Hostels provide lower-priced, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, private rooms may be available. In the 2010s, hostels have wifi access. Hostels are cheaper for both the operator and occupants than hotels. In India and South Africa, hostel refers to boarding schools or student dormitories in resident colleges and universities. In other parts of the world, the word hostel refers to properties offering shared accommodation to travellers or backpackers. In 1912, in Altena Castle in Germany, Richard Schirrmann created the first permanent Jugendherberge or "Youth Hostel." These first youth hostels were an exponent of the vision of the German Youth Movement to let poor city youngsters breathe fresh air outdoors. The youths were supposed to manage the hostel themselves as much as possible, doing chores to keep the costs down and build character, be physically active outdoors; because of this, many youth hostels closed during the middle part of the day.
There are several differences between hostels and hotels, including: Hostels tend to be budget-oriented. Hostels tend to have single beds in a shared room, rather than private rooms. For those who prefer an informal environment, hostels do not have the same level of formality as hotels. For those who prefer to socialize with their fellow guests, hostels have more common areas and opportunities to socialize; the dormitory aspect of hostels increases the social factor. Hostels are self-catering, with a shared kitchen that all the guests use to make their food. Hostels close during the day to keep down cost. Hostels lack the extra amenities provided in hotel rooms. There is less privacy in a hostel than in a hotel. Sharing sleeping accommodation in a dormitory is different from staying in a private room in a hotel or bed and breakfast, might not be comfortable for those requiring more privacy. For some hostel users, the shared accommodation makes it easier to meet new people; some hostels encourage more social interaction between guests due to the shared sleeping areas and communal areas such as lounges and internet cafes.
Lounges have sofas and chairs, coffee tables, board games, books and Internet access. The lounge provides a location for social activities. Washing machines and tumble driers are provided for cleaning and drying clothes, with pay machines used. Care should be taken with personal belongings, as guests may share a common living space, so it is advisable to secure guests' belongings against theft. Most hostels offer some sort of system for safely storing valuables, an increasing number of hostels offer private lockers. Noise can make sleeping difficult on occasions, whether from snoring and social activities in the lounge, people staying up to read with the light on, someone either returning late from bars, or leaving early, or the proximity of so many people. To mitigate this, some wear earplugs and/or eye-covering sleeping masks. In attempts to attract more visitors, many hostels nowadays provide additional services not available, such as airport shuttle transfers, internet cafés, swimming pools and spas, tour booking and carfree hire.
Some hostels may include food in the price. The traditional hostel format involved dormitory style accommodation; some newer hostels include en-suite accommodation with single, double or quad occupancy rooms, though to be considered a hostel they must provide dormitory accommodation. In recent years, the numbers of independent and backpackers' hostels have increased to cater for the greater numbers of overland, multi-destination travellers; the quality of such places has improved dramatically. While most hostels still insist on a curfew, daytime lockouts few require occupants to do chores apart from washing and drying up after food preparation. Richard Schirrmann's idea of hostels spread overseas and resulted in Hostelling International, an organisation composed of more than 90 different youth hostel associations representing over 4,500 youth hostels in over 80 countries; some HI Youth Hostels cater more to school-aged children and parents with their children, whereas others are more for travellers intent on learning new cultures.
However, while the exploration of different cultures and places is emphasised in many hostels in cities or popular tourist destinations, there are still many hostels providing accommodation for outdoor pursuits such as hillwalking and bicycle touring. In 2017, Hostelling International reported that it has added hotels and package resorts to their networks in addition to hostels. Despite their name, in most countries membership is not limited to youth. Independent hostels are not affiliated with one of the national bodies of Hostelling International, Youth Hostel Association or any other hostel network; the word independ
A charitable organization or charity is a non-profit organization whose primary objectives are philanthropy and social well-being. The legal definition of a charitable organization varies between countries and in some instances regions of the country; the regulation, the tax treatment, the way in which charity law affects charitable organizations vary. Charitable organizations may not use any of its funds to profit individual entities. Financial figures are indicators to assess the financial sustainability of a charity to charity evaluators; this information can impact a charity's reputation with donors and societies, thus the charity's financial gains. Charitable organizations depend on donations from businesses; such donations to charitable organizations represent a major form of corporate philanthropy. The Organizational Test: If the organization doesn't follow the exemption organizational test, it will be under mentoring, in order to meet the organizational test it has to be organized and operated.
Serving the public interest: In order to receive and pass the exemption test, charitable organization must follow the public interest and all exempt income should be for the public interest. Until the mid-18th century, charity was distributed through religious structures and bequests from the rich. Both Christianity and Islam incorporated significant charitable elements from their beginnings and dāna has a long tradition in Hinduism, Jainism and Sikhism. Charities provided education, health and prisons. Almshouses were established throughout Europe in the Early Middle Ages to provide a place of residence for poor and distressed people. In the Enlightenment era charitable and philanthropic activity among voluntary associations and rich benefactors became a widespread cultural practice. Societies, gentleman's clubs, mutual associations began to flourish in England, the upper-classes adopted a philanthropic attitude toward the disadvantaged. In England this new social activism was channeled into the establishment of charitable organizations.
This emerging upper-class fashion for benevolence resulted in the incorporation of the first charitable organizations. Captain Thomas Coram, appalled by the number of abandoned children living on the streets of London, set up the Foundling Hospital in 1741 to look after these unwanted orphans in Lamb's Conduit Fields, Bloomsbury. This, the first such charity in the world, served as the precedent for incorporated associational charities in general. Jonas Hanway, another notable philanthropist of the Enlightenment era, established The Marine Society in 1756 as the first seafarer's charity, in a bid to aid the recruitment of men to the navy. By 1763 the Society had recruited over 10,000 men. Hanway was instrumental in establishing the Magdalen Hospital to rehabilitate prostitutes; these organizations were run as voluntary associations. They raised public awareness of their activities through the emerging popular press and were held in high social regard - some charities received state recognition in the form of the royal charter.
Charities began to adopt campaigning roles, where they would champion a cause and lobby the government for legislative change. This included organized campaigns against the ill treatment of animals and children and the campaign that succeeded at the turn of the 19th century in ending the slave trade throughout the British Empire and within its considerable sphere of influence; the Enlightenment saw growing philosophical debate between those who championed state intervention and those who believed that private charities should provide welfare. The Reverend Thomas Malthus, the political economist, criticized poor relief for paupers on economic and moral grounds and proposed leaving charity to the private sector, his views became influential and informed the Victorian laissez-faire attitude toward state intervention for the poor. During the 19th century a profusion of charitable organizations emerged to alleviate the awful conditions of the working class in the slums; the Labourer's Friend Society, chaired by Lord Shaftesbury in the United Kingdom in 1830, aimed to improve working-class conditions.
It promoted, for example, the allotment of land to labourers for "cottage husbandry" that became the allotment movement. In 1844 it became the first Model Dwellings Company - one of a group of organizations that sought to improve the housing conditions of the working classes by building new homes for them, at the same time receiving a competitive rate of return on any investment; this was one of the first housing associations, a philanthropic endeavour that flourished in the second half of the nineteenth century brought about by the growth of the middle class. Associations included the Peabody Trust and the Guinness Trust; the principle of philanthropic intention with capitalist return was given the label "five per cent philanthropy". There was strong growth in municipal charities; the Brougham Commission led on to the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, which reorganized
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Prince William, Duke of Cambridge
Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, is a member of the British royal family. He is the elder son of Charles, Prince of Wales, Diana, Princess of Wales. Since birth, he has been second in the line to succeed his grandmother Elizabeth II, queen of the United Kingdom and 15 other Commonwealth realms. William was educated at four schools in the United Kingdom and studied for a degree at the University of St. Andrews. During a gap year, he spent time in Chile and Africa. In December 2006, he completed 44 weeks of training as an officer cadet and was commissioned in the Blues and Royals regiment. In April 2008, William completed pilot training at Royal Air Force College Cranwell underwent helicopter flight training and became a full-time pilot with the RAF Search and Rescue Force in early 2009, his service with the British Armed Forces ended in September 2013. He trained for a civil pilot's licence and spent over two years working as a pilot for the East Anglian Air Ambulance. In 2011, Prince William was married Catherine Middleton.
The couple have three children: Prince George, Princess Charlotte, Prince Louis. Prince William was born at Lindo Wing of St Mary's Hospital, London, at 9:03 pm on 21 June 1982 as the first child of Charles, Prince of Wales—heir apparent to Queen Elizabeth II—and Diana, Princess of Wales, his names, William Arthur Philip Louis, were announced by Buckingham Palace on 28 June. He was baptised by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Robert Runcie, in the Music Room of Buckingham Palace on 4 August, the 82nd birthday of his paternal great-grandmother Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, he was the first child born to a Prince and Princess of Wales since Prince John in 1905. William's parents affectionately called him "Wombat" or "Wills"—a name coined by the press. Since his birth, William has been second in the line of succession to the British throne. At age seven, he told his mother he wanted to be a police officer when he was older so that he might be able to protect her. You've got to be King."William began accompanying his parents on official visits at an early age.
In 1983, he accompanied them on a tour to Australia and New Zealand, a decision made by Diana. The decision was considered to be unconventional because the first- and second-in-line to the throne would be travelling together, because of William's young age, his first public appearance was on 1 March 1991—Saint David's Day—during an official visit of his parents to Cardiff. After arriving by aeroplane, William was taken to Llandaff Cathedral where he signed the visitors' book, showing he is left-handed. On 3 June 1991, William was admitted to Royal Berkshire Hospital after being accidentally hit on the forehead by a fellow student wielding a golf club, he suffered a depressed fracture of the skull and was operated on at Great Ormond Street Hospital, resulting in a permanent scar. In a 2009 interview, he dubbed this scar a "Harry Potter scar" and said, "I call it that because it glows sometimes and some people notice it—other times they don't notice it at all". William's mother wanted him and his younger brother Harry to have wider experiences than are usual for royal children.
She took them to Walt Disney World and McDonald's, as well as AIDS clinics and shelters for the homeless, bought them items owned by teenagers, such as video games. Diana, by divorced from Charles, died in a car accident in the early hours of 31 August 1997. William aged 15, together with his 12-year-old brother and their father, were staying at Balmoral Castle at the time; the Prince of Wales waited until his sons awoke the following morning to tell them about their mother's death. William accompanied his father, paternal grandfather Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, his maternal uncle Charles Spencer, 9th Earl Spencer, at his mother's funeral. William was educated at independent schools, starting at Jane Mynors' nursery school and the pre-preparatory Wetherby School, both in London. Following this, he attended Ludgrove School near Wokingham and was tutored during summers by Rory Stewart. At Ludgrove, he participated in football, basketball, clay pigeon shooting, cross country running, he was admitted.
There, he studied Geography and History of Art at A-Level, obtaining an'A' in Geography, a'C' in Biology, a'B' in History of Art. At Eton, he continued to play football, captaining his house team; the decision to place William in Eton went against the family tradition of sending royal children to Gordonstoun, which William's grandfather, two uncles, two cousins all attended. Diana's father and brother both attended Eton; the royal family and the tabloid press agreed William would be allowed to study free from intrusion in exchange for regular updates about his life. John Wakeham, chairman of the Press Complaints Commission, said of the arrangement, "Prince William is not an institution, he is a boy: in the next few years the most important and sometimes painful part of his life, he will grow up and become a man."After completing his studies at Eton, William took a gap year, during which he took part in British Army training exercises in Belize, worked on English dairy farms, visited Africa, for ten weeks taught children in southern Chile.
As part of the Raleigh International programme in the town of Tortel, William lived with other young volunteers, sharing in the common household chores—including cleaning the toilet—and als
Consett is a town in the northwest of County Durham, about 14 miles southwest of Newcastle upon Tyne. It is home to 27,394. Consett sits high on the edge of the Pennines. In 1841, it was a village community of only 145, but it was about to become a boom town: below the ground was coking coal and blackband iron ore, nearby was limestone; these were the three ingredients needed for blast furnaces to produce steel. The town is perched on the steep eastern bank of the River Derwent and owes its origins to industrial development arising from lead mining in the area, together with the development of the steel industry in the Derwent Valley, said to have been initiated by immigrant German cutlers and sword-makers from Solingen, who settled in the village of Shotley Bridge during the 17th century. During the 17th and 18th centuries, the Derwent Valley was the cradle of the British steel industry, helped by the easy availability of coal in the area and the import of high quality iron ore from Sweden via the port of Newcastle upon Tyne.
However, following the invention of the Bessemer process in the 19th century, steel could be made from British iron ore and the Derwent Valley's geographical advantage was lost, allowing Sheffield to become the leading centre of the British steel industry. Consett is part of the North West Durham Parliamentary Constituency represented by the Labour member of parliament, Laura Pidcock since the 2017 general election. Before her, Pat Glass held the seat from 2010-2017 and Hilary Armstrong held the seat after 1987, having succeeded from her father Ernest Armstrong. Before 1983, the town gave its name to its parliamentary constituency, its member of parliament was Labour's David Watkins held the Consett seat from 1966 until boundary changes. Consett was part of Derwentside District Council, which merged into the Durham County Council unitary authority on 1 April 2009; the Consett area is split into four electoral divisions, each of which elects two County Councillors. Consett is part of the North East Region.
The region is represented by the Labour MEPs, Paul Brannen and Judith Kirton-Darling and the UKIP MEP Jonathan Arnott. Consett sits above the rural Derwent valley near the boundary of County Northumberland. At about 900ft above sea level, Consett is the third highest market town in England one of the highest towns in the United Kingdom; as a result, Consett is at least 2°C colder than nearby cities such as Durham and Newcastle. Furthermore, in the winter months Consett is more prone to frosts and snow than the aforementioned cities, precipitation falling as rain in Newcastle and Durham will fall as snow over Consett. Consett has the usual range of amenities: shops, night clubs, residential areas and industrial estates. There are a number of villages in its immediate surroundings; the Derwent Reservoir is just west of the town, this reservoir is a popular leisure attraction and beauty spot. The Consett Iron Company was established in 1864, a successor to the original Derwent Iron Company of 1840, when the first blast furnaces were introduced.
Over the next 100 years, Consett became one of the world's most prominent steel-making towns, manufacturing the steel for Blackpool Tower and some of the UK's nuclear submarines. Steel dominated Consett's economy for 140 years, with the steelworks' tall cooling towers and other large plant looming over rows of terraced houses. During the iron and steel era a pall of'red dust' hung over the town: airborne iron oxide from the steel-making plant. At its peak in the 1960s, the Consett steel works employed 6,000 workers, it was nationalised to become part of the large British Steel Corporation. Although there was intense competition in the 1970s both from British competitors and from abroad, Consett steelworks remained successful and was making a profit in the year that it closed; as the rolling mills were closed in the 1970s, despite local opposition, there were discussions over the future of the plant as a whole. Consett steelworks had always avoided closure in difficult economic times, but in 1980 it was closed with the loss of 3,700 jobs plus many more from the "knock-on" effect in ancillary industries.
The unemployment rate in Consett became double the national average. According to government publicity this closure was part of the Thatcher Government's strategy to revitalise UK industry, following the industrial action that had taken place in the UK in the 1970s, but labour-intensive heavy industry was never revitalised in Britain. Instead, many regions including the North East were deindustrialised. Many of the dwindling industries were uneconomic, but some regard such closures as part of a broader political strategy launched by Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher to defeat the unionised working class and invest in heavy industry in low-wage economies abroad to provide higher returns on investments. A major plan to restructure steel making in the UK was created in the mid 1970s; this was based on concentrating steelmaking in the UK in five coastal locations, to allow easy import of raw materials and export of finished goods. BSC Consett was not one of the locations, despite being serviced by a well-established rail network, producing high-quality boron steel and being in profit in 1980, the year it was closed.
A deputation of steelworkers lobbied the government in London. The social impact of the decision was characte