Midrand is an area in central Gauteng Province, South Africa. It is situated between Centurion and Kyalami, and is part of the City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality, Midrand was established as a municipality in 1981, but ceased to be an independent town in the restructuring of local government that followed the end of apartheid in 1994. It was incorporated in the City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality in 2000 and it was made part of Region 2 and, as of 2006, when the number of regions were reduced to seven, it forms part of Region A. Suburbs that are regarded as being in Midrand include among others, Country View, Crowthorne, Glen Austin, Halfway House, Halfway Gardens, Vorna Valley, Noordwyk. In 2010, it was reported that the City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality wished to annex Midrand from the City of Johannesburg, reportedly to boost its income, the city is relatively modern, having experienced much growth in the last decade. Many businesses have relocated due to its proximity to good highway links.
The South African Civil Aviation Authority is headquartered in Midrand, Midrand is the location of the African Unions Pan-African Parliament and of the NEPAD secretariat. The newest landmark of Midrand is the Nizamiye Masjid, the largest mosque in South Africa, the Classical Turkish-style mosque was personally funded by Turkish-born construction tycoon Ali Katircioglu at a cost of R210 Million. In 2013, Atterbury Properties announced plans to build the Mall of Africa, the Mall of Africa will be located within the green, mixed-use Waterfall City precinct. The N1 Business Park and International Business Gateway are among the commercial developments in Midrand. The Midrand Graduate Institute, Varsity Colleges new campus opened in Riverview Office Park in 2012, there are schools located in close proximity in every area. Kyalami, an international renowned racetrack is in Midrand and is the venue for many of South Africas premier motor racing events, the South African Lipizzaners riding academy is situated in the smallholdings of Kyalami.
Midrand is the home of Grand Central Airport and to one of the stations in the Gautrain rapid rail system, köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies its climate as subtropical highland. Midrand Chamber of Commerce Midrand Free Business Directory, Community Forum and Classifieds
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. South Africa is the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and it is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Old World or the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different Bantu languages, the remaining population consists of Africas largest communities of European and multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a variety of cultures, languages. Its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the recognition of 11 official languages. The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup détat, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to recover its rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a role in the countrys recent history. The National Party imposed apartheid in 1948, institutionalising previous racial segregation, since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the countrys democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces.
South Africa is often referred to as the Rainbow Nation to describe the multicultural diversity. The World Bank classifies South Africa as an economy. Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, and the 34th-largest in the world, in terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa. However and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed, South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, and maintains significant regional influence. The name South Africa is derived from the geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, since 1961 the long form name in English has been the Republic of South Africa. In Dutch the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in 1983 by the Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika, since 1994 the Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning south, is a name for South Africa.
South Africa contains some of the oldest archaeological and human fossil sites in the world, extensive fossil remains have been recovered from a series of caves in Gauteng Province. The area is a UNESCO World Heritage site and has termed the Cradle of Humankind
Andrew Murray (minister)
Andrew Murray was a South African writer and Christian pastor. Murray considered missions to be the end of the church. Andrew Murray was the child of Andrew Murray Sr. a Dutch Reformed Church missionary sent from Scotland to South Africa. He was born in Graaff Reinet, South Africa and his mother, Maria Susanna Stegmann, was of French Huguenot and German Lutheran descent. Murray was sent to Aberdeen in Scotland for his education, together with his elder brother. Both remained there until they obtained their masters degrees in 1845, from there, they both went to the University of Utrecht where they studied theology. The two brothers became members of Het Réveil, a revival movement opposed to the rationalism which was in vogue in the Netherlands at that time. Both brothers were ordained by the Hague Committee of the Dutch Reformed Church on 9 May 1848, Murray married Emma Rutherford in Cape Town, South Africa, on 2 July 1856. In 1846 they lived in the Minrebroederstraat, from 1847-1848 they lived at the Zadelstraat 39.
Murray pastored churches in Bloemfontein, Cape Town and Wellington and he was a champion of the South African Revival of 1860. In 1889, he was one of the founders of the South African General Mission, along with Martha Osborn, after Martha Osborn married George Howe, they formed the South East Africa General Mission in 1891. SAGM and SEAGM merged in 1894, because its ministry had spread into other African countries, the missions name was changed to Africa Evangelical Fellowship in 1965. AEF joined with Serving In Mission in 1998 and continues to this day, Murray died on 18 January 1917, four months before his 89th birthday. He was so influenced by Johann Christoph Blumhardts Möttlingen revival that he included a portion of Friedrich Zündels biography at the end of With Christ in the School of Prayer. Andrew Murray, Keswick / Higher Life Leader, a Biographical Sketch, in The Doctrine of Sanctification, Thomas D. Ross, Ph. D
Colony of Natal
The Colony of Natal was a British colony in south-eastern Africa. It is now the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa, fierce conflict with the Zulu population led to the evacuation of Durban, and eventually the Boers accepted British annexation in 1844 under military pressure. A British governor was appointed to the region and many emigrated from Europe. The British established a sugar industry in the 1860s. Farm owners had a difficult time attracting Zulu labourers to work on their plantations, as a result of the importation of Indian labourers, Durban became the home to the largest concentration of Indians outside of India. In 1823 Francis Farewell, formerly a lieutenant in the British navy, with merchants of Cape Town. In the brig Salisbury, commanded by James S. King, the voyage was not successful as a trading venture, but Farewell was so impressed with the possibilities of Natal both for trade and colonization that he resolved to establish himself at the port. He went on with ten companions, among them Henry Francis Fynn, all the rest save Farewell and Fynn speedily returned to the Cape, but the two who remained were joined by three sailors, John Cane, Henry Ogle and Thomas Holstead.
On the 27th of the same month Farewell declared the territory he had acquired a British possession, Farewell and Fynn made independent settlements at various parts of the bay. Both Dr Smith and Uys travelled overland through Kaffraria, and were received by the English living at the bay. The next step was taken by the settlers at the port, who in 1835 resolved to lay out a town, to all these requests no official answer was returned. The settlers had joined in the year named by Allen Francis Gardiner. With the support of the traders he founded a station on the hill overlooking the bay. In 1837 Gardiner was given authority by the British government to exercise jurisdiction over the traders and they, refused to acknowledge Gardiners authority, and from the Cape government he received no support. The next wave of immigration consisted of Voortrekkers fleeing British rule in Cape Colony, in May 1838 the Boers took control of the port and soon afterwards established the Natalia Republic. The Republic suffered from disorganized government and poor relations with the Zulus, on 2 December 1841, Sir George Thomas Napier, governor of Cape Colony, issued a proclamation declaring his intent to resume British military occupation of Port Natal.
Most of the Voortrekkers left by 1843, Natal was proclaimed a British Colony in 1843, and administered from the Cape Colony in 1844. However, it was not until the end of 1845 that an administration was installed with Martin West as lieutenant-governor that the power of the Boer Volksraad finally came to an end
Krugersdorp is a mining city in the West Rand, Gauteng Province, South Africa founded in 1887 by Marthinus Pretorius. Following the discovery of gold on the Witwatersrand, a need arose for a town in the west of the reef. The government bought part of the Paardekraal farm and named the new town after the Transvaal president, Krugersdorp no longer has a separate municipal government after it was integrated into Mogale City Local Municipality along with surrounding towns. It is now the seat of government for Mogale City, Krugersdorp is the site of a December 1880 gathering at which more than 6,000 men vowed to fight for the Transvaals independence. Founded in 1887 by Marthinus Pretorius after the discovery of gold on his farm, two important events in the history of South Africa, the Transvaal War of Independence and the discovery of the Witwatersrand Goldfields took place in Krugersdorp. These events had far-reaching political and economic consequences for the countrys development, by the time the town was founded, the existence of the gold reef along the Witwatersrand had become common knowledge, and thousands seeking their fortunes pitched their tents and pegged claims.
In 1888, Krugersdorp was proclaimed a separate gold field, during the Anglo Boer War the British built a concentration camp in the valley that is now occupied by the Centenary Dam. As of 2014 this shaft is being brought back into production, part of the heritage of the area will feature in a museum to be built post-closure. An essential part of the content will be the Boer War legacy. In 1952, the West Rand Consolidated Mine was the first in the world to extract uranium as a byproduct of the refining process. Gold, iron and lime are all mined in the area, Krugersdorp has a modern business center and shopping malls alongside many smaller shops and necessary amenities. There are game reserves and a bird sanctuary. The nearby 1,400 hectares game reserve in the bush of the veld holds a large quantity of game and is one of the towns major tourist attractions. Also in close proximity are various provincial heritage sites including the Cradle of Humankind and its Sterkfontein Caves, Krugersdorp is home to the South African Branch of Jehovahs Witnesses.
In 2010, the towns Coronation Park area received international exposure for the depiction of Afrikaner poverty by Finbarr OReilly, in 2014 the area was exposed again as a subject of the BBC documentary Reggie Yates Extreme South Africa, White Slums. Krugersdorp is home to some of the best schools in Gauteng, afropop sensation Mafikizolo and Ntando Bangani, better known simply as Ntando, are successful acts that hail from Krugersdorp. Krugersdorp has popular tourist attractions such as Krugersdorp Game Reserve, Maropeng Visitor Centre, Walter Sisulu Botanical Gardens, by 1931, the municipal council had assumed a pseudo-heraldic coat of arms. The shield was divided by a line, the upper half subdivided by a vertical line
A scorched earth policy is a military strategy that targets anything that might be useful to the enemy while advancing through or withdrawing from an area. Specifically, all of the assets that are used or can be used by the enemy are targeted, such as sources, communications, industrial resources. The practice can be carried out by the military in enemy territory and it may overlap with, but is not the same as, punitive destruction of the enemys resources, which is done for purely strategic/political reasons rather than strategic/operational reasons. The strategy of destroying the food and water supply of the population in an area of conflict has been banned under Article 54 of Protocol I of the 1977 Geneva Conventions. The Scythians used scorched earth methods against King Darius the Great of Persia, the Scythians, who were nomadic herders, retreated into the depths of the Steppes, destroying food supplies and poisoning wells. Many of Darius troops died from starvation and dehydration, the Greek general Xenophon records in his Anabasis that the Armenians burned their crops and food supplies as they withdrew before the advance of the Ten Thousand.
The Greek mercenary general Memnon suggested to the Persian Satraps the use of the scorched earth policy against Alexander as he moved into Asia Minor, the system of punitive destruction of property and subjugation of people when accompanying a military campaign was known as vastatio. Two of the first uses of scorched earth recorded both happened in the Gallic Wars, after the Helvetii were defeated by a combined Roman-Gallic force, the Helvetii were forced to rebuild themselves on the shattered German and Swiss plains they themselves had destroyed. The second case shows actual military value, during the Great Gallic War the Gauls under Vercingetorix planned to lure the Roman armies into Gaul and trap, to this end, they ravaged the countryside of what are now the Benelux countries and France. This did cause problems for the Romans, but Roman military triumphs over the Gallic alliance showed that this alone was not enough to save Gaul from subjugation by Rome. During the Second Punic War in 218–202 BC, the Carthaginians used this method selectively while storming through Italy, after the end of the Third Punic War in 146 BC, the Roman Senate elected to use this method to permanently destroy the Carthaginian capital city, Carthage.
The buildings were torn down, their stones scattered so not even rubble remained, the story that they salted the earth is apocryphal. Julian might expect, that a conqueror, who possessed the two instruments of persuasion and gold, would easily procure a plentiful subsistence from the fears or avarice of the natives. But, on the approach of the Romans, the rich, the Danes left Chester next year and marched into Wales. In the Harrying of the North, William the Conquerors solution to stop a rebellion in 1069 was the brutal conquest, williams men burnt whole villages from the Humber to Tees, and slaughtered the inhabitants. Food stores and livestock were destroyed so that surviving the initial massacre would soon succumb to starvation over the winter. The destruction is depicted in the Bayeux Tapestry, the survivors were reduced to cannibalism, with one report stating that the skulls of the dead were cracked open so that the brains could be eaten. Between 100,000 and 150,000 perished and the area took centuries to recover from the damage, during the Hundred Years War, both the English and the French conducted chevauchée raids over the enemy territory to damage its infrastructure
Mogale City Local Municipality
Mogale City Local Municipality is a local municipality in West Rand District Municipality, Gauteng, in South Africa. The 2001 census divided the municipality into the main places. In the election of 3 August 2016 the African National Congress won a plurality of seats on the council. The Democratic Alliance subsequently formed a government with the support of the Economic Freedom Fighters, Freedom Front Plus, lynn Pannall of the DA was elected as executive mayor. She resigned due to ill health and Michael Holenstein, from the DA, was elected mayor, the following table shows the results of the election. List of South African municipalities Official website
South African Air Force Museum
The South African Air Force Museum houses and restores material related to the history of the South African Air Force. The Museum is divided into three locations, AFB Swartkop outside Pretoria, AFB Ysterplaat in Cape Town and at the Port Elizabeth airport, AFB Swartkop is home to the headquarters and largest of the three museum locations, occupying at least five hangars. The Douglas C-47 Dakota here, is the used in 1952 by the SAAF to help Professor J. L. B. Smith acquire a coelacanth fish specimen from the Comoros Islands. Static exhibits are housed in the original 42-Air School Air Gunnery Training Centre used during the Joint Air Training Scheme in World War II, active restoration is being performed on a number of North American Harvards and there is a project to restore an Airspeed Oxford. One of the more unusual exhibits is a Jorg IV Skimmerfoil ground effect craft
The Eucharist /ˈjuːkərɪst/ is a Christian rite that is considered a sacrament in most churches. Through the Eucharistic celebration Christians remember Christs sacrifice of himself on the cross, the elements of the Eucharist and wine, are consecrated on an altar and consumed thereafter. Communicants may speak of receiving the Eucharist, as well as celebrating the Eucharist, Christians generally recognize a special presence of Christ in this rite, though they differ about exactly how and when Christ is present. While all agree there is no perceptible change in the elements, Catholics believe that they actually become the body. Some Protestants view the Eucharist as an ordinance in which the ceremony is not as a specific channel of divine grace. Do this in remembrance of me, the term Eucharist is that by which the rite is referred by the Didache, Ignatius of Antioch and Justin Martyr. Today, the Eucharist is the still used by Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Anglicans, Presbyterians. Other Protestant denominations rarely use this term, preferring either Communion, one remains hungry, another gets drunk.
Communion or Holy Communion are used by some groups originating in the Protestant Reformation to mean the entire Eucharistic rite. The term Communion is derived from Latin communio, which translates Greek κοινωνία in 1 Corinthians 10,16, the bread which we break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ. The phrase appears five times in the New Testament in contexts which, according to some and it is the term used by the Plymouth Brethren. The Blessed Sacrament and the Blessed Sacrament of the Altar are common terms used by Catholics and some Anglicans for the consecrated elements, Sacrament of the Altar is in common use among Lutherans. In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints the term The Sacrament is used of the rite. Among the many terms used in the Catholic Church are Holy Mass, the Memorial of the Passion and Resurrection of the Lord, the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass. The term Mass is probably derived from the fact that the Roman rite celebrates the Eucharist with unleavened bread and this explains why the Eastern Catholic Liturgies are never referred to as the Mass.
Eastern rite Liturgies are celebrated with leavened bread, although the prevailing theory is that it is derived from the Latin word missa, a word used in the concluding formula of Mass in Latin, missa est. The reverse is more likely. The word dismissal probably came about because the Mass signaled the time for the Catechumens to leave, the term Misa came to imply a mission, because at the end of the Mass the congregation are sent out to serve Christ
Northern Ndebele people
The Northern Ndebele people are a Bantu nation and ethnic group in Southern Africa, who share a common Ndebele culture and Ndebele language. The Northern Ndebele were historically referred to as the Matabele which was a European corruption of Ndebele and their history began when a Zulu chiefdom split from King Shaka in the early 19th century under the leadership of Mzilikazi, a former chief in his kingdom and ally. Under his command the disgruntled Zulus went on to conquer and rule the chiefdoms of the Southern Ndebele and this was where the name and identity of the eventual kingdom was adopted. In the course of the migration, large numbers of conquered local clans and individuals were absorbed into the Ndebele nation, adopting the Ndebele language, historically the assimilated people came from the Southern Ndebele, Sotho-Tswana, and amaLozwi/Rozvi ethnic groups. They were originally named Matabele in English, a name that is common in older texts, because that is the name as the British first heard it from the Sotho.
They are now known as the Ndebele or amaNdebele. Life was simple for the Khumalos until the rise of chief Zwide, the Khumalos had the best land in Zululand, the Mkhuze, plenty of water, fertile soil and grazing ground. But in the early 19th century, they would have to choose a side between the Zulu and the Zwide and they delayed this for as long as they could. To please the Ndwandwe tribe, the Khumalo chief Mashobane married the daughter of the Ndwandwe chief Zwide and sired a son, the Ndwandwes were closely related to the Zulus and spoke the same language, using different dialects. When Mashobane did not tell Zwide about patrolling Mthethwa amabutho, Zwide had Mashobana killed, thus his son, became leader of the Khumalo. Mzilikazi immediately mistrusted his grandfather and took 50 warriors to join Shaka, Shaka was overjoyed because the Khumalos would be useful spies on Zwide and the Ndwandwes. After a few battles, Shaka gave Mzilikazi the extraordinary honour of being chief of the Khumalos and to remain semi-independent from the Zulu and this caused immense jealousy among Shakas older allies, but as warriors none realised their equal in Mzilikazi.
Mzilikazi collected all intelligence for the defeat of Zwide, when Zwide was defeated, Shaka rightly acknowledged he could not have done it without Mzilikazi and presented him with an ivory axe. There were only two axes, one for Shaka and one for Mzilikazi. Shaka himself placed the plumes on Mzilikazis head after Zwide was vanquished, the Khumalos returned to peace in their ancestral homeland. This peace lasted until Shaka asked Mzilikazi to punish a tribe to the north of the Khumalo, after the defeat of Raninsi, Mzilikazi refused to hand over the cattle to Shaka. Shaka, loving Mzilikazi, did nothing about it, but his generals, long disliking Mzilikazi, pressed for action, and thus a first force was sent to teach Mzilikazi a lesson. The force was beaten by Mzilikazis 500 warriors, compared to the Zulus 3,000 warriors
Gauteng, which means place of gold, is one of the nine provinces of South Africa. It was formed part of the old Transvaal Province after South Africas first all-race elections on 27 April 1994. It was initially named Pretoria–Witwatersrand–Vereeniging and was renamed Gauteng in December 1994, situated in the Highveld, Gauteng is the smallest province in South Africa, accounting for only 1. 5% of the land area. Nevertheless, it is highly urbanised, containing the countrys largest city, its capital, Pretoria. As of 2015, it has a population of nearly 13.2 million, the name Gauteng is derived from the Sotho name, gauta meaning gold with the locative suffix -eng. There was a thriving industry in the province following the 1886 discovery of gold in Johannesburg. In Sesotho, the name Gauteng was used for Johannesburg and surrounding areas long before it was adopted in 1994 as the name of a province. Gauteng, formerly known as Pretoria–Witwatersrand–Vereeniging, was carved out of the old Transvaal province in 1994, although the terminology PWV, after the discovery of gold in 1886, the region proceeded to become the single largest gold producer in the world and the city of Johannesburg was founded.
The older city Pretoria was not subject to the same attention, Pretoria grew at a slower rate and was highly regarded due to its role in the Second Boer War. The Cullinan Diamond which is the largest diamond ever mined was mined near Pretoria in a town called Cullinan in the year 1905. Gauteng has only been documented since the 1800s and as a result. At the Sterkfontein caves, some of the oldest fossils of hominids have been discovered, such as Mrs. Ples, the Apartheid Museum stands testament to these struggles in Johannesburg. Gauteng is governed by the Gauteng Provincial Legislature, a 73-person unicameral legislature elected by party-list proportional representation. The most recent election of the legislature was held on 7 May 2014, and the African National Congress won 53. 59% of the vote. The official opposition is the Democratic Alliance, which won 30. 78% of the vote and 23 seats, other parties represented are the Economic Freedom Fighters with eight seats and the Freedom Front Plus and the Inkatha Freedom Party with one seat each.
Premier David Makhura of the ANC was elected on 21 May 2014, the Gauteng Division of the High Court of South Africa, which has seats in Pretoria and Johannesburg, is a superior court with general jurisdiction over the province. Johannesburg is home to the Constitutional Court, South Africas highest court, Gautengs southern border is the Vaal River, which separates it from the Free State. It borders on North West to the west, Limpopo to the north, Gauteng is the only landlocked province of South Africa without a foreign border