Konrad Adenauer Foundation
The Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung e. V. is a German political party foundation associated with but independent of the centrist Christian Democratic Union. The foundation's headquarters are located in Sankt Augustin near Bonn. Globally, the KAS runs programs in over 100 countries, its current chairman is the former President of the German parliament Deutscher Bundestag, Norbert Lammert. It is a member of the Centre for European Studies, the official foundation and think tank of the European People's Party; the establishment of a “systematic civic-education program inspired by Christian democratic values” began being considered in 1952 by a group of CDU politicians including Bundestag president Hermann Ehlers, Robert Tillmanns, Heinrich Krone. On 20 December 1955 The Society for Christian Democratic Education Work, which would be renamed after Chancellor Konrad Adenauer in 1964, was opened in Bonn; the aim of the foundation's civic education programs is, according to their official website, the “promotion of freedom and liberty and justice” through “furthering European unification, improving transatlantic relations, deepening development cooperation”.
Their function as a think-tank and consulting agency is intended to provide citizens with a basis for political action through the research and analyses of current political trends. The KAS offers more than 2,500 conferences and events each year worldwide, supports the political involvement and education of intellectually gifted youth through a prestigious scholarship program as well as an ongoing comprehensive seminar program. Along with the headquarters in Sankt Augustin and Berlin, the KAS operates two educational centers, sixteen training centers, an Academy, an international conference center; the KAS consists of six departments: The aforementioned Academy located in Berlin, which hosts symposia, conferences and exhibitions in order to analyze relevant societal and political issues in a public setting. The Archive for Christian Democratic Policy documents and researches Christian Democracy’s historical development; the department for European and International Cooperation engages itself with international politics through the functions of the foundation’s more than 200 projects in around 120 countries.
The Politics and Consulting department is the think tank of the KAS. The department for Civic Education combats the status quo, looking to invoke citizen participation in an era where freedom and peace are taken for granted; the Scholarships and Cultural Activities department provides financial and moral support to 2,000 students. Former President of the Bundestag Norbert Lammert is the current President of the KAS, he is joined on the Board of Directors by 24 other individuals. The KAS has 55 members, many of whom are current and former CDU politicians; the Board of Trustees has 24 members who assist and supervise the work of the KAS. Similar to other German political foundations, the Konrad Adenauer Foundation is financed by federal and land government funds. 96.8% of the foundation’s €120 million budget in 2009 was therefore provided by public funding, while 2.7% was derived from admission charges and miscellaneous revenues, 0.5% came from private funds and donations. The Konrad Adenauer Foundation awards a prize for young scholars, named after the CDU politician Bruno Heck, a prize for local journalists and a literature prize.
In Bavaria, the Hanns Seidel Foundation operates in lieu of the Konrad-Adenauer Foundation. These two CDU-friendly foundations are not the Adenauer Foundation's only collaborators. Furthermore, the Adenauer Foundation authored a "Common Declaration" in partnership with the Friedrich-Ebert-Foundation, the Friedrich-Naumann-Foundation, the Hans-Seidel-Foundation, the Heinrich-Boell-Foundation which explored various mission statements and financing models of political foundations in Germany; the KAS is a member of "European Movement Germany". As a member of the market-oriented Stockholm Network, the KAS cooperates with other foundations and think tanks in issues pertaining to European politics. Former scholars of the foundation have been Thomas de Maizière, Peter Altmaier, Christian Wulff, Uwe Barschel, Tom Enders, Stefan Hell, Armin Laschet, Friedrich Merz, Detlef Seif, Ruprecht Polenz; the other parties in Germany use the legal form of a foundation for support and public relations purposes. The other foundations are: Friedrich Ebert Foundation Friedrich Naumann Foundation für die Freiheit Hanns Seidel Foundation Heinrich Böll Foundation Rosa Luxemburg Foundation.
“Mission: Democracy!” Official website
Luigi Sturzo was an Italian Roman Catholic priest and prominent politician. He was known in his lifetime as a "clerical socialist" and is considered one of the fathers of the Christian democratic platform, he was the founder of the Luigi Sturzo Institute in 1951. Sturzo was one of the founders of the Partito Popolare Italiano in 1919, but was forced into exile in 1924 with the rise of Italian fascism. In exile in London he published over 400 articles critical of fascism and the post-war Christian Democrats. Sturzo's cause for canonization opened on 23 March 2002 and he is titled as a Servant of God. Luigi Sturzo was born on 26 November 1871 in Caltagirone to Felice Sturzo, his twin sister was Emanuela. One ancestor - Giuseppe Sturzo - served as the Mayor of Caltagirone in 1864 until an unspecified time and another ancestor was Croce Sturzo who wrote about the Roman Question, his two brothers Luigi and Franco Sturzo were well-known Jesuits. His elder brother Mario was Bishop of Piazza Armerina, his two other sisters were the nun Remigia.
From 1883 until 1886 he studied at Acireale and in Noto. He commenced his studies for the ecclesial life in 1888. Sturzo received his ordination to the priesthood on 19 May 1894 from the Bishop of Caltagirone Saverio Gerbino and following his graduation served as a teacher of philosophical and theological studies in Caltagirone. In 1898 he received a doctorate in his philosophical studies from the Pontifical Gregorian in Rome in 1898 and he taught that subject in his hometown from 1898 to 1903, it was around this time. In his spare time he liked to collect antique ceramic art and while serving as the Vice-Mayor opened a ceramicists' school in 1918, he founded the newspaper La Croce di Constantino in Caltagirone in 1897. In 1900 - at the same time as the Boxer Rebellion - Sturzo asked his bishop to serve in the missions in China despite the persecutions the Church was enduring there, but he was denied this request on the account of his precarious state of health. Sturzo was involved since 1915 with Azione Cattolica.
He was close with Romolo Murri. Sturzo's political activism and collaboration with his colleagues prevented Giovanni Giolitti assuming power once again in 1922 which allowed for Luigi Facta to assume the prime ministership. Sturzo was among the founders of the Partito Popolare Italiano on 19 January 1919; the formation of the PPI - with the permission of Pope Benedict XV - represented a tacit and reluctant reversal of the Vatican's Non Expedit of non-participation in Italian politics, abolished before the November 1919 elections in which the PPI won 20.6% of the vote and 100 seats in the legislature. The PPI was a colossal political force in the nation: between 1919 and 1922 no government could be formed and maintained without the support of the PPI, but a coalition between the Socialists and the PPI was deemed unacceptable within the Vatican despite the Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti in 1914 proposing it and something his progressive and powerless successors—Bonomi and Facta —reimaged as the single possible coalition that excluded the Fascists.
Sturzo was a committed anti-fascist who pontificated on the ways in which Catholicism and Fascism were incompatible in such works as Coscienza cristiana and criticized what he perceived to be "filo-fascist" elements within the Vatican. Sturzo wrote about the thought of Saint Augustine of Hippo and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz as well as Giambattista Vico and Maurice Blondel, he did this in order to elaborate on what he called the "dialectic of the concrete" and opposed this dialectic as a veer towards absolute idealism and scholastic realism. Sturzo was not among the 14 PPI members who defected—under pressure from Pope Pius XI—to approve the Acerbo Law in July 1923. Sturzo was forced to resign as the General Secretary of the PPI on 10 July 1923 after being unable to obtain the support of the Vatican to continue to oppose Benito Mussolini and his regime, he further resigned from the board on 19 May 1924. After Sturzo's departure the Vatican endorsed the formation of the Unione Nazionale, pro-fascist and Catholic which hastened the rupture of the PPI and provided political cover for its former members to join Mussolini’s inaugural government.
Following the Matteotti affair Cardinal Pietro Gasparri acceded to the wishes of Mussolini and forced Sturzo to leave the Italian nation before the re-opening of Parliament commemorating the March on Rome. Sturzo was exiled from 1924 to 1946 first in London and in the United States of America. Sturzo left Rome for London on 25 October 1924. Sturzo was consigned to a 3-month educational trip in London, he moved to the residence of the Oblates of Saint Charles in Bayswater and in January 1925 to the Servites at their priory of Saint Mary in Fulham Road where he was asked to leave in 1926 because the Servites' motherhouse in Rome was being denied funds as long as Sturzo was their guest. In 1926 he refused an offer from the Vatican - communicated through Cardinal Francis Bourne - to serve as a chaplain in a convent in Chiswick and lodging for his twin sister Nelina in exchange for ending his journ
The cultural mandate or creation mandate is the divine injunction found in Genesis 1:28, in which God, after having created the world and all in it, ascribes to humankind the tasks of filling and ruling over the earth. The text of Genesis 1:28, as specified in the King James translation, states: The cultural mandate is a mandate common to all humanity rather than limited to religious peoples, thereby does not envision the legislation of such religious ordinances as Sabbath attendance or blue laws, but rather, presumes the idea of public law from the perspective of common grace; those who advocate it have assumed that there are principles established by God which underlie all human society, that apply to all people and not only Christians, but which Christians are to apply in the modern context within a biblical framework. Within that framework, contemporary society is subjected to a Christian analysis under the assumption of Christian faith that all created things, including all people and their institutions, are subject as servants to the same God, although not all have Christian faith.
The cultural mandate further assumes that Christian justice demands that the lives of non-Christians must be watched over and their welfare protected, regardless of unbelief, because every person is made in the image of God. While the cultural mandate looks to the Bible as its guide to gain insight into the general principles of social structure and public justice, most proponents of this view do not appeal to Scripture for authority in public discourse, but accept that the pluralistic modern State has developed according to the providence of God, would argue according to this given state of affairs as interpreted by biblical reasoning. Within the Christian community itself, preliminary work is required to explain how Christian faith applies in its own terms, to develop the terms by which this Christian understanding may be communicated to a diverse culture. For example, the public agenda for the criminalization of murder would not begin and end with the Bible, but might take the form of arguing that murder violates what society calls a "self-evident right to life" that all men deserve, murder contradicts the accepted pragmatic consideration that it is in one's own interest not to harm one another or society - for, although such moral reasoning comes short of a Christian rationale, it may be deemed compatible in practical terms with Christian aims.
The neo-Calvinist approach is sometimes called "principled pluralism", because it seeks to find biblical principles of justice that apply without preference for one professed faith over another, in a diverse society. The cultural mandate is fundamental to the theocratic ideal of Dominionism and Christian Reconstructionism, but it does not by itself imply that ideal. Christian Reconstructionism seeks to establish Old Testament law as modern civil law; the connection is more remote, between this theological motive and those who see themselves as "creating God's kingdom on earth now," as Kingdom Now theology seeks to do. Unlike Kingdom Now theology, the cultural mandate does not try to establish the kingdom of God on this earth, but rather presents a holistic, biblical world view that proponents believe lead to liberty and happiness; the cultural mandate is most elaborately developed in the West by Neo-Calvinism, which explores the implications for modern, pluralistic society, of this Calvinistic assertion.
Although this concept is fundamental to theonomy, the Theonomy movement is a distinct and minority branch of this Christian approach to the structures of society and moral philosophy. Theonomy is distinctive, for example, in that while it affirms common grace, it denies that biblical principles are compatible with pluralism; the cultural mandate is associated with neo-Calvinism and Christian Democracy, thus, with the ideas of Abraham Kuyper, the Dutch Calvinist minister, who wrote in The Stone Lectures of 1898: That in spite of all worldly opposition, God's holy ordinances shall be established again in the home, in the school and in the State for the good of the people. Popularized versions of the cultural mandate idea have been promoted by Chuck Colson, Nancy Pearcey, the late Christian philosopher, Francis Schaeffer. In Asia, one of the most notable teachers of the cultural mandate is Stephen Tong, who has designed the first concert hall in Indonesia, Aula Simfonia Jakarta, established Reformed Centre for Religion and Society.
The cultural or dominion mandate in Genesis to "be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth" is prefigurement to other mandates in the Bible. In the Bible it says Noah received a commission to "be fruitful and multiply and replenish the earth"; the Great Commission is an analogous mandate: "Go ye therefore and teach all nations, baptizing them...teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you." Creation mandate The Bible and the Future by Anthony A. Hoekema Total Truth: Liberating Christianity from Its Cultural Captivity by Nancy Pearcey Liberating the Nations: Biblical Principles of Government, Education and Politics by Mark Beliles Culture Making by Andy Crouch Transforming Mission: Paradigm Shifts in Theology of Mission by David J. Bosch Missional God, Missional Ch
Helmut Josef Michael Kohl was a German statesman who served as Chancellor of Germany from 1982 to 1998 and as the chairman of the Christian Democratic Union from 1973 to 1998. From 1969 to 1976, Kohl was minister president of the state Rhineland-Palatinate. Kohl chaired the Group of Seven in 1985 and 1992. In 1998 he became honorary chairman of the CDU, resigning from the position in 2000. Born in 1930 in Ludwigshafen to a Roman Catholic family, Kohl joined the Christian Democratic Union in 1946 at the age of 16, he earned a PhD in history at Heidelberg University in 1958 and worked as a business executive before becoming a full-time politician. He was elected as the youngest member of the Parliament of Rhineland-Palatinate in 1959 and became Minister-President of his home state in 1969. Viewed during the 1960s and the early 1970s as a progressive within the CDU, he was elected national chairman of the party in 1973. In the 1976 federal election his party performed well, but the social-liberal government of social democrat Helmut Schmidt was able to remain in power, as well as in 1980, when Kohl's rival from the Bavarian sister party CSU, Franz Josef Strauß, candidated.
After Schmidt had lost the support of the liberal FDP in 1982, Kohl was elected Chancellor through a switch of the FDP, forming a christian-liberal government. After he had become party leader, Kohl was seen as a more conservative figure; as Chancellor Kohl was committed to European integration and French–German cooperation in particular. Kohl's 16-year tenure was the longest of any German Chancellor since Otto von Bismarck, he oversaw the end of the Cold War and the German reunification, for which he is known as Chancellor of Unity. Together with French President François Mitterrand, Kohl was the architect of the Maastricht Treaty, which established the European Union and the euro currency. Kohl was a central figure in the eastern enlargement of the European Union, his government led the effort to push for international recognition of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina when the states declared independence, he played an instrumental role in solving the Bosnian War. Domestically, Kohl's policies focused on economic reforms and also on the process of integrating the former East Germany into the reunited Germany, he moved the federal capital from the "provisional capital" Bonn back to Berlin, although he himself never resided there because the government offices were only relocated in 1999.
Kohl greatly increased federal spending on arts and culture. After his chancellorship, Kohl's reputation suffered domestically because of his role in the CDU donations scandal and he had to resign from his honorary chairmanship of the CDU after little more than a year in January 2000, but he was rehabilitated in years; the Chancellor Angela Merkel started her political career as Kohl's protegée. Kohl was described as "the greatest European leader of the second half of the 20th century" by U. S. Presidents George H. W. Bush and Bill Clinton. Kohl received the Charlemagne Prize in 1988 with François Mitterrand. Following his death, Kohl was honored with the first European Act of State in Strasbourg. Kohl was married to Hannelore Kohl during his entire political career, they had two sons, Walter Kohl and Peter Kohl. Helmut Kohl was born on 3 April 1930 in Ludwigshafen am Rhein, he was the third child of Hans Kohl, an imperial army veteran and civil servant, his wife, Cäcilie. Kohl's family was conservative and Roman Catholic, remained loyal to the Catholic Centre Party before and after 1933.
His elder brother died in World War II as a teenage soldier. At the age of ten, Kohl was obliged, like most children in Germany at the time, to join the Deutsches Jungvolk, a section of the Hitler Youth. Aged 15, on 20 April 1945, Kohl was sworn into the Hitler Youth by leader Artur Axmann at Berchtesgaden, just days before the end of the war, as membership was mandatory for all boys of his age. Kohl was drafted for military service in 1945. Kohl attended the Ruprecht Elementary School, continued at the Max-Planck-Gymnasium. After graduating in 1950, Kohl began to study law in Frankfurt am Main, spending two semesters commuting between Ludwigshafen and Frankfurt. Here, Kohl heard lectures among others. In 1951, Kohl switched to Heidelberg University, where he studied political science. Kohl was the first in his family to attend university. After graduating in 1956, Kohl became a fellow at the Alfred Weber Institute of Heidelberg University under Dolf Sternberger where he was an active member of the student society AIESEC.
In 1958, Kohl received his doctorate degree in history for his dissertation Die politische Entwicklung in der Pfalz und das Wiedererstehen der Parteien nach 1945, under the supervision of the historian Walther Peter Fuchs. After that, Kohl entered business, first as an assistant to the director of a foundry in Ludwigshafen in April 1960, as a manager for the Industrial Union for Chemistry in Ludwigshafen. In 1946, Kohl joined the rece
Christian ethics is a branch of Christian theology that defines virtuous behavior and wrong behavior from a Christian perspective. Systematic theological study of Christian ethics is called moral theology. Christian virtues are divided into four cardinal virtues and three theological virtues. Christian ethics includes questions regarding how the rich should act toward the poor, how women are to be treated, the morality of war. Christian ethicists, like other ethicists, approach ethics from different frameworks and perspectives; the approach of virtue ethics has become popular in recent decades due to the work of Alasdair MacIntyre and Stanley Hauerwas. The curriculum for seminary formation of Catholic priests includes multiple, required courses in Catholic moral theology. Required courses in moral theology or ethics are comparatively less common in Evangelical seminaries. In the Wesleyan tradition, Christian theology are informed by four distinguishable sources known as the Wesleyan Quadrilateral.
The four sources are scripture, tradition and Christian experience. According to D. Stephen Long, Jewish ethics and the life of Jesus figure prominently in Christian ethics, but "The Bible is the universal and fundamental source of Christian ethics", Long claims "Christian ethics finds its source in diverse means, but it emerges from the biblical narrative and the call of Abraham and Sarah and subsequent creation of the Jewish people". Childress and Macquarrie state that "Many Christian ethicists have claimed that Jesus Christ is the center of the biblical message in its entirety and the key to scripture". Other Christian ethicists "prefer a more Trinitarian rendering of the message of scripture"; some modern Christians "understand'liberation' or deliverance from oppression to be the message of scripture". Christians today "do not feel compelled to observe all 613 commandments" in the Torah, but the Ten Commandments figure prominently in Christian ethics."The Prophets ground their appeals for right conduct in God's demand for righteousness."
On the other hand, "It is not... true to say that for the OT writers righteousness is defined by what God does. Noted as ethical guidelines adhered to by Old Testament figures is "maintenance of the family", "safeguarding of the family property", "maintenance of the community". Much of Christian ethics derives from Biblical scripture and Christians have always considered the Bible profitable to teach, reprove and train in righteousness; the New Testament asserts that all morality flows from the Great Commandment, to love God with all one's heart, mind and soul, to love one's neighbour as oneself. In this, Jesus was reaffirming a teachings of Deut 6:4-9 and Lev 19:18. Christ united these commands together and proposed himself as a model of the love required in John 13:12, known as The New Commandment. Paul is the source of the phrase "Law of Christ", though its meaning and the relationship of Paul of Tarsus and Judaism are still disputed; the Pauline writings are the major source of the New Testament household code.
The Council of Jerusalem, as reported in Acts 15, may have been held in Jerusalem in about 50 AD. Its decree, known as the Apostolic Decree, was held as binding for several centuries and is still observed today by the Greek Orthodox. Christian ethics developed during Early Christianity as Christianity arose in the Holy Land and other early centers of Christianity while Christianity emerged from Second Temple Judaism. Early Christian ethics included discussions of how believers should relate to Roman authority and to the empire; the Church Fathers had little occasion to treat moral questions from a purely philosophical standpoint and independently of divine revelation, but in the explanation of Christian doctrine their discussions led to philosophical investigations. Writers, such as Justin Martyr, Tertullian, Clement of Alexandria, Ambrose and Augustine of Hippo all wrote on ethics from a distinctly Christian point of view, they made use of philosophical and ethical principles laid down by their Greek philosopher forebears and the intersection of Greek and Jewish thought known as Hellenistic Judaism.
Under the Emperor Constantine I, Christianity became a legal religion. With Christianity now in power, ethical concerns broadened and included discussions of the proper role of the state. Augustine in particular made use of the ethical principles of Greek philosophy and Hellenistic Judaism, he proceeded to develop along philosophical lines and to establish most of the truths of Christian morality. The eternal law, the original type and source of all temporal laws, the natural law, the ultimate end of man, the cardinal virtues, marriage, etc. were treated by him in the clearest and most penetrating manner. Augustine identified a movement in Scripture "toward the'City of God', from which Christian ethics emerges", as illustrated in chapters 11 and 12 of the book of Genesis. Broadly speaking, Augustine adapted the philosophy of Plato to Christian principles, his synthesis is called Augustinianism. He presents hardly a single portion of ethics to us but what he does present is enriched with his keen philosophical commentaries.
Writers followed in his footsteps. A sharper line of separation between philosophy and theology, in particular between ethics and moral theology, is first met within the works of the great Schoolmen of the Middle Ages of Albertus Magnus, Thomas Aquinas and Duns Scotus. Phi
European Christian Political Movement
The European Christian Political Movement is a political party at European level that unites national parties from across Europe that share Christian democratic politics. The member parties are more conservative and Eurosceptic than the European People's Party; the ECPM unites parties with a Christian social view. The party was founded in November 2002 in Hungary, it elected its first board in January 2005, was registered in the Netherlands in September 2005. The first ECPM president was Peeter Võsu of the Party of Estonian Christian Democrats; the party has thirty members from across sixteen countries. Youth movements are united in ECPYouth; the youth organisation started in 2004 and installed its first board in summer 2005. The ECPM has six Members of the European Parliament: Peter van Dalen of ChristianUnion, Bas Belder of the Dutch Reformed Party, Branislav Škripek of OL'aNO, Arne Gericke of Bündnis C, Marek Jurek of Right Wing of the Republic and Kazimierz Ujazdowski. All six MEPs sit with the European Reformists.
The ECPM started as a platform in November 2002 when representatives of political parties from more than 15 countries decided to examine new chances for Christian politics in Europe on the conference "For a Christian Europe" at Lakitelek, Hungary. The ECPM started with organizations regardless of their denominative background. Parties residing in and outside the EU participated in those first years and made it possible to create a movement, solidly continuing. In 2003 the ECPM adopted eight Guiding Principles in the Lakitelek declaration "Values for Europe", which shapes ECPM's vision on Europe and in January 2005 in Tallinn, Estonia the ECPM elected its first board. On 15 September 2005 ECPM was registered with statutes as an association under Dutch law. In 2010 ECPM was recognized as a European political party by the European Parliament. In 2014 ECPM took part in the European Elections for the first time as a European Party; the ECPM board was chaired by MP Peter Östman from 2013 to 2016 and since 2016, by MEP Branislav Škripek.
Sallux is the official thinktank of ECPM. This table contains a list of full member parties of the ECPM. Europe European Christian Political Youth European Evangelical Alliance Armenia Christian People's Unity of Armenia Belgium Care for Europe C'axent Dignitatis Humanea Institute European Evangelical Alliance Bulgaria Crown Bulgaria Rule of Law Bulgaria France Amical Service Christian Democratic Party Germany Institute for Ethics and Values Hungary Keresztény Demokrata Fórum Italy Associazione "Cercasi un fine" Dignitatis Humanae Institute Unione per la Democrazia e la Libertà Ireland Rónán Mullen Human Dignity Alliance Moldova European Foundation of Moldova Foundation for Christian Democracy of Moldova Netherlands Research Institute ChristianUnion Stichting Crown Financial Ministries Stichting vormingsactiviteiten Oost-Europa The Schuman Centre for European Studies Romania Areopagus Centru de Educaţie Creştină şi Cultură Contemporană Asociaţia Pro-vita pentru Născuţi şi Nenăscuţi – Filiala Bucureşti Christian Center for Roma Christian Democratic Association Romanian Foundation for Democracy Worldteach Association Russia Graceful Russia Serbia Center for Christian-Democratic Studies United Kingdom Jubilee Centre United States Center for Public Justice The ECPM organizes two General Assemblies per year.
An annual member congress is held as well. The ECPM organizes regional conferences and other events all over Europe. Peter Võsu, 2005–2013 Peter Östman, 2013–2016 Branislav Škripek, 2016–present Christian politics Political catholicism ECPM ECPYouth Sallux ECR Group
Wilhelm Emmanuel von Ketteler
Freiherr Wilhelm Emmanuel von Ketteler was a German theologian and politician who served as Bishop of Mainz. His social teachings became influential during the papacy of Leo XIII and his encyclical Rerum novarum. Ketteler was born in Münster in Westphalia. In 1828 he finished the Matura in Switzerland far away from his home, he studied theology at Göttingen, Berlin and Munich, was ordained priest in 1844. He resolved to consecrate his life to maintaining the cause of the freedom of the Church from the control of the State; this brought him into collision with the civil power, an attitude which he maintained throughout a stormy and eventful life. Ketteler was rather a man of action than a scholar, he first distinguished himself as the deputy for District of Tecklenburg and Warendorf at the Frankfurt National Assembly, a position to which he was elected in 1848, in which he soon became noted for his decision, foresight and eloquence. In 1850 he was made bishop of Mainz, by order of the Vatican, in preference to the celebrated Professor Leopold Schmidt, of Gießen, whose Liberal sentiments were not agreeable to the Papal party.
When elected, Ketteler refused to allow the students of theology in his diocese to attend lectures at Giessen, founded an opposition seminary in the diocese of Mainz itself. He founded religious institutes of School Brothers and School Sisters, to work in the various educational agencies he had called into existence, he labored to institute orphanages and rescue homes. In 1851, he founded the congregation of the Sisters of Divine Providence, with Stephanie Amelia Starkenfels de la Roche, he died at Burghausen, Upper Bavaria in 1877. In Mainz, "Workers' Day" is celebrated in honor of the Bishop; the Herz-Jesu-Kirche, Mainz was built in the honour of Ketteler. The fuchsia cultivar "Baron de Ketteler" is named after him. Ketteler's nephew, Klemens von Ketteler, was Germany's envoy in China and was murdered during the Boxer Rebellion, he is cited in Pope Benedict's encyclical Deus caritas est for his role in the Catholic social tradition. In 1861, Ketteler published a book on reconciliation between Catholics and Protestants in Germany, Autorität, und Kirche.
Ketteler was friends with Julie von Massow, a Lutheran woman from Prussian nobility, who indeed founded such a prayer society. In 1858, Ketteler threw down the gauntlet against the State in his pamphlet on the rights of the Roman Catholic Church in Germany. In 1863 he adopted Lassalle's views, published his Die Arbeitfrage und das Christenthum; when the question of papal infallibility arose, he opposed the promulgation of the dogma on the ground that such promulgation was inopportune. But after the dogma was defined, he submitted to the decrees, he was the warmest opponent of the State in the Kulturkampf provoked by Prince Otto von Bismarck after the publication of the Vatican decrees, was instrumental in compelling that statesman to retract the pledge he had rashly given, never to "go to Canossa." To such an extent did Bishop von Ketteler carry his opposition, that in 1874 he forbade his clergy to take part in celebrating the anniversary of the Battle of Sedan, declared the Rhine to be a "Catholic river."
Goyau, Georges. "Wilhelm Emmanuel, Baron von Ketteler". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. A Catholic View of the Economy: Excerpt from Wilhelm Emmanuel von Ketteler’s “The Labor Question and Christianity”