Metz is a city in northeast France located at the confluence of the Moselle and the Seille rivers. Metz is the prefecture of the Moselle department and the seat of the parliament of the Great East region, located near the tripoint along the junction of France and Luxembourg, the city forms a central place of the European Greater Region and the SaarLorLux euroregion. The city has been steeped in Romance culture, but has strongly influenced by Germanic culture due to its location. Because of its historical and architectural background, Metz has been submitted on Frances UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List, Metz is home to some world-class venues including the Arsenal Concert Hall and the Centre Pompidou-Metz museum. A basin of urban ecology, Metz gained its nickname of The Green City, as it has extensive open grounds, the historic city centre is one of the largest commercial pedestrian areas in France. A historic garrison town, Metz is the heart of the Lorraine region, specialising in information technology.
In ancient times, the town was known as city of Mediomatrici, after its integration into the Roman Empire, the city was called Divodurum Mediomatricum, meaning Holy Village or Holy Fortress of the Mediomatrici, it was known as Mediomatrix. During the 5th century AD, the name evolved to Mettis, Metz has a recorded history dating back over 3,000 years. Before the conquest of Gaul by Julius Caesar in 52 BC, between the 6th and 8th centuries, the city was the residence of the Merovingian kings of Austrasia. After the Treaty of Verdun in 843, Metz became the capital of the Kingdom of Lotharingia and was integrated into the Holy Roman Empire. During the 12th century, Metz rose to the status of Republic, with the signature of the Treaty of Chambord in 1552, Metz passed to the hands of the Kings of France. Under French rule, Metz was selected as capital of the Three Bishoprics, with creation of the departments by the Estates-General of 1789, Metz was chosen as capital of the Department of Moselle. Metz remained German until the end of World War I, when it reverted to France, after the Battle of France during the Second World War, the city was annexed once more by the German Third Reich.
In 1944, the attack on the city by the U. S, Third Army freed the city from German rule and Metz reverted one more time to France after World War II. During the 1950s, Metz was chosen to be the capital of the newly created Lorraine region, with the creation of the European Community and the European Union, the city has become central to the Greater Region and the SaarLorLux Euroregion. Metz is located on the banks of the Moselle and the Seille rivers,43 km from the Schengen tripoint where the borders of France and Luxembourg meet. The city was built in a place where branches of the Moselle river creates several islands. The terrain of Metz forms part of the Paris Basin and presents a plateau relief cut by river valleys presenting cuestas in the north-south direction
Irwin Allen Ginsberg was an American poet of Jewish origin, and one of the leading figures of both the Beat Generation of the 1950s and the counterculture that soon would follow. He was one of many influential American writers of his known as the Beat Generation. Ginsberg is best known for his poem Howl, in which he denounced what he saw as the forces of capitalism. In 1956, Howl was seized by San Francisco police and US Customs. S, Howl reflected Ginsbergs own homosexuality and his relationships with a number of men, including Peter Orlovsky, his lifelong partner. Judge Clayton W. Horn ruled that Howl was not obscene, Ginsberg was a practicing Buddhist who studied Eastern religious disciplines extensively. He lived modestly, buying his clothing in stores and residing in downscale apartments in New York’s East Village. One of his most influential teachers was the Tibetan Buddhist the Venerable Chögyam Trungpa, at Trungpas urging and poet Anne Waldman started The Jack Kerouac School of Disembodied Poetics there in 1974.
Ginsberg took part in decades of non-violent political protest against everything from the Vietnam War to the War on Drugs and his collection The Fall of America shared the annual U. S. National Book Award for Poetry in 1974. In 1979 he received the National Arts Club gold medal and was inducted into the American Academy and Institute of Arts, Ginsberg was a Pulitzer Prize finalist in 1995 for his book Cosmopolitan Greetings, Poems 1986–1992. Ginsberg was born into a Jewish family in Newark, New Jersey, as a young teenager, Ginsberg began to write letters to The New York Times about political issues, such as World War II and workers rights. While in high school, Ginsberg began reading Walt Whitman, inspired by his teachers passionate reading, in 1945, he joined the Merchant Marines to earn money to continue his education at Columbia. Ginsberg has stated that he considered the required freshman seminar to be his favorite course while at Columbia University and its subject was The Great Books and was taught by Lionel Trilling.
According to The Poetry Foundation, Ginsberg spent several months in an institution after he pleaded insanity during a hearing. He was allegedly being prosecuted for harboring stolen goods in his dorm room and it was noted that the stolen property was not his, but belonged to an acquaintance. Ginsberg referred to his parents, in a 1985 interview, as old-fashioned delicatessen philosophers and his father Louis Ginsberg was a published poet and a high school teacher. Ginsbergs mother, Naomi Livergant Ginsberg, was affected by an illness that was never properly diagnosed. She was a member of the Communist Party and took Ginsberg. Ginsberg said that his mother made up stories that all went something like, The good king rode forth from his castle, saw the suffering workers
Outside of Europe, a number of overseas territories of EU members use the euro as their currency. Additionally,210 million people worldwide as of 2013 use currencies pegged to the euro, the euro is the second largest reserve currency as well as the second most traded currency in the world after the United States dollar. The name euro was adopted on 16 December 1995 in Madrid. The euro was introduced to world markets as an accounting currency on 1 January 1999. While the euro dropped subsequently to US$0.8252 within two years, it has traded above the U. S. dollar since the end of 2002, peaking at US$1.6038 on 18 July 2008. In July 2012, the euro fell below US$1.21 for the first time in two years, following concerns raised over Greek debt and Spains troubled banking sector, as of 26 March 2017, the euro–dollar exchange rate stands at ~ US$1.07. The euro is managed and administered by the Frankfurt-based European Central Bank, as an independent central bank, the ECB has sole authority to set monetary policy.
The Eurosystem participates in the printing and distribution of notes and coins in all states. The 1992 Maastricht Treaty obliges most EU member states to adopt the euro upon meeting certain monetary and budgetary convergence criteria, all nations that have joined the EU since 1993 have pledged to adopt the euro in due course. Since 5 January 2002, the central banks and the ECB have issued euro banknotes on a joint basis. Euro banknotes do not show which central bank issued them, Eurosystem NCBs are required to accept euro banknotes put into circulation by other Eurosystem members and these banknotes are not repatriated. The ECB issues 8% of the value of banknotes issued by the Eurosystem. In practice, the ECBs banknotes are put into circulation by the NCBs and these liabilities carry interest at the main refinancing rate of the ECB. The euro is divided into 100 cents, in Community legislative acts the plural forms of euro and cent are spelled without the s, notwithstanding normal English usage.
Otherwise, normal English plurals are used, with many local variations such as centime in France. All circulating coins have a side showing the denomination or value. Due to the plurality in the European Union, the Latin alphabet version of euro is used. For the denominations except the 1-, 2- and 5-cent coins, beginning in 2007 or 2008 the old map is being replaced by a map of Europe showing countries outside the Union like Norway
Sustainable gardening includes the more specific sustainable landscapes, sustainable landscape design, sustainable landscaping, sustainable landscape architecture, resulting in sustainable sites. Organic gardening and the use of plants are integral to sustainable gardening. On Sustainability in Horticulture and a Declaration for the 21st Century, the principles and objectives outlined at this conference were discussed in more practical terms at the following conference at Seoul in 2006. These practices were established as movements for self-sufficiency and small-scale farming based on a systems approach. Included here would be, biodynamic agriculture, no-till farming, Fukuoka farming, forest gardening, organic gardening and others. On a larger scale there is the more recent whole farm planning which was established in 1995, and ecoagriculture established in 2000, managing global biophysical cycles and ecosystem services for the benefit of humans, other organisms and future generations has now become a global human responsibility.
The method of applying sustainability to gardens and sites is still under development, there are a number of basic and common underlying biological and operational principles and practices in the sustainable sites literature. Sustainable management of man-made landscapes emulates the natural processes that sustain the biosphere and foremost is the harnessing the energy of the Sun and the cycling of materials thereby minimising waste and energy use. The use of plants in a garden or landscape can both preserve and protect natural ecosystems, and reduce the amount of care and energy required to maintain a healthy garden or landscape. Native plants are adapted to the climate and geology. Native plants support populations of birds and other animals that they coevolved with. Plants in a garden or maintained landscape often form a population from which plants can colonize new areas. Avoiding the use of invasive species helps to prevent such plants from establishing new populations, the use of native species can provide a valuable source to help these plants colonise new areas.
Some non-native species can form an ecological trap in which species are lured into an environment that appears attractive but is poorly suited to them. The findings were published in form in Ken Thompsons book No Nettles Required. He confirms the approach which Chris Baines had promoted in How to Make a Wildlife Garden, enhancement of ecosystem services is encouraged throughout the lifecycle of any site by providing clear design and management criteria. To be sustainable over the term requires environmental, social. Impacts of a site can be assessed and measured over any scale or context
Polytetrafluoroethylene is a synthetic fluoropolymer of tetrafluoroethylene that has numerous applications. The best known name of PTFE-based formulas is Teflon by Chemours. Chemours is a spin-off of DuPont Co. which discovered the compound in 1938, PTFE is a fluorocarbon solid, as it is a high-molecular-weight compound consisting wholly of carbon and fluorine. PTFE is hydrophobic, neither water nor water-containing substances wet PTFE, PTFE has one of the lowest coefficients of friction of any solid. PTFE is used as a coating for pans and other cookware. It is very non-reactive, partly because of the strength of carbon–fluorine bonds, where used as a lubricant, PTFE reduces friction and energy consumption of machinery. It is commonly used as a material in surgical interventions. Also, it is employed as coating on catheters, this interferes with the ability of bacteria and other infectious agents to adhere to catheters. PTFE was accidentally discovered in 1938 by Roy Plunkett while he was working in New Jersey for DuPont.
Since Plunkett was measuring the amount of gas used by weighing the bottle, he became curious as to the source of the weight and he found the bottles interior coated with a waxy white material that was oddly slippery. Analysis showed that it was polymerized perfluoroethylene, with the iron from the inside of the container having acted as a catalyst at high pressure, Kinetic Chemicals patented the new fluorinated plastic in 1941, and registered the Teflon trademark in 1945. By 1948, DuPont, which founded Kinetic Chemicals in partnership with General Motors, was producing two million pounds of Teflon brand PTFE per year in Parkersburg, West Virginia. In 1954, the wife of French engineer Marc Grégoire urged him to try the material he had been using on fishing tackle on her cooking pans and he subsequently created the first Teflon-coated, non-stick pans under the brandname Tefal. In the United States, Marion A. Trozzolo, who had been using the substance on scientific utensils, marketed the first US-made Teflon-coated pan, The Happy Pan, Tefal was not the only company to utilize PTFE in nonstick cookware coatings.
Other cookware companies, such as Meyer Corporations Anolon, use Teflon nonstick coatings purchased from DuPont, in the 1990s, it was found that PTFE could be radiation cross-linked above its melting point in an oxygen-free environment. Electron beam processing is one example of radiation processing, cross-linked PTFE has improved high-temperature mechanical properties and radiation stability. This was significant because, for years, irradiation at ambient conditions has been used to break down PTFE for recycling. This radiation-induced chain scission allows it to be more easily reground, PTFE is produced by free-radical polymerization of tetrafluoroethylene
Los Angeles County Museum of Art
The Los Angeles County Museum of Art is an art museum located on Wilshire Boulevard in the Miracle Mile vicinity of Los Angeles. LACMA is on Museum Row, adjacent to the La Brea Tar Pits, LACMA is the largest art museum in the western United States. It attracts nearly a million visitors annually and it holds more than 150,000 works spanning the history of art from ancient times to the present. In addition to art exhibits, the museum features film and concert series, the Los Angeles County Museum of Art was established as a museum in 1961. Prior to this, LACMA was part of the Los Angeles Museum of History and Art, howard F. Ahmanson, Sr. Anna Bing Arnold and Bart Lytton were the first principal patrons of the museum. Ahmanson made the donation of $2 million, convincing the museum board that sufficient funds could be raised to establish the new museum. In 1965 the museum moved to a new Wilshire Boulevard complex as an independent, art-focused institution, the largest new museum to be built in the United States after the National Gallery of Art.
The museum, built in a similar to Lincoln Center. The board selected LA architect William Pereira over the recommendation of Ludwig Mies van der Rohe for the buildings. According to a 1965 Los Angeles Times story, the total cost of the three buildings was $11.5 million, at the time, the Los Angeles Music Center and LACMA were concurrent large civic projects which vied for attention and donors in Los Angeles. When the museum opened, the buildings were surrounded by reflecting pools, in the far-reaching expansion, museum-goers henceforth entered through the new partially roofed central court, nearly an acre of space bounded by the museums four buildings. The museums Pavilion for Japanese Art, designed by maverick architect Bruce Goff, opened in 1988, gerald Cantor Sculpture Garden of Rodin bronzes. In 1999, the Hancock Park Improvement Project was complete, kohlhaas edged out French architect Jean Nouvel, who would have added a major building while renovating the older facilities. The list of candidates had narrowed to five in May 2001, Nouvel, Steven Holl, Daniel Libeskind.
However, the project stalled after the museum failed to secure funding. In 2004 LACMAs Board of Trustees unanimously approved plans to transform the museum, the planned transformation consisted of three phases. Phase I started in 2004 and was completed in February 2008, the renovations required demolishing the parking structure on Ogden Avenue and with it LACMA-commissioned graffiti art by street artists Margaret Kilgallen and Barry McGee. The entry pavilion is a key point in architect Renzo Pianos plan to unify LACMAs sprawling, the BP Grand Entrance and the adjacent Broad Contemporary Art Museum comprise the $191 million first phase of the three-part expansion and renovation campaign
Daniel Buren is a French conceptual artist. Among his chief concerns is the scene of production as a way of presenting art, the work is site-specific installation, having a relation to its setting in contrast to prevailing ideas of an autonomous work of art. He graduated from the Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Métiers dArt in Paris and he began painting in the early 1960s. Denoting the trademark stripes as an instrument or seeing tool. In June 1970 he put stripes on the front and back of Los Angeles bus benches without permission, in another controversial gesture he blocked the entrance of the gallery with stripes of his first solo exhibition. Expanding on this idea, in 1971 he created a banner, Peinture-Sculpture. In the late 1960s he connected to the ideas of space, often referred to as the stripe guy, Buren expresses his theme in paint, laser cut fabric, light boxes, transparent fabrics and ceramic cup sets. His stripes are displayed in homes, public places. Since the 1950s he has amassed some 400,000 of what he calls photos-souvenirs, documenting his work, from 1960 on, Buren designed a number of permanent site-specific installations in the United States, Belgium and Germany.
In 1986 he created a 3, 000-square-meter sculpture in the courtyard of the Palais Royal, in Paris, Les Deux Plateaux. This provoked a debate over the integration of contemporary art. In 1993, Buren was commissioned to design the work in situ, Poser/Déposer/Exposer, since the 1990s, Burens work has become more architectural. He creates new spaces within existing environments such as city centers, public parks, entire museums, and even beaches. In 2004, for the occasion of the opening of the French cultural year in China, a Rainbow in the Sky consisted of thousands of colorful pennant flags hovering over a busy pedestrian square in Pasadena, California for two months. Buren collaborated with Hermès on a number of occasions, in 2010, he created Photo souvenirs au carrè, a 365 limited-edition line of scarves decorated with silk-printed photographs. In 2009 Buren collaborated with the collective Ensemble La Ligne created by RCP Design Global agency, among others, Louis Dandrel and Roger Tallon to create Curseur.
It is a work in situ – for Tours Tram – three black and white stripes vertically, which join the same horizontal marking on the ground. Trainsets shaped cursor with mirror effect identified in black and white stripes, in 2014, the rooftop of Modernist architect Le Corbusiers Cité Radieuse building in Marseilles hosted an installation of mirrors and coloured glass by Buren
Philippe Starck is a French designer known since the start of his career in the 1980s for his interior, product and architectural design including furniture. The son of an engineer, Starck studied at the École Camondo in Paris. An inflatable structure he imagined in 1969 was a first incursion into questions of materiality, Starcks designs brought him to the attention of Pierre Cardin who offered him a job as artistic director of his publishing house. His concept of design led him to focus on mass-produced consumer goods rather than one-off pieces, seeking ways to reduce cost. In 1983, the French President François Mitterrand, on the recommendation of his Minister of Culture Jack Lang, the following year he designed the Café Costes. The buildings he designed in Japan, starting in 1989, went against the grain of traditional forms, the first, Nani Nani, in Tokyo, is an anthropomorphic structure, clad in a living material that evolves over time. The thesis being, design should take its place within the environment but without impinging on it, a year he designed the Asahi Beer Hall in Tokyo, a building topped with a golden flame.
This was followed in 1992 by Le Baron Vert office complex in Osaka, Starcks buildings, while dedicated to work, are no less instilled with life and its constant effervescence. In France he designed the extension of the École Nationale Supérieure des Arts Décoratifs in Paris, the Alhondiga, a more recent project, is a 43,000 sq. m culture and leisure venue in Bilbao that opened in 2010. Starck, who loves ships and the sea, designed the new infrastructure for the Port Adriano harbour on the south-west bay of Palma de Mallorca and he designed Steve Jobs yacht, which launched in October 2012. In South America, Philippe Starck designed the inside and outside of the Hotel Fasano in Rio de Janeiro in 2007 using materials such as wood, glass and he turned his attention to luxury hotels, in 2008, Hôtel Meurice and the Royal Monceau in 2010. From 1990, Philippe Starck has worked to democratize quality designer hotels, offering rooms at $100/night, it became a classic in its genre. In 2008, Starck brought this humanist concept to Paris as the Mama Shelter, a second Mama Shelter opened in Marseille in 2012.
In April 2015, Mama Shelter had six hotels with new locations in Bordeaux, Los Angeles, in 2010, Philippe Starck opened the Coriche Hotel at the Dune du Pyla. In North America, in the 2000s, Philippe Starck with entrepreneur Sam Nazarian created the concept for SLS, the Bazaar lobby at SLS Hotel in Beverly Hills quickly became a public space with its tapas restaurants, Norwegian health bar, pâtisserie and a Moss concept store. The Atrego opened in Cap dAil in 2011 and he designed the interior and exterior of Ma Cocotte, a restaurant that launched in September 2012 at the Saint-Ouen flea market near Paris. In 2013, he designed Miss Ko, an Asian-centric concept restaurant in Paris, in November 2011, Lodha Group appointed Phillippe Starck for yoo inspired by Starck, to design the residential development at New Cuffe Parade, Mumbai. In November 2012, Starck published his first book of interviews, Impression dAilleurs, with Gilles Vanderpooten
Schirn Kunsthalle Frankfurt
The Schirn Kunsthalle is an exhibition hall in Frankfurt, located in the old city between the Römer and the Frankfurt Cathedral. The Schirn exhibits both modern and contemporary art and it is the main venue for temporary art exhibitions in Frankfurt. Exhibitions in recent years included retrospectives of Wassily Kandinsky, Marc Chagall, Frida Kahlo, Alberto Giacometti, Bill Viola, the Kunsthalle opened in 1986 and is financially supported by the city and the state. Historically, the German term Schirn denotes an open-air stall for the sale of goods, the area was destroyed in 1944 during the Second World War and was not redeveloped until the building of the Kunsthalle. Guggenheim Museum, the Hermitage Museum, or the Museum of Modern Art, the Kunsthalle Schirn was designed and built beginning in 1983 by the Architekturbüro BJSS. The opening took place on February 28,1986, the Kunsthalle has an overall exhibition space of more than 1,400 square meters. The Schirn is located in Frankfurt’s historic city center, faced with light sandstone, it consists of several interlocking structures, each of which features a geometric floor plan.
The most prominent structural element is an approximately 140-meter-long and 10-meter-wide 6-story hall, the exhibition building. Bangert designed the longhouse to resemble the Uffizi building in Florence and it is the Schirn’s highest structure and consists of a single open space, through which one enters the Schirn. After passing through the rotunda, a cut into the building runs along the old Bendergasse. A further semicircular structural element follows to the north, beyond Bendergasse and this structure, separated from the main exhibition building by Bendergasse, houses the Schirn Café. The Schirn has had a new interior since 2012 that was designed by the Kuehn Malvezzi architectural office and it bathes the foyer in alternating colors of light with the aid of modern RGB lighting technology. The name “Schirn” derives from the history of its location, the word originally denoted an “open sales booth. ”The site on which the Schirn Kunsthalle is currently situated was Frankfurt’s densely populated historic city center until it was destroyed on March 22,1944.
The sales booths of the city’s butchers’ guild stood in the alleys between today’s Schirn and the Main River until the mid-19th century. Christoph Vitali was the director of the Schirn from 1985 to 1993 and he established the Schirn as an exhibition venue. The Austrian Max Hollein has been directing the Schirn since October 2001, in 2006 he took over the directorship of the Städel Museum and the Liebieghaus. With exceptional exhibitions, provocative titles, and improved financial resources he has increased the number of visitors to the Schirn threefold, to date, more than five million people have visited the Schirn. Some of the exhibitions with the most visitors in the history of the Schirn include Edvard Munch, the Modern Eye, Wassily Kandinsky—The First Soviet Retrospective, Esprit Montmartre
The Centre Pompidou-Metz is a museum of modern and contemporary arts located in Metz, capital of Lorraine, France. The museum is the largest temporary exhibition space outside Paris in France with 5,000 m2 divided between 3 galleries, a theatre, and an auditorium. The first piece of the monument designed by Japanese architect Shigeru Ban was laid on November 7,2006, and the building was inaugurated by French President Nicolas Sarkozy on May 12,2010. The building is remarkable for its structure, one of the largest and most complex built to date. Since its inauguration, the institution has one of the most visited cultural venues in France outside Paris. The Centre Pompidou-Metz is a large hexagon structured round a central spire reaching 77 m, the great nave covers 1,200 m2 and provides flexibility for the exhibition of large artworks, with the ceiling rising progressively from a height of 5.7 m to 18 m. The roof is the achievement of the building, a 90 m wide hexagon echoing the building’s floor map.
The roof’s geometry is irregular, featuring curves and counter-curves over the entire building, the roof structure can be seen from high up during both day and night in Metz from above, aerial movie of French photographer Yann Arthus-Bertrand. The museum-surrounding garden has been thought by French landscape architect Jean de Gastine using the concepts of sustainable gardening, the museum is the cornerstone of the newly created Amphitheater District of Metz. The quarter encompasses already the Seille park designed by French landscape architect Jacques Coulon, the urban project completion is expected to take place by 2016. Swiss designer Ruedi Baur created the Metzs signage systems, the Centre Pompidou-Metz displays around 3 to 4 unique temporary exhibitions per year, which are not presented elsewhere. The museum works in collaboration with the Los Angeles County Museum of Art. The Centre Pompidou-Metz promotes the art scene in collaborating with the Regional Contemporary Art Fund of Lorraine.
The Centre Pompidou-Metz edifice and surrounding Metz are sometimes used as support for the artistic production displayed during the temporary exhibitions. For example, the structure of the Centre Pompidou-Metz was used as support for a visual art project by French visual artists Simon Geilfus, Yannick Jacquet. Also, French aerial photographer Yann Arthus-Bertrand captured Metz from high up, giving a privileged views of the museum, the Centre Pompidou-Metz is located in the centre of Metz and is served by Mettis local public transport. The time from Paris East station and France international Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport to Metz railway station is about 82 and 75 minutes, the exhibition considered the relevance of the idea of masterpiece and ran until January 17,2011