Vienna is the capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austrias primary city, with a population of about 1.8 million, and its cultural, economic and it is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union. Today, it has the second largest number of German speakers after Berlin, Vienna is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations and OPEC. The city is located in the part of Austria and is close to the borders of the Czech Republic, Slovakia. These regions work together in a European Centrope border region, along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site, apart from being regarded as the City of Music because of its musical legacy, Vienna is said to be The City of Dreams because it was home to the worlds first psycho-analyst – Sigmund Freud. The citys roots lie in early Celtic and Roman settlements that transformed into a Medieval and Baroque city and it is well known for having played an essential role as a leading European music centre, from the great age of Viennese Classicism through the early part of the 20th century.
The historic centre of Vienna is rich in architectural ensembles, including Baroque castles and gardens, Vienna is known for its high quality of life. In a 2005 study of 127 world cities, the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked the city first for the worlds most liveable cities, between 2011 and 2015, Vienna was ranked second, behind Melbourne, Australia. Monocles 2015 Quality of Life Survey ranked Vienna second on a list of the top 25 cities in the world to make a base within, the UN-Habitat has classified Vienna as being the most prosperous city in the world in 2012/2013. Vienna regularly hosts urban planning conferences and is used as a case study by urban planners. Between 2005 and 2010, Vienna was the worlds number-one destination for international congresses and it attracts over 3.7 million tourists a year. The English name Vienna is borrowed from the homonymous Italian version of the name or the French Vienne. The etymology of the name is still subject to scholarly dispute. Some claim that the name comes from Vedunia, meaning forest stream, which produced the Old High German Uuenia.
A variant of this Celtic name could be preserved in the Czech and Slovak names of the city, the name of the city in Hungarian, Serbo-Croatian and Ottoman Turkish has a different, probably Slavonic origin, and originally referred to an Avar fort in the area. Slovene-speakers call the city Dunaj, which in other Central European Slavic languages means the Danube River, evidence has been found of continuous habitation since 500 BC, when the site of Vienna on the Danube River was settled by the Celts. In 15 BC, the Romans fortified the city they called Vindobona to guard the empire against Germanic tribes to the north
Brno is the second largest city in the Czech Republic by population and area, the largest Moravian city, and the historical capital city of the Margraviate of Moravia. Brno is the center of the South Moravian Region in which it forms a separate district. The city is a significant administrative centre and it is the seat of a number of state authorities, including the Ombudsman, and the Office for the Protection of Competition. Brno is an important centre of education, with 33 faculties belonging to 13 institutes of higher learning. Brno Exhibition Centre ranks among the largest exhibition centres in Europe, the complex opened in 1928 and established the tradition of large exhibitions and trade fairs held in Brno. Brno hosts motorbike and other races on the Masaryk Circuit, an established in 1930. Another cultural tradition is a fireworks competition, Ignis Brunensis. The other large preserved castle near the city is Veveří Castle by the Brno Dam Lake and this castle is the site of a number of legends, as are many other places in Brno.
Another architectural monument of Brno is the functionalist Villa Tugendhat which has been included on the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites, one of the natural sights nearby is the Moravian Karst. The etymology of the name Brno is disputed and it perhaps comes from Old Czech brnie muddy, swampy. Alternative derivations are from a Slavic verb brniti or a Celtic language spoken in the area before it was overrun by Germanic peoples, throughout its history, Brnos locals referred to the town in other languages, including Brünn in German, ברין in Yiddish and Bruna in Latin. The city was referred to as Brunn in English. The Asteroid 2889 Brno was named after the city, as well as the Bren light machine gun, one of the most famous weapons of World War II. In the early 11th century Brno was established as a castle of a prince from the House of Přemyslid. Brno was first mentioned in Cosmas Chronica Boëmorum dated to year 1091, seats of these rulers and thus capitals of these territories were castles and towns of Brno and Znojmo.
In the late 12th century, Moravia began to reunify, forming the Margraviate of Moravia, since then, until the mid of the 17th century, it was not clear which town should be the capital of Moravia. Political power was therefore divided between Brno and Olomouc, but Znojmo played an important role. The Moravian Diet, the Moravian Land Tables, and the Moravian Land Court were all seated in both cities at once, Brno was the official seat of the Moravian Margraves, and its geographical position closer to Vienna became important
Hungary is a unitary parliamentary republic in Central Europe. With about 10 million inhabitants, Hungary is a member state of the European Union. The official language is Hungarian, which is the most widely spoken language in Europe. Hungarys capital and largest metropolis is Budapest, a significant economic hub, major urban areas include Debrecen, Miskolc, Pécs and Győr. His great-grandson Stephen I ascended to the throne in 1000, converting the country to a Christian kingdom, by the 12th century, Hungary became a middle power within the Western world, reaching a golden age by the 15th century. Hungarys current borders were established in 1920 by the Treaty of Trianon after World War I, when the country lost 71% of its territory, 58% of its population, following the interwar period, Hungary joined the Axis Powers in World War II, suffering significant damage and casualties. Hungary became a state of the Soviet Union, which contributed to the establishment of a four-decade-long communist dictatorship.
On 23 October 1989, Hungary became again a democratic parliamentary republic, in the 21st century, Hungary is a middle power and has the worlds 57th largest economy by nominal GDP, as well as the 58th largest by PPP, out of 188 countries measured by the IMF. As a substantial actor in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds 36th largest exporter and importer of goods, Hungary is a high-income economy with a very high standard of living. It keeps up a security and universal health care system. Hungary joined the European Union in 2004 and part of the Schengen Area since 2007, Hungary is a member of the United Nations, NATO, WTO, World Bank, the AIIB, the Council of Europe and Visegrád Group. Well known for its cultural history, Hungary has been contributed significantly to arts, literature and science. Hungary is the 11th most popular country as a tourist destination in Europe and it is home to the largest thermal water cave system, the second largest thermal lake in the world, the largest lake in Central Europe, and the largest natural grasslands in Europe.
The H in the name of Hungary is most likely due to historical associations with the Huns. The rest of the word comes from the Latinized form of Medieval Greek Oungroi, according to an explanation the Greek name was borrowed from Proto-Slavic Ǫgǔri, in turn borrowed from Oghur-Turkic Onogur. Onogur was the name for the tribes who joined the Bulgar tribal confederacy that ruled the eastern parts of Hungary after the Avars. The Hungarians likely belonged to the Onogur tribal alliance and it is possible they became its ethnic majority. The Hungarian endonym is Magyarország, composed of magyar and ország, the word magyar is taken from the name of one of the seven major semi-nomadic Hungarian tribes, magyeri
The European Union is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. It has an area of 4,475,757 km2, the EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states. Within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished, a monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002, and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency. The EU operates through a system of supranational and intergovernmental decision-making. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community, the community and its successors have grown in size by the accession of new member states and in power by the addition of policy areas to its remit. While no member state has left the EU or its antecedent organisations, the Maastricht Treaty established the European Union in 1993 and introduced European citizenship. The latest major amendment to the basis of the EU. The EU as a whole is the largest economy in the world, additionally,27 out of 28 EU countries have a very high Human Development Index, according to the United Nations Development Programme.
In 2012, the EU was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, through the Common Foreign and Security Policy, the EU has developed a role in external relations and defence. The union maintains permanent diplomatic missions throughout the world and represents itself at the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G7, because of its global influence, the European Union has been described as an emerging superpower. After World War II, European integration was seen as an antidote to the nationalism which had devastated the continent. 1952 saw the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community, the supporters of the Community included Alcide De Gasperi, Jean Monnet, Robert Schuman, and Paul-Henri Spaak. These men and others are credited as the Founding fathers of the European Union. In 1957, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and West Germany signed the Treaty of Rome and they signed another pact creating the European Atomic Energy Community for co-operation in developing nuclear energy. Both treaties came into force in 1958, the EEC and Euratom were created separately from the ECSC, although they shared the same courts and the Common Assembly.
The EEC was headed by Walter Hallstein and Euratom was headed by Louis Armand, Euratom was to integrate sectors in nuclear energy while the EEC would develop a customs union among members. During the 1960s, tensions began to show, with France seeking to limit supranational power, Jean Rey presided over the first merged Commission. In 1973, the Communities enlarged to include Denmark, Norway had negotiated to join at the same time, but Norwegian voters rejected membership in a referendum
Central Europe lies between Eastern Europe and Western Europe. The concept of Central Europe is based on a historical and cultural identity. Central Europe is going through a phase of strategic awakening, with such as the CEI, Centrope. While the regions economy shows high disparities with regard to income, elements of unity for Western and Central Europe were Roman Catholicism and Latin. According to Hungarian historian Jenő Szűcs, foundations of Central European history at the first millennium were in connection with Western European development. The keyword of Western social development after millennium was the spread of liberties and autonomies in Western Europe and these phenomena appeared in the middle of the 13th century in Central European countries. There were self-governments of towns and parliaments, in 1335 under the rule of the King Charles I of Hungary, the castle of Visegrád, the seat of the Hungarian monarchs was the scene of the royal summit of the Kings of Poland and Hungary.
They agreed to cooperate closely in the field of politics and commerce, in the Middle Ages, countries in Central Europe adopted Magdeburg rights. Before 1870, the industrialization that had developed in Western and Central Europe, even in Eastern Europe, industrialization lagged far behind. Russia, for example, remained rural and agricultural. The concept of Central Europe was already known at the beginning of the 19th century, an example of that-time vision of Central Europe may be seen in J. Partsch’s book of 1903. On 21 January 1904, Mitteleuropäischer Wirtschaftsverein was established in Berlin with economic integration of Germany, another time, the term Central Europe became connected to the German plans of political and cultural domination. The bible of the concept was Friedrich Naumann’s book Mitteleuropa in which he called for a federation to be established after the war. The concept failed after the German defeat in World War I, the revival of the idea may be observed during the Hitler era.
According to Emmanuel de Martonne, in 1927 the Central European countries included, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania and Yugoslavia are not considered by the author to be Central European because they are located mostly outside Central Europe. The author use both Human and Physical Geographical features to define Central Europe, the interwar period brought new geopolitical system and economic and political problems, and the concept of Central Europe took a different character. The centre of interest was moved to its eastern part – the countries that have appeared on the map of Europe, Hungary, the conflict of interests was too big and neither Little Entente nor Intermarium ideas succeeded. The interwar period brought new elements to the concept of Central Europe, after the war, the Eastern part of Central Europe was placed at the centre of the concept
Economy of Europe
The economy of Europe comprises more than 731 million people in 48 different countries. Like other continents, the wealth of Europes states varies, although the poorest are well above the poorest states of other continents in terms of GDP and living standards. The end of World War II brought European countries closer together, culminating in the formation of the European Union and in 1999, the difference in wealth across Europe can be seen roughly in former Cold War divide, with some countries breaching the divide. Europe in 2010 had a nominal GDP of $19.920 trillion and these 6 countries all rank in the worlds top 15, therefore European economies account for half of the 10 wealthiest ones. The EU as a whole is the wealthiest and largest economy in the world, in 2009 Europe remained the worlds wealthiest region. Its $33 trillion in assets under management represented more than one-third of the worlds wealth, unlike North America it was one of few regions where wealth surpassed its precrisis year-end peak.
Of the top 500 largest corporations measured by revenue,184 have their headquarters in Europe,161 are located in the EU,15 in Switzerland,6 in Russia,1 in Turkey,1 in Norway. Prior to World War II, Europes major financial and industrial states were the United Kingdom, the Industrial Revolution, which began in Britain, had spread rapidly across Europe, and before long the entire continent was at a high level of industry. However, World War II caused the destruction of most of Europes industrial centres, following World War II, European Government was in tatters. Many non-Socialist European governments moved to link their economies, laying the foundation for what would become the European Union and this meant a huge increase in shared infrastructure and cross-border trade. Whilst these European states rapidly improved their economies, by the 1980s, the GDP and the living standards of Central and Eastern European states were lower than in other parts of Europe. Even free-market Greece, situated in South-Eastern Europe, struggled due to isolation from non-socialist part of Europe.
The European Community grew from 6 original members following World War II, many developed European countries were quick to develop economic ties with fellow European states, where democracy was reintroduced. Europes largest economy, struggled upon unification in 1991 with former communist German Democratic Republic, or East Germany, influenced by the Soviet Union. Peace did not come to Yugoslavia for a decade, and by 2003, there were still many NATO and EU peacekeeping troops present in Bosnia and Herzegovina, War severely hampered economic growth, with only Slovenia making any real progress in the 1990s. European economy was affected by September 11 Attacks in United States in 2001, Switzerland, but, in 2002/2003, the Economy began to recover from attacks in US. The economy of Europe was by this time dominated by the EU, three states chose to remain outside the Eurozone and continue with their own currencies, namely Denmark and the United Kingdom. In early 2004,10 mostly former communist states joined the EU in its biggest ever expansion, enlarging the union to 25 members, the acceding countries are bound to join the Eurozone and adopt the common currency Euro in the future
Trnava is a city in western Slovakia,47 km to the north-east of Bratislava, on the Trnávka river. It is the capital of a kraj and of an okres and it is the seat of a Roman Catholic archbishopric. The city has a historic center, because of the many churches within its city walls, Trnava has often been called parva Roma, i. e. Little Rome, or more recently, the Slovak Rome. The name of the city is derived from the Slovak word tŕnie which characterized the banks in the region. The Hungarian name originates from the Hungarian word szombat, referring to the weekly market held on Saturdays. The varieties of the name in different languages include German, Hungarian and Latin, permanent settlements on the citys territory are known from the Neolithic period onwards. During the Middle Ages, an important market settlement arose here at the junction of two important roads – from Bohemia to Hungary and from the Mediterranean to Poland, the first written reference to Trnava dates from 1211. In 1238, Trnava was the first town in Slovakia to be granted a charter by the king.
The former agricultural center gradually became a center of manufacture, trade, by the early 13th century, the king of Hungary had invited numerous Germans to settle in Trnava, this settlement increased after the Tatar invasion in 1242. At the turn of the 13th and 14th centuries, a part of Trnava was enclosed by very long city walls, the original Slovak market settlement and the Germans stayed behind this wall. The temporary German majority in Trnavas population yielded in favour of the Slovaks during the campaigns undertaken by the Czech Hussites in the 15th century, the Hussites opposed Germans and made Trnava the center of their campaigns in northwestern Kingdom of Hungary from 1432 to 1435. The cathedrals of the archbishopric were the Saint John the Baptist Cathedral, many ethnic Hungarians fleeing from the Turks moved to the town after 1541 from present-day Hungary. In the 16th and especially the 17th century, Trnava was an important center of the Counter-Reformation in the Kingdom of Hungary, the Archbishop Nicolas Oláh invited the Jesuits to Trnava in 1561 in order to develop the municipal school system.
Subsequently, he had a seminary opened in 1566 and in 1577 Trnava’s priest Nicolas Telegdi founded a house in the town. The first Catholic Bible translation into Hungarian was completed in the town by the Jesuit György Káldi who was there in 1573. On 26 December 1704 Francis II Rákóczis army suffered defeat against the Imperial Army, led by Sigbert Heister. The Jesuit Trnava University, the university of the Kingdom of Hungary at that time, was founded by Archbishop Péter Pázmány. From the late 18th century Trnava became a center of the literary, the first standard codification of the Slovak language was based on the Slovak dialect used in the region of Trnava
Kittsee is an Austrian municipality in the District of Neusiedl am See, Burgenland. In the Middle Ages, the settlement was situated in the Kingdom of Hungary, there was a Hungarian royal castle on the site of the settlement as early as the 12th century. The first documented mention of the settlement was in 1291, the name Koeche was in use in 1390 and it is thought that the name is of Hungarian origin and the older form was Küccse. Since the settlement guards the entrance of the Danube into Hungary and this was the gathering site of the crusader army of Frederick I in 1198. The town was the site of Géza IIs battle with the Austrians, the peace treaty of Andrew III and Albert I was signed here in 1291. After 1363, the town was owned by the Scharfenecki, Szentgyörgyi, Esterházy, in 1455, this was the scene of a meeting between John Hunyadi and Ulrich II of Celje. Ferdinand I received envoys here from Hungary on the way to his coronation in Székesfehérvár, in 1529 and 1683 it was destroyed by Ottoman armies.
In 1676, it became the property of the Esterházy family, the towns ancient moated castle, built in the 12th century was first mentioned in 1344, and was destroyed by the Ottomans in 1529. It was replaced by the Grange, built in 1552, from 1880, the Batthyány-Strattman family were the main landlords in the town. Kittsee was one of the Siebengemeinden of Burgenland, like the rest of Burgenland, belonged to Hungary until 1920/21. After the end of the First World War, the territory of West-Hungary was given to Austria by the Treaties of St. Germain, since 1921, the town has belonged to the newly founded State of Burgenland. Kittsees mayor is Klaus Senftner of the SPÖ and its vice-mayor is Franz Buchta of the ÖVP, the chief officer is Johann Zierhut. The political composition of the Municipal Council is SPÖ11, ÖVP8, FPÖ2, Grüne 0, the municipality plays an important role as a medical center, because the districts only hospital is located there. It was founded by the ophthalmologist Prince Ladislaus Batthyány-Strattmann, who ran the hospital until 1921 and it was named after him in 2004.
Kittsee is home to a station of the Red Cross. The town is famous for its 30,000 apricot trees, remains of a medieval church named after St. Pancratius, only the tower survived after 1529. The original building was erected before 1250, the present-day Church of Exaltation of the Holy Cross was built in 1736. The new Castle was built in 1668 by expanding the Grange, since 1974 it houses an ethnographic museum
South Moravian Region
The South Moravian Region is an administrative unit of the Czech Republic, located in the south-western part of its historical region of Moravia. Its capital is Brno, the 2nd largest city in the Czech Republic, the region has 1,169,000 inhabitants and the total area of 7,196.5 km². It is bordered by the South Bohemian Region, Vysočina Region, Pardubice Region, Olomouc Region, Zlín Region, there are 21 municipalities with extended powers and 34 municipalities with a delegated municipal office. The region is famous for its wine production, the area around the towns of Mikulov, Velké Pavlovice along with the Slovácko region provide 94% of the Czech Republics vineyards. The total population of the region as of 30 June 2012 was 1,168,975 inhabitants, the number of inhabitants has been growing since 2002. The net migration has been positive in all years since 2003, since 2007 the region has experienced natural population growth. In 2012 there were 37 thousand foreigners living in the region, the average age of citizens in the region was 41.5 years in 2012.
The average age has grown by 5 years over the last two decades, the life expectancy at birth in 2012 was 75.2 years for men and 81.7 years for women. Life expectancy has been growing over recent years, the divorce-marriage ratio in the region was 60.3 in 2012. One third of the population lives in the capital Brno. The share of inhabitants living in towns and cities on the population of the region has been steadily decreasing due to suburbanization. The table below displays 12 municipalities with the highest number of inhabitants in the region, with an area of 7,196.5 km² the South Moravian Region is the fourth largest region of the Czech Republic. The highest point of the region is located in the part on Durda mountain. The point with the lowest elevation is situated in Břeclav District at the meeting of the rivers Morava, the northern and north-western part of the region is covered by the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands and the Moravian Karst. There is a cave complex in the Moravian Karst with a 138.5 m depth in the Macocha Gorge in the Punkva Caves.
In the eastern part, the region reaches to the Carpathian Mountains, the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands and the Carpathian Mountains are separated by the Lower-Moravian Valley. The southern part of the region is flat and dominated by fields, meadows. The largest river of the region is the Morava river, other significant rivers are the Dyje, which are all tributaries of the Morava river
Burgenland is the easternmost and least populous state of Austria. It consists of two cities and seven rural districts, with in total 171 municipalities. It is 166 km long north to south but much narrower from west to east. The region is part of the Centrope Project, Burgenland is the seventh largest of Austrias nine states, or Bundesländer, at 3,962 km2. The highest point in the province is Geschriebenstein, at 884 metres above sea level, Burgenland borders the Austrian state of Styria to the southwest, and the state of Lower Austria to the northwest. To the east it borders Hungary, in the extreme north and south there are short borders with Slovakia and Slovenia respectively. Burgenland and Hungary share the Neusiedler See, a known for its reeds and shallowness. The Neusiedler See is Austrias largest lake, and is a great tourist attraction, bringing ornithologists, Burgenlands state assembly has 36 seats. The provincial government is a coalition of the SPÖ and the FPÖ, the voting age for regional elections in Burgenland was reduced to 16 in 2003.
Burgenland consists of nine districts, two cities and seven rural districts. From north to south, These combine the attributes of district, Burgenland is the only Austrian state which has never been part of the Archduchy of Austria, Holy Roman Empire, German Confederation nor Austria-Hungarys Cisleithania. The first Indo-European peoples appeared in this region around 3300 BC, from the 4th century BC, the area was dominated by Celts and in the 1st century AD it became part of the Roman Empire. During Roman administration, it was part of the province of Pannonia, during the late Roman Empire, Pannonia Prima province was part of larger administrative units, such are Diocese of Pannonia, Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum and Praetorian prefecture of Italy. The first Germanic people to settle in this region were the Ostrogoths, the Ostrogoths became allies of Rome and were allowed to settle in Pannonia, being tasked to defend the Roman borders. In the 5th century, the area was conquered by the Huns, but after their defeat, in the 6th century, the territory was included in another Germanic state, the Kingdom of the Lombards.
However, the Lombards subsequently left towards Italy and the area came under the control of the Avars, briefly in the 7th century, the area was part of the Slavic State of Samo, but was subsequently returned to Avar control. After the Avar defeat at the end of the 8th century, after the Battle of Lechfeld in 955, new Germanic settlers came to the area. On 20 September 1058 Agnes of Poitou and Andrew I of Hungary, whose son married a daughter of Agnes of Poitou