Laboratoire d'informatique pour la mécanique et les sciences de l'ingénieur
The Computer Science Laboratory for Mechanics and Engineering Sciences is a CNRS pluri-disciplinary laboratory in Orsay, France near Paris gathering academics and scholars from various scientific fields: from the Engineering and Information Sciences, but from Cognitive Science and Linguistics. From the administrative point of view, LIMSI is a CNRS laboratory associated with the Paris-Sud University. LIMSI develops collaborations with other universities and engineering schools within the University Paris-Saclay; the laboratory was created in 1972 under the leadership of Lucien Malavard, with an initial focus on Numerical Fluid Mechanics and Signal Processing. Its research themes have progressively been expanded to Speech and Image Processing to a growing number of themes related to Human-Computer Communication and Interaction on the one hand, its research is organized in four main themes, spanning the activities of 9 research groups: - Fluid Mechanics remains one of its main research areas, with an expertise in the development of advanced numerical methodologies associated to experiments in academic configurations: the AERO and ETCM groups both contribute activities related to large-scale numerical simulations, to uncertainty quantification, to the characterization of fluid dynamics, to the control of flows, to multiphysic couplings.
The ETCM and TSF groups study the analysis of large thermic systems with application to housing and solar energy. - Natural Language Processing, applied to spoken and signed language is another main research theme at LIMSI. Three groups, TLP, ILES and AA contribute to a wide spectrum of activities ranging from acoustic signal processing, automatic speech recognition and synthesis, to semantic modeling and fine-grained question answering including multimedia indexing, machine translation, the analysis and generation of emotions in speech and text, information extraction. Four research teams are concerned: AMI focuses on tangible, haptic and ambient interactions, whereas CPU is more focused on verbal and non-verbal interactions with virtual agents. Many research groups share application domains. VIDA is a tranverse action with the mission to coordinate LIMSI's activities in this domain, as well as to organize events, for instance under the umbrella of the "Diagonale Paris-Saclay". Official website CNRS Paris-Sud University
A decree is a rule of law issued by a head of state, according to certain procedures. It has the force of law; the particular term used for this concept may vary from country to country. The executive orders made by the President of the United States, for example, are decrees. In non-legal English usage, the term refers to any authoritarian decision. Documents or archives in the format of royal decrees or farming were issued by rulers. In Belgium, a decree is a law of regional parliament, e.g. the Flemish Parliament. The word décret "decree", is an old legal usage in France and is used to refer to executive orders issued by the French President or Prime Minister. Any such order must not violate the French Constitution or Civil Code, a party has the right to request an order be annulled in the French Council of State. Orders must be ratified by Parliament. Special orders known as décret-loi "decree-act" or "decree-law" considered an illegal practice under the 3rd and 4th Republic, were abolished and replaced by the ordinances under the 1958 Constitution.
Except for the reserve powers of the President, the executive can issue decrees in areas that the Constitution grants as the responsibility of Parliament only if a law authorizes it to do so. In other cases, orders are illegal and, should anyone sue for the order's annulment, it would be voided by the Council of State. There exists a procedure for the Prime Minister to issue ordinances in such areas, but this procedure requires Parliament's express consent. Orders issued by the Prime Minister take two forms: Orders. Sometimes, people refer to décrets en Conseil d'État improperly as décrets du Conseil d'État; this would imply that it is the Council of State that takes the decree, whereas the power of decreeing is restricted to the president or prime minister. Decrees may be classified into: Regulations, which may be: Application decrees, each of which must be authorized by one or more statutes to determine some implementation conditions of this or these statutes. Only the prime minister may issue regulatory or application decrees.
Presidential decrees are nominations or exceptional measures where law mandates a presidential decree, such as the dissolution of the French National Assembly and the calling of new legislative elections. Decrees are published in the Journal Officiel de la République Française or "French Gazette". A decree in the usage of the canon law of the Catholic Church has various meanings. Any papal bull, brief, or motu proprio is a decree inasmuch as these documents are legislative acts of the pope. In this sense the term is quite ancient; the Roman Congregations were empowered to issue decrees in matters which come under their particular jurisdiction, but were forbidden from continuing to do so under Pope Benedict XV in 1917. Each ecclesiastical province and each diocese may issue decrees in their periodical synods within their sphere of authority. While in a general sense all documents promulgated by an ecumenical council can be called decrees. in a specific sense some of these documents, as at the Second Vatican Council, were called more constitutions or declarations.
Canon 29 of the 1983 Code of Canon Law offers a definition of general decrees: General decrees, by which a competent legislator makes common provisions for a community capable of receiving a law, are true laws and are regulated by the provisions of the canons on laws. The Holy See uses decrees from the pope such as papal bull, papal brief or motu proprio as legislative acts. According clause 77 of the Italian Constitution, "The Government may not, without an enabling act from the Houses, issue decrees having the force of ordinary law; when in extraordinary cases of necessity and urgency the Government adopts provisional measures having the force of law, it must on the same day present said measures for confirmation to the Houses which if dissolved, shall be summoned for this purpose and shall convene within five days. The decrees lose effect from their inception if they are not confirmed within sixty days from their publication; the Houses may however regulate by law legal relationships arising out of not confirmed decrees."
The effectiveness for sixty days produces the effects giving rights or expectations whose legal basis was in fact precarious when the conversion law never intervened. In Portugal, there are several types of decrees issued by the various bodies of sovereignty or by the bodies of self-government of autonomous regions. There are the following types of decrees: Decree-law: is a legislative act issued by the Government of Portugal under its legislative powers defined by Article 198 of the Portuguese Constitution.
Catherine Bréchignac is a French physicist. She is a commander of the Légion d'honneur, "secrétaire perpétuel" of the Académie des sciences and former president of the CNRS; the Times says she has "a formidable reputation for determination, decisiveness and an aptitude for analysing and clarifying complex matters." As a president of the CNRS, she was responsible for 25,000 employees, 12,000 of whom are researchers, a budget of 2.42 billion Euros. Daughter of the physicist Jean Teillac and alumnus of the École Normale Supérieure de Fontenay-aux-Roses, Catherine Bréchignac received her DEA at the Faculté des sciences d'Orsay in 1971, her doctorate in 1977, became a Research Director in 1985. In 1989 she became director of the Aimé Cotton laboratory, was Director General of the CNRS from 1997 to 2000, she clashed with Claude Allègre, the minister at the time, over reforms she oversaw at the institution. She became President of the Institut d'optique théorique et appliquée in 2003 and of the Palais de la découverte in 2004.
In 2005 she was elected future president of the International Council for Science. She was appointed President of the CNRS at the Council of Ministers of 11 January 2006 on the recommendation of François Goulard, the minister for higher education and research, she was replaced by Alain Fuchs in 2010 though she was a candidate to her own succession. She was "secrétaire perpétuel" of the Académie des sciences, Division 1, from 2011 to 2018. According to the International Council for Science, Bréchignac co-founded the field of cluster physics, which straddles the gap between atomic and solid-state physics. Clusters are "the precursors of nano-objects."
Centre d'immunologie de Marseille-Luminy
The Centre d’Immunologie de Marseille-Luminy was founded in 1976 and has been described by AERES, an independent evaluation agency, as "without doubt one of the best immunology centers of excellence in Europe". The CIML addresses all areas of contemporary immunology; the institute has 17 research teams, with 250 staff including 185 scientists and post-docs from 24 countries. It offers PhD programs; the CIML has 90 academic collaborations and 21 industrial partners in France and worldwide, has formed several spin-offs, including: Innate Pharma and Immunotech. The institute has published over 400 scientific publications in the last 5 years, including 145 in journals with an impact factor ≥ 10, it is located on a science campus, home to more than 1,500 researchers and 10,000 students, 15 biotech companies. François Kourilsky, 1976–1977 Michel Fougerau 1978-1980 François Kourilsky, 1981–1984 Pierre Golstein, 1985-1988 Bertrand Jordan, 1989–1990 Michel Pierres, 1991–1994 Bernard Malissen, 1995-2005 Jean Pierre Gorvel 2006-2008 Eric Vivier, since 2008 Early work at CIML was centered on T cells.
The study of their antigen receptors lead to the discovery of chromosomal inversion during the formation of the T cell receptor. Researchers at the CIML published the first nucleotide sequence of a gene encoding a human major histocompatibility complex gene and described how the TCR recognizes its MHC ligand; the functions of these T cells were investigated, leading in particular to the identification of Granzyme A and GZMB and the demonstration of their playing a role in the perforin-granzyme-based mechanism of T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity, to the discovery of the second, Fas ligand/Fas receptor based pathway of cytotoxicity. Other biologically important regulatory molecules identified at the CIML include interleukins such as interleukin-17 and cell surface molecules, such as CTLA-4 regulating T cells. Subsequently, research at the CIML expanded to other cells of the immune system, including B cells, dendritic cells and natural killer cells, as well as other models systems, such as C. elegans.
CIML researchers identified the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif -containing KARAP/DAP12, important for NK cell function and characterized the key function of the killer activated receptor NKp46. Other recent advances include the discovery of early precursors of B-cell follicular lymphoma in healthy individuals, of dendritic cell aggresome-like induced structures in dendritic cells, thought to play an important role in regulating antigen presentation, as well as the discovery of MafB/M-CSF circuits in hematopoietic stem cell commitment, macrophages; the CIML is supported by direct and indirect funding from INSERM, the CNRS, Aix-Marseille University, covering for example the salaries of more than 125 permanent staff members. Other major funders include the European Research Council, European Union, the Agence Nationale de la Recherche, Association pour la Recherche sur le Cancer, Fondation Recherche Medicale, Human Frontier Science Program, Institut National du Cancer, La Ligue Nationale Contre le Cancer, as well as CIML's industrial partners.
The CIML's Master's and PhD program is integrated into the educational framework of Aix-Marseille University. Participation in the CIML program requires enrollment in the Master's-PhD program at the Ecole Doctorale des Sciences de la Vie. A unique part of the program is a student exchange scheme with Harvard Medical School. In immunology, more than in any other discipline, physiology is revealed by pathology. Therefore, the Institute is involved in many studies with clinical objectives. A wide range of malignancies are studied at the CIML such as leukemias and hematopoietic cancers and primary immune deficiencies, or brucellosis and juvenile arthritis. Treatments are a major concern of the institute, such as studies on the prevention and treatment of hematologic malignancies and on the impact of therapies on the immune system. Theoretical work which may provide key solutions to medicine are performed at the CIML on inflammatory mechanisms associated with the development of inflammatory bowel.
Centre Européen de Calcul Atomique et Moléculaire
The Centre Européen de Calcul Atomique et Moléculaire, CECAM, is the oldest European Institute for the promotion of fundamental research on advanced computational methods and their application to problems in frontier areas of science and technology. It is structured as a network of 18 trans-European nodes plus one node in Israel, with its headquarters in EPF-Lausanne. CECAM is governed by a convention signed by 22 member organizations from which it receives funding for ordinary activities; these organizations include National Research Councils, Research and HPC Centers, Universities. The long-term policy of CECAM is determined by its Council, composed of representatives of the member organizations. Local Directors ensure the management of scientific activities at the nodes; the Director at HQ has the responsibility to propose the overall program of activities and manage it, to coordinate larger-scale initiatives in the node network. Its unique structure and long standing tradition of excellence establish CECAM as a leading edge institution in its field.
CECAM mission is to promote discussion, exchange of information, training in computational science. As the name suggests, the traditional focus of CECAM has been atomistic and molecular simulations, applied to the physics and chemistry of condensed matter. Over the last twenty years, powerful advances in computer hardware and software have supported the extension of these methods to a wide range of problems in materials science and medicinal chemistry. CECAM has always been attentive to such developments and has helped to foster many of them to the point that computer simulation is now considered to be a third way of doing science; the importance of simulation continues to grow in many emerging areas and CECAM is evolving its scope and structure to address these changes. CECAM activities, across all of the nodes, include the organization of scientific workshops in emerging areas. We welcome applications to organise events and to establish networks through CECAM from everybody interested in computational science.
CECAM is supported by research organizations from Israel. These Organizations are listed in Table 1; each Member Organization nominates two representatives to the Cecam Council, the governing body that has the ultimate responsibility for all strategy and operations of the Center. Nodes contribute to CECAM activities by organising and hosting workshops and schools at the level of the network and locally, they initiate or participate in CECAM research and training activities, host a visitor program and promote research in computational science in their region. A CECAM node is a research structure inside a larger Institution, or a consortium of such Institutions whose activities and relationships are regulated by a formal agreement; the Directors of the nodes administer the program taking place at their respective locations in collaboration with other nodes or the Headquarters. The Directors constitute the CECAM Board of Directors, working towards a coordinated optimal selection and distribution of activities throughout the network
Santiago, is the capital and largest city of Chile as well as one of the largest cities in the Americas. It is the center of Chile's largest and most densely populated conurbation, the Santiago Metropolitan Region, whose total population is 7 million; the city is located in the country's central valley. Most of the city lies between 500 650 m above mean sea level. Founded in 1541 by the Spanish conqueror Pedro de Valdivia, Santiago has been the capital city of Chile since colonial times; the city has a downtown core of 19th-century neoclassical architecture and winding side-streets, dotted by art deco, neo-gothic, other styles. Santiago's cityscape is shaped by several stand-alone hills and the fast-flowing Mapocho River, lined by parks such as Parque Forestal; the Andes Mountains can be seen from most points in the city. These mountains contribute to a considerable smog problem during winter; the city outskirts are surrounded by vineyards and Santiago is within an hour of both the mountains and the Pacific Ocean.
Santiago is the cultural and financial center of Chile and is home to the regional headquarters of many multinational corporations. The Chilean executive and judiciary are located in Santiago, but Congress meets in nearby Valparaíso. Santiago is named after the biblical figure St. James. Santiago will host the 2023 Pan American Games. In Chile, there are several entities which bear the name of "Santiago" that are confused; the Commune of Santiago, sometimes referred to as "downtown" or "Central Santiago", is an administrative division that comprises the area occupied by the city during its colonial period. The commune, administered by the Municipality of Santiago and headed by a mayor, is part of the Santiago Province headed by a provincial governor, in itself a subdivision of the Santiago Metropolitan Region headed by an intendant. Despite these classifications, when the term "Santiago" is used without another descriptor, it refers to what is known as Greater Santiago, a territorial extension defined by its urban continuity that includes the Commune of Santiago in addition to 36 other communes, which together comprise the majority of the Santiago Province and some areas of neighboring provinces.
The city and region's demonym is santiaguinas. According to certain archaeological investigations, it is believed that the first human groups reached the Santiago basin in the 10th millennium BC; the groups were nomadic hunter-gatherers, who traveled from the coast to the interior in search of guanacos during the time of the Andean snowmelt. About the year 800, the first sedentary inhabitants began to settle due to the formation of agricultural communities along the Mapocho River maize and beans, the domestication of camelids in the area; the villages established in the areas belonging to the Picunches or Promaucae people, were subject to the Inca Empire throughout the late fifteenth century and into the early sixteenth century. The Incas settled in the valley of mitimaes, the main installation settled in the center of the present city, with strongholds such as Huaca de Chena and the sanctuary of El Plomo hill; the area would have served as a basis for the failed Inca expeditions southward road junction as the Inca Trail.
Having been sent by Francisco Pizarro from Peru and having made the long journey from Cuzco, Extremadura conquistador Pedro de Valdivia reached the valley of the Mapocho on 13 December 1540. The hosts of Valdivia camped by the river in the slopes of the Tupahue hill and began to interact with the Picunche people who inhabited the area. Valdivia summoned the chiefs of the area to a parliament, where he explained his intention to found a city on behalf of the king Carlos I of Spain, which would be the capital of his governorship of Nueva Extremadura; the natives accepted and recommended the foundation of the town on a small island between two branches of the river next to a small hill called Huelén. On 12 February 1541 Valdivia founded the city of Santiago del Nuevo Extremo in honor of St. James, patron saint of Spain, near the Huelén, renamed by the conqueror as "St. Lucia". Following colonial rule, Valdivia entrusted the layout of the new town to master builder Pedro de Gamboa, who would design the city grid layout.
In the center of the city, Gamboa designed a Plaza Mayor, around which various plots for the Cathedral and the governor's house were selected. In total, eight blocks from north to south, ten from east to west, were built; each solar was given to the settlers, who built houses of straw. Valdivia left months to the south with his troops, beginning the War of Arauco. Santiago was left unprotected; the indigenous hosts of Michimalonco used this to their advantage, attacked the fledgling city. On 11 September 1541, the city was destroyed by the natives, but the 55-strong Spanish Garrison managed to defend the fort; the resistance was led by a mistress to Valdivia. When she realized they were being overrun, she ordered the execution of all native prisoners, proceeded to put their heads on pikes and threw a few heads to the natives. In face of this barbaric act, the natives dispersed in terror; the city would be rebuilt, giving prominence to the newly founded Concepción, where the Royal Audiencia of Chile was founded in 1565.
However, the constant danger faced by Concepción, due to its proximity to the War of Arauco and
"Curien" redirects here. For the fictional insane scientist, see The House of the Dead. Hubert Curien was a French physicist and a key figure in European science politics, as the President of CERN Council, the first chairman of the European Space Agency, second President of the Academia Europæa and a President of Fondation de France. Born in Cornimont, Vosges in Lorraine, Curien enlisted in the French resistance during World War II. After the war he studied Physics at the École normale supérieure. Curien became the director general of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique in 1969, was one of the founders of the European Science Foundation and chairman from 1979 to 1984, he was head of the French space agency from 1976 to 1984, first chairman of the board of ESA from 1981 to 1984. Curien was the Minister of Research of France from 1984 to 1986 and from 1988 to 1993, he entered the French Academy of Sciences in 1994. Curien was the President of the Fondation de France from 1998 through 2000.
Two years in November 2002, he retired from CERN after 38 years of contribution to accelerator projects, starting as a fellow in 1964. As a tribute to Curien, the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has decided to rename its bilateral scientific exchange programmes referred to as "Integrated Action Programmes" or "PAI" to "Hubert Curien Partnerships" or "PHC"; the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has such "Hubert Curien Partnerships" with more than 60 countries in the World. The 2004 Forum Engelberg paid tribute to their President Curien for the occasion of his upcoming 80th birthday. In honour of his contribution to European space, it was decided by ESA, NASA, the international Committee for Space Research to name the landing site of the Huygens probe after him, from 14 March 2007 it is known as the "Hubert Curien Memorial Station", his son Pierre-Louis Curien is a noted theoretical computer scientist. Biography Biography on the site of the Academy of sciences