riksdag in 1973 only gave the Government the support of 175 members, while the opposition could mobilize an equal force of 175 members. In a number of cases a tied vote ensued, the final decision had to be determined by lot. To avoid any reccurrence of this unstable situation, the number of seats in the Riksdag was reduced to 349, from 1976 onwards.
The Riksdag performs the normal functions of a legislature in a parliamentary democracy. It amends the constitution and appoints a government. In most parliamentary democracies, the head of state commissions a politician to form a government. Under the new Instrument of Government enacted in 1974, that task was removed from the Monarch of Sweden and given to the Speaker of the Riksdag. To make changes to the Constitution under the new Instrument of Government, amendments must be approved twice, in two successive electoral periods with a regular general election held in between. There are 15 parliamentary committees in the Riksdag; as of February 2013, 44.7 percent of the members of the Riksdag are women. This is the world's fourth highest proportion of females in a national legislature—behind only the Parliaments of Rwanda and Cuba – hence the second-highest in the developed world and among parliamentary democracies. Following the 2014 elections, in which the share of Liberal female members of parliament plunged and the Sweden Democrats more than doubled their seats, the figure dropped to 43,5%.
Only the Left Party has a majority of female MPs. Members of the Riksdag are full-time legislators with a salary of 66 900 SEK per month. According to a survey investigation by the sociologist Jenny Hansson, Members of the Riksdag have an average work week of 66 hours, including side responsibilities. Hansson's investigation further reports; the presidium consists of three deputy speakers. They are elected for a 4-year term. After holding talks with leaders of the various party groups in the Riksdag, the speaker of the Riksdag nominates a Prime Minister; the nomination is put to a vote. The nomination is rejected only if an absolute majority of the members vote "no"; this means the Riksdag can consent to a Prime Min
Moderate Youth League
The Moderate Youth League known in English as the Swedish Young Conservatives, is the youth wing of the Swedish Moderate Party. It had 13 500 members by the beginning of 2019. Of the political youth organizations that received financial support from the Swedish National Board for Youth Affairs in 2009, it had the highest number of members; the Moderate Youth League is more radical than the mother party. It is pro-market, pro-American, pro-Israeli and liberal in social issues such as abortion, gay rights and supports legalization of illegal file sharing and alcohol manufacturing for private, nonprofit purposes, its official ideologies are conservatism. The Moderate Youth League was formed in 1934 as the Young Swedes as a consequence of the split between the Moderate Party and its youth organization, the National Youth League of Sweden which had turned into an pro-Nazi organization. In 1946 the organization changed its name to the Youth Association of the Right; the current name was adopted in 1969.
The Moderate Youth League is led by a national executive committee, elected every two years at the national congress. The President is supported by two vice-chairmen. Members of the national executive have served at district level first; the current chairman, for example, used to be chairman of the Stockholm district. The national chairman sits on the national board of the Moderate Party. Districts follow county borders; the largest one is Stockholm, followed by Skåne. They maintain a rivalry. Other large districts include Östergötland; the Young Conservative Moderates are an internal faction of the Moderate Youth League. It was founded in 2004 as Mörkblått värn, but changed to its current name after the founder left to join the Christian Democrats. Young Conservative Moderates seek to promote a conservative alternative to the current dominance of liberalism within the organisation; the organisation compromises both neoconservatives. The Moderate School Youth is a part of the organisation and includes all MUF members between 12 and 20 years of age.
At the annual conference, a national executive is elected. They are more of an elite campaigning team which travel around Sweden; the national chairman has a place on the national executive of the Youth League. The current chairman, since 2019, is Dalila Alibasic. In 2008, the Moderate Students was founded as a student network within the Moderate Youth League and it has since grown to become the largest student political organization in Sweden, it is the official student organization of the Moderate Youth League, the youth wing of the Swedish Moderate Party. Moderate Students is a national organization consisting of student associations on various universities and campuses in Sweden. Individual membership is sorted by district. Moderate Students existed as a party in the student union at Lund University, before the union was dissolved in 1998. Today, the Moderate Students exist as parties at other universities, such as Uppsala University and Umeå University. Moderate Students focuses on students' economical situations.
They have advocated for an extended "work-tax reduction" for young people and for removing taxes on work and studies in general. They want to repeal the tax on students who take out a student loan and work in addition to their studies, they have become involved in discussions about the availability of student housing. The 2009 Moderate Students national board consisted of chairman Caroline Garsbo, first vice chairman Jonas Grafström, second vice chairman Anna Alriksson, Erik Persson, Pirita Isegran, Cecilia Hellgren; the 2010 board was led by first vice chairman Michael Wigg. Additional members included Lars Hindrum, Ida Drougge, Evelina Kogsta, Péteris Timofejevs Henriksson; the 2011 board was led by chairman Ida Drougge, first vice chairman Andrea Ström, second vice chairman Alexandra Westman. Additional members included Evelina Kogsta, Erik Raita, Simon Vallin, Petter Krönmark; the 2012 board was chaired by Andrea Ström, with Filip Solsjö and Olivia Andersson serving as first and second vice chairmen, respectively.
Additional members included Jeanette Widén, Erik Gestrinius, Therese Lindström, Clara Enocson. The 2014 board, was chaired by Benjamin Dousa, with Armend Dushica and Annie Widerberg serving as first and second vice chairmen, respectively. Additional members included Caroline Jarbratt, Mikael Persson, Jesper Skalberg Karlsson and Denice Sigvardsson; the 2015 board, was chaired by Benjamin Dousa, with Sofia Axelsson and John Eklöf serving as first and second vice chairmen, respectively. Additional members included Ina Djureståhl, Sara Elingfors and Denice Sigvardsson; the 2016 board, was chaired by Ina Djurestål, with Klas Vestergren and Sofia Lindbom serving as first and second vice chairmen, respectively. Additional members included Sofia Andersson, Sara Persson and Lucas Kramer; the 2017 board, was chaired by Ina Djurestål, with Sofia Andersson and Greta Eulau serving as first and second vice chairmen, respectively. Additional members include Sarah Ullmark, Clara Albinsson and John Backvid; the current board, as of 2018, is chaired by Greta Eulau, with Kristoffer Sundström and Roosa Porthén serving as first and second vice chairmen, respectively.
Additional members include Karl Opdal, Pasi H
Revolutionary Communist Youth (Sweden)
The Revolutionary Communist Youth is the youth wing of the Swedish Communist Party. It was founded in 1994 as a successor of the Young Communist League of Sweden, which existed 1972-1978. RKU publishes; the organization participates at the World Festivals of Youth and Students, arranged by the World Federation of Democratic Youth. The organization believes that capitalist society is not capable of satisfying the needs of the people. RKU believes that there are clear examples of capitalism's failure in Sweden, with alleged high unemployment and worsening education system, while large corporations make billions in profits. RKU believes that the only long-term solution to the problems of capitalism is a violent revolutionary rearrangement of society at large, the construction of a new socialist society, where production will be organised from people's needs. RKU emphasizes that the envisioned socialist society must be democratic and controlled by the working class. Rebell is a Swedish youth magazine published by the Revolutionary Communist Youth.
It was founded in 1994. Revolutionary Communist Youth
Young Left (Sweden)
Young Left is a socialist and feminist youth organisation. It is the official youth wing of the Swedish Left Party; the organisation calls themselves a"revolutionary youth organisation with roots in the communist part of the labour movement". Young Left is a socialist and feminist political youth organisation committed to organising young people to work for social change that evolved out of the labour movement, with influences from environmentalism, the peace movement, the feminist movement. Young Left works for social justice and a society characterised by equality, generous welfare provisions for all citizens, generous immigration policies, respect for the environment; as its mother party, the Left Party, as well as the Social Democratic Party, Young Left is a strong supporter of the Swedish labour unions and the Swedish model, with conditions of work such as wages being regulated in branch-level collective agreements between the unions and the employers, rather than on individual basis. Ung Vänster has had various names and political alignments over the years, but is continuously characterised by the issues that have been at the centre of its history, such as antifascism, social justice and justice.
During the past years, the main focus of the organisation has been the struggle against growing xenophobia in Sweden and criticism of the right government, in particular on its privatisations of welfare services and priorities of tax reductions, rather than increased public spending on welfare and investments in infrastructure and renewable energy. In difference of the Left Party, the Young Left are a revolutionary socialist organisation, not reformist; that means that they want to change the society by a revolution, not with reforms. Young Left work together with and support the Left Party and Vänsterns Studentförbund, but makes on the basis of its own analyses independent decisions regarding organisational and political issues. Young Left was founded in 1903 as Socialdemokratiska Ungdomsförbundet. However, the youth league has attached itself to the left-wing within the Social Democratic Party. At the outbreak of the First World War, the tensions within the party aggravated. In May 1917, the youth league together with the left-wing faction within the party took the initiative to form a new party, Sverges socialdemokratiska vänsterparti.
SDUF became the youth wing of the new party. SSV joined the Communist International in 1919, was renamed to Sveriges kommunistiska parti. Following that, SDUF was renamed to Sveriges Kommunistiska Ungdomförbund, became the Swedish section of the Communist Youth International. In 1952, Democratic Youth was founded on the initiative of the party, in order to be a broader youth movement; until 1958, SKU and DU existed as parallel organisations. In 1958, the two organisations merged and took the name DU. In 1967, ultra-left elements took over the organisation, broke away to form Marxist-leninistiska kampförbundet. Reconstruction work started rapidly. In 1970, the organisation was re-baptised as Kommunistisk Ungdom. By 1973, there was a national organisation in function, and, by 1975, an ordinary congress was held. Young Left have published the youth magazine Röd Press since 1982, when Young Left lost the rights of its magazine Stormklockan to the Maoist MLK in a trial. In Sweden, Young Left was one of the many forces behind the large 15 February 2003 anti-war protest.
Under the years of the 2010s, different members of the Young Left have been excluded because of strong couplings to the Revolutionary Front and the AFA. The national executive board have been doing both official cut-offs in these cases; this is because these groups are not deemed compatible with the democratic socialism and anti-racism fight that the Young Left are driving. The party board of the Left Party has been advising for hard consequences in these situations. After having had a stable membership of between 1,500 – 2,800 for a number of years, the membership of the youth organisation had declined to 964 in 2016 according to the Swedish Agency for Youth and Civil Society. 2017- Henrik Malmrot 2015-2017 Hanna Cederin 2011-2015 Stefan Lindborg 2005-2011 Ida Gabrielsson 2004-2005 Tove Fraurud 2001-2004 Ali Esbati 1996-2001 Jenny Lindahl Persson 1993-1996 Jenny Jederlund 1989-1993 Magnus Blomgren 1980-1989 Stellan Hermansson 1975-1980 Lars Johansson 1973-1975 Bengt Karlsson 1970-1973 Spokespersons: Bengt Karlsson, Urban Herlitz 1967-1970 Anders Carlberg 1964-1967 Kjell E Johansson 1962-1964 Rolf Hagel 1957-1962 Rolf Utberg 1951-1958 Urban Karlsson 19??-1951 Axel Jansson?
1935-1939 Filip Forsberg? 1921-1924 Nils Flyg 191?-1921 Zeth Höglund 1908-1909 Per Albin Hansson 190?-190? Fabian Månsson 1903- 1903 Socialdemokratiska Ungdomsförbund 1921 Sveriges Kommunistiska Ungdomsförbund 1958 Demokratisk Ungdom 1967 Vänsterns Ungdomsförbund 1970 Kommunistisk Ungdom 1991 Ung Vänster Official website
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries. The city stretches across fourteen islands. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago; the area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is the capital of Stockholm County. Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden; the Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the country's GDP, is among the top 10 regions in Europe by GDP per capita. It is an important global city, the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region; the city is home to some of Europe's top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and Royal Institute of Technology. It hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the city's most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited non-art museum in Scandinavia.
The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is well known for the decor of its stations. Sweden's national football arena is located north of the city centre, in Solna. Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city; the city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister; the government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, the Prime Minister's residence is adjacent at Sager House. Stockholm Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the Swedish monarch, while Drottningholm Palace, a World Heritage Site on the outskirts of Stockholm, serves as the Royal Family's private residence. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BC, there were many people living in what is today the Stockholm area, but as temperatures dropped, inhabitants moved south.
Thousands of years as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable and the lands became fertile, people began to migrate back to the North. At the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings, they had a positive trade impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholm's location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne; the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade. The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification; the second part of the name means islet, is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. According to Eric Chronicles the city is said to have been founded by Birger Jarl to protect Sweden from sea invasions made by Karelians after the pillage of Sigtuna on Lake Mälaren in the summer of 1187.
Stockholm's core, the present Old Town was built on the central island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid-13th century onward. The city rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League. Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time. Between 1296 and 1478 Stockholm's City Council was made up of 24 members, half of whom were selected from the town's German-speaking burghers; the strategic and economic importance of the city made Stockholm an important factor in relations between the Danish Kings of the Kalmar Union and the national independence movement in the 15th century. The Danish King Christian II was able to enter the city in 1520. On 8 November 1520 a massacre of opposition figures called the Stockholm Bloodbath took place and set off further uprisings that led to the breakup of the Kalmar Union. With the accession of Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the establishment of a royal power, the population of Stockholm began to grow, reaching 10,000 by 1600.
The 17th century saw Sweden grow into a major European power, reflected in the development of the city of Stockholm. From 1610 to 1680 the population multiplied sixfold. In 1634, Stockholm became the official capital of the Swedish empire. Trading rules were created that gave Stockholm an essential monopoly over trade between foreign merchants and other Swedish and Scandinavian territories. In 1697, Tre Kronor was replaced by Stockholm Palace. In 1710, a plague killed about 20,000 of the population. After the end of the Great Northern War the city stagnated. Population growth halted and economic growth slowed; the city was in shock after having lost its place as the capital of a Great power. However, Stockholm maintained its role as the political centre of Sweden and continued to develop culturally under Gustav III. By the second half of the 19th century, Stockholm had regained its leading economic role. New industries emerged and Stockholm was transformed into an important trade and service centre as well as a key gateway point within Sweden.
The population grew during this time through immigration. At the end