A tittle or superscript dot is a small distinguishing mark, such as a diacritic or the dot on a lowercase i or j. The tittle is an integral part of the glyph of i and j, but diacritic dots can appear over other letters in various languages. In most languages, the tittle of i or j is omitted when a diacritic is placed in the tittle's usual position, but not when the diacritic appears elsewhere; the word tittle is used. One notable occurrence is in the King James Bible at Matthew 5:18: "For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled"; the quotation uses them as an example of minor details. The phrase "jot and tittle" indicates. In the Greek original translated as English "jot and tittle" are found keraia. Iota is the smallest letter of the Greek alphabet. Alternatively, it may represent the smallest letter of the Hebrew and Aramaic alphabets. "Keraia" is a hook or serif referring to other Greek diacritics, or to the hooks on Hebrew letters versus or cursive scripts for languages derived from Aramaic, such as Syriac, written in Serṭā, or for adding explicit vowel marks such as crowns known as Niqqud that developed with scribal practices in the Torah.
A keraia is used in printing modern Greek numerals. In many abjads only consonants such as yodh in Hebrew have character forms. A number of alphabets use dotless I, both upper and lower case. In the modern Turkish alphabet, the absence or presence of a tittle distinguishes two different letters representing two different phonemes: the letter "I" / "ı", with the absence of a tittle on the lower case letter, represents the close back unrounded vowel, while "İ" / "i", with the inclusion of a tittle on the capital letter, represents the close front unrounded vowel; this practice has carried over to several other Turkic languages, like the Azerbaijani alphabet, Crimean Tatar alphabet, Tatar alphabet. In some of the Dene languages of the Northwest Territories in Canada North Slavey, South Slavey, Tłı̨chǫ and Dëne Sųłıné, all instances of i are undotted to avoid confusion with tone-marked vowels í or ì; the other Dene language of the Northwest Territories, Gwich’in, always includes the tittle on lowercase i.
There is only one letter I in Irish, but i is undotted in the traditional uncial Gaelic script to avoid confusion of the tittle with the buailte overdot found over consonants. Modern texts replace the buailte with an h, use the same antiqua-descendant fonts, which have a tittle, as other Latin-alphabet languages. However, bilingual road signs use dotless i in lowercase Irish text to better distinguish i from í; the letter "j" is not used in Irish other than in foreign words. In most Latin-based orthographies, the lowercase letter i loses its dot when a diacritical mark, such as an acute or grave accent, is placed atop the letter. However, the tittle is sometimes retained in some languages. In the Baltic languages, the lowercase letter i sometimes retains a tittle. In Vietnamese in the 17th century, the tittle is preserved atop ỉ and ị but not ì and í, as seen in the seminal quốc ngữ reference Dictionarium Annamiticum Lusitanum et Latinum. In modern Vietnamese, a tittle can be seen in ì, ỉ, ĩ, í in cursive handwriting and some signage.
This detail occurs in computers and on the Internet, due to the obscurity of language-specific fonts. In any case, the tittle is always retained in ị, it is thought that the phrase "to a T" is derived from the word tittle because long before "to a T" became popular, the phrase "to a tittle" was used. The phrase "to dot one's I's and cross one's T's" is used and to mean "to put the finishing touches to" or "to be thorough". Dictionary.com – Tittle Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon "Tittle" on Everything2
The Hebrew alphabet, known variously by scholars as the Jewish script, square script, block script, is an abjad script used in the writing of the Hebrew language. It is used in the writing of other Jewish languages, most notably Yiddish, Judaeo-Spanish, Judeo-Arabic. Two separate abjad scripts have been used to write Hebrew; the original, old Hebrew script, known as the paleo-Hebrew alphabet, has been preserved in a variant form as the Samaritan alphabet. The present "Jewish script" or "square script", on the contrary, is a stylized form of the Aramaic alphabet and was known by Jewish sages as the Ashuri alphabet, since its origins were alleged to be from Assyria. Various "styles" of representation of the Jewish script letters described in this article exist, including a variety of cursive Hebrew styles. In the remainder of this article, the term "Hebrew alphabet" refers to the square script unless otherwise indicated; the Hebrew alphabet has 22 letters. It does not have case. Hebrew is written from right to left.
The alphabet was an abjad consisting only of consonants, but is now considered an "impure abjad". As with other abjads, such as the Arabic alphabet, during its centuries-long use scribes devised means of indicating vowel sounds by separate vowel points, known in Hebrew as niqqud. In both biblical and rabbinic Hebrew, the letters י ו ה א can function as matres lectionis, when certain consonants are used to indicate vowels. There is a trend in Modern Hebrew towards the use of matres lectionis to indicate vowels that have traditionally gone unwritten, a practice known as "full spelling"; the Yiddish alphabet, a modified version of the Hebrew alphabet used to write Yiddish, is a true alphabet, with all vowels rendered in the spelling, except in the case of inherited Hebrew words, which retain their Hebrew spellings. The Arabic and Hebrew alphabets have similarities because they are both derived from the Aramaic alphabet. A distinct Hebrew variant of the Phoenician script, called by scholars the paleo-Hebrew alphabet, emerged around 800 BCE.
Examples of related early inscriptions from the area include the tenth-century Gezer calendar, the Siloam inscription. The paleo-Hebrew alphabet was used in the ancient kingdoms of Judah. Following the exile of the Kingdom of Judah in the 6th century BCE during the Babylonian captivity, Jews began using a form of the Assyrian Aramaic alphabet, another offshoot of the same family of scripts; the Samaritans, who remained in the Land of Israel, continued to use the paleo-Hebrew alphabet. During the 3rd century BCE, Jews began to use a stylized, "square" form of the Aramaic alphabet, used by the Persian Empire, while the Samaritans continued to use a form of the paleo-Hebrew script called the Samaritan alphabet. After the fall of the Persian Empire in 330 BCE, Jews used both scripts before settling on the square Assyrian form; the square Hebrew alphabet was adapted and used for writing languages of the Jewish diaspora – such as Karaim, the Judeo-Arabic languages, Judaeo-Spanish, Yiddish. The Hebrew alphabet continued in use for scholarly writing in Hebrew and came again into everyday use with the rebirth of the Hebrew language as a spoken language in the 18th and 19th centuries in Israel.
In the traditional form, the Hebrew alphabet is an abjad consisting only of consonants, written from right to left. It has 22 letters. In the traditional form, vowels are indicated by the weak consonants Aleph, He, Vav, or Yodh serving as vowel letters, or matres lectionis: the letter is combined with a previous vowel and becomes silent, or by imitation of such cases in the spelling of other forms. A system of vowel points to indicate vowels, called niqqud, was developed. In modern forms of the alphabet, as in the case of Yiddish and to some extent Modern Hebrew, vowels may be indicated. Today, the trend is toward full spelling with the weak letters acting as true vowels; when used to write Yiddish, vowels are indicated, using certain letters, either with niqqud diacritics or without, except for Hebrew words, which in Yiddish are written in their Hebrew spelling. To preserve the proper vowel sounds, scholars developed several different sets of vocalization and diacritical symbols called nequdot.
One of these, the Tiberian system prevailed. Aaron ben Moses ben Asher, his family for several generations, are credited for refining and maintaining the system; these points are used only for special purposes, such as Biblical books intended for study, in poetry or when teaching the language to children. The Tiberian system includes a set of cantillation marks, called "trope", used to indicate how scriptural passages should be chanted in synagogue recitations of scripture. In everyday writing of modern Hebrew, niqqud are absent. Unlike the Paleo-Hebrew writing script, the modern Ashuri script has five letters that have special final forms, called sofit form, used only at the end of a word, somewhat as in the Greek or in the Arabic and Mandaic alphabets; these are shown below the normal form in the
Microsoft Office is a family of client software, server software, services developed by Microsoft. It was first announced by Bill Gates on August 1988, at COMDEX in Las Vegas. A marketing term for an office suite, the first version of Office contained Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, Microsoft PowerPoint. Over the years, Office applications have grown closer with shared features such as a common spell checker, OLE data integration and Visual Basic for Applications scripting language. Microsoft positions Office as a development platform for line-of-business software under the Office Business Applications brand. On July 10, 2012, Softpedia reported. Office is produced in several versions targeted towards different end-users and computing environments; the original, most used version, is the desktop version, available for PCs running the Windows and macOS operating systems. Office Online is a version of the software that runs within a web browser, while Microsoft maintains Office apps for Android and iOS.
Since Office 2013, Microsoft has promoted Office 365 as the primary means of obtaining Microsoft Office: it allows use of the software and other services on a subscription business model, users receive free feature updates to the software for the lifetime of the subscription, including new features and cloud computing integration that are not included in the "on-premises" releases of Office sold under conventional license terms. In 2017, revenue from Office 365 overtook conventional license sales; the current on-premises, desktop version of Office is Office 2019, released on September 24, 2018. Unless stated otherwise, desktop applications are available for Windows and macOS. Microsoft Word: a word processor included in Microsoft Office and some editions of the now-discontinued Microsoft Works; the first version of Word, released in the autumn of 1983, was for the MS-DOS operating system and introduced the Computer mouse to more users. Word 1.0 could be purchased with a bundled mouse. Following the precedents of LisaWrite and MacWrite, Word for Macintosh attempted to add closer WYSIWYG features into its package.
Word for Mac was released in 1985. Word for Mac was the first graphical version of Microsoft Word, it implemented the proprietary.doc format as its primary format. Word 2007, deprecated this format in favor of Office Open XML, standardized by Ecma International as an open format. Support for Portable Document Format and OpenDocument was first introduced in Word for Windows with Service Pack 2 for Word 2007. Microsoft Excel: a spreadsheet editor that competed with the dominant Lotus 1-2-3, outsold it. Microsoft released the first version of Excel for the Mac OS in 1985, the first Windows version in November 1987. Microsoft PowerPoint: a presentation program used to create slideshows composed of text and other objects, which can be displayed on-screen and shown by the presenter or printed out on transparencies or slides. Microsoft Access: a database management system for Windows that combines the relational Microsoft Jet Database Engine with a graphical user interface and software development tools.
Microsoft Access stores data in its own format based on the Access Jet Database Engine. It can import or link directly to data stored in other applications and databases. Microsoft Outlook: a personal information manager that replaces Windows Messaging, Microsoft Mail, Schedule+ starting in Office 97, it includes an e-mail client, task manager and address book. On the Mac OS, Microsoft offered several versions of Outlook in the late 1990s, but only for use with Microsoft Exchange Server. In Office 2001, it introduced an alternative application with a different feature set called Microsoft Entourage, it reintroduced Outlook in Office 2011. Microsoft OneNote: a notetaking program that gathers handwritten or typed notes, screen clippings and audio commentaries. Notes can be shared with other OneNote users over a network. OneNote was introduced as a standalone app, not included in any of Microsoft Office 2003 editions. However, OneNote became a core component of Microsoft Office. OneNote is available as a web app on Office Online, a freemium Windows desktop app, a mobile app for Windows Phone, iOS, Symbian, a Metro-style app for Windows 8 or later.
Microsoft Publisher: a desktop publishing app for Windows used for designing brochures, calendars, greeting cards, business cards, web site, postcards. Skype for Business: an integrated communications client for conferences and meetings in real time, it is the only Microsoft Office desktop app, neither useful without a proper network infrastructure nor has the "Microsoft" prefix in its name. Microsoft Project: a project management app for Windows to keep track of events and to create network charts and Gantt charts, not bundled in any Office suite. Microsoft Teams: a platform that combines workplace chat, meetings and attachments. Microsoft announced that Teams would replace Skype for Business. Microsoft Visio: a diagram and flowcharting app for Windows not bundled in any Office suite. Office Lens: An image scanner optimized for mobile devices, it captures the document via the camera and str
Mark Simonson is an American independent font designer who works in St. Paul, Minnesota. Simonson has described his fonts as being inspired by lettering styles of the past, such as the graphic design of the 1970s and Art Deco graphics. Simonson’s most popular font is Proxima Nova, a geometric-grotesque sans-serif design used by companies such as BuzzFeed, Mashable, NBC, Wired and Mic; as of June 2016, it is the second highest-selling family on font sales website MyFonts. Simonson worked as a graphic designer before specialising in font design, his career as a font designer got a boost when his partner Pat won money on the game show Who Wants to Be a Millionaire, as her success allowed him to take six months off from graphic design work to develop several new fonts that he could sell. He has written blog articles on the history of type design and the lettering styles used in films. Mark Simonson Studio Blog Autobiography FontCast interview Twitter page List of fonts from the Klingspor Museum website
In typography, a typeface is a set of one or more fonts each composed of glyphs that share common design features. Each font of a typeface has a specific weight, condensation, slant, italicization and designer or foundry. For example, "ITC Garamond Bold Condensed Italic" means the bold, condensed-width, italic version of ITC Garamond, it is a different font from "ITC Garamond Condensed Italic" and "ITC Garamond Bold Condensed", but all are fonts within the same typeface, "ITC Garamond". ITC Garamond is a different typeface from "Adobe Garamond" or "Monotype Garamond". There are thousands of different typefaces with new ones being developed constantly; the art and craft of designing typefaces is called type design. Designers of typefaces are called type designers and are employed by type foundries. In digital typography, type designers are sometimes called font developers or font designers; every typeface is a collection of glyphs, each of which represents an individual letter, punctuation mark, or other symbol.
The same glyph may be used for characters from different scripts, e.g. Roman uppercase A looks the same as Cyrillic uppercase А and Greek uppercase alpha. There are typefaces tailored for special applications, such as map-making or astrology and mathematics; the term typeface is confused with the term font. Before the advent of digital typography and desktop publishing, the two terms had more understood meanings. In professional typography, the term typeface is not interchangeable with the word font, because the term font has been defined as a given alphabet and its associated characters in a single size. For example, 8-point Caslon Italic was one font, 10-point Caslon Italic was another. Fonts came in specific sizes determining the size of characters, in quantities of sorts or number of each letter provided; the design of characters in a font took into account all these factors. As the range of typeface designs increased and requirements of publishers broadened over the centuries, fonts of specific weight and stylistic variants have led to font families, collections of related typeface designs that can include hundreds of styles.
A font family is a group of related fonts which vary only in weight, width, etc. but not design. For example, Times is a font family, whereas Times Roman, Times Italic and Times Bold are individual fonts making up the Times family. Font families include several fonts, though some, such as Helvetica, may consist of dozens of fonts; the distinction between font and typeface is that a font designates a specific member of a type family such as roman, boldface, or italic type, while typeface designates a consistent visual appearance or style which can be a "family" or related set of fonts. For example, a given typeface such as Arial may include roman and italic fonts. In the metal type era, a font meant a specific point size, but with digital scalable outline fonts this distinction is no longer valid, as a single font may be scaled to any size; the first "extended" font families, which included a wide range of widths and weights in the same general style emerged in the early 1900s, starting with ATF's Cheltenham, with an initial design by Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue, many additional faces designed by Morris Fuller Benton.
Examples include Futura, Lucida, ITC Officina. Some became superfamilies as a result such as Linotype Syntax, Linotype Univers. Typeface superfamilies began to emerge when foundries began to include typefaces with significant structural differences, but some design relationship, under the same general family name. Arguably the first superfamily was created when Morris Fuller Benton created Clearface Gothic for ATF in 1910, a sans serif companion to the existing Clearface; the superfamily label does not include quite different designs given the same family name for what would seem to be purely marketing, rather than design, considerations: Caslon Antique, Futura Black and Futura Display are structurally unrelated to the Caslon and Futura families and are not considered part of those families by typographers, despite their names. Additional or supplemental glyphs intended to match a main typeface have been in use for centuries. In some formats they have been marketed as separate fonts. In the early 1990s, the Adobe Systems type group introduced the idea of expert set fonts, which had a standardized set of additional glyphs, including small caps, old style figures, additional superior letters and ligatures not found in the main fonts for the typeface.
Supplemental fonts have included alternate letters such as swashes and alternate character sets, complementing the regular fonts under the same family. However, with introduction of font formats such as OpenType, those supplemental glyphs were merged into the main fonts, relying on specific software capabilities to access the alternate glyphs. Since Apple's and Microsoft's operating systems supported different character sets in the platform related fonts, some foundries used expert fonts in a different way; these fonts included the characters which were missing on either Macintosh or Windows computers, e.g. fractions, ligatures or some accented glyphs. The goal was to deliver t
Modernised Old Style (typeface)
Old Style or Modernised Old Style was the name given to a series of serif typefaces cut from the mid-nineteenth century and sold by the type foundry Miller & Richard, of Edinburgh in Scotland, as well as many derivatives and copies. The Old Style faces of Miller & Richard cut by punchcutter Alexander Phemister, were made in imitation of earlier styles of typeface the Caslon typeface cut by William Caslon from the 1720s, but with a modernised design, it was successful: the 1880s Bibliography of Printing describes its popularity as "unsurpassed in the annals of type-founding". Like Caslon, Old Style has slanting top serifs and an avoidance of abrupt transitions of weight, but compared to Caslon it is much lighter in colour and the stress is vertical, reflecting changes in taste since the eighteenth century; the letters are rather wide and the italic is evenly, rather slanted. The two-way Q recalls the Baskerville type of the mid-eighteenth century; the name "old style" is confusing, as it and "old face" have been used differently by different authors to refer to "true old-style" printing types from around 1480–1750 and the new "Old Style" face of Miller & Richard and its imitations, which appear rather different.
Walter Tracy and others have used the term "modernised old style" to describe the Miller & Richard designs to reduce ambiguity, although "Old Style" was the name under which Miller and Richard sold it as. It is sometimes classified as a "transitional" serif typeface due to these modernisations; the typeface Bookman Old Style is a descendent of a bolder version of the Old Style face, known in the nineteenth century as Old Style Antique. Released at a time when Caslon type was coming back into fashion, Old Style became a standard typeface sold by many foundries, it was copied by the new hot metal typesetting companies Monotype and Linotype. Monotype's copy was their second best-selling typeface of all time in hot metal. Besides simple copies, it helped to create a genre of a wide range of loose revivals and adaptations of the Caslon design, visible in the wide-spreading arms of the T and the sharp half-arrow serifs on many letters. Legros and Grant parodied the large number of copies of Old Style in their 1916 textbook on printing technology, Typographical Printing Surfaces, by printing a poem with different lines in different copies.
Reviews of the aesthetic quality of Old Style have been low since the end of the nineteenth century, despite its precise and careful design, it declined in popularity during the twentieth century. While recognising its practicality in his book A Tally of Types, Stanley Morison described it in 1935 as "a sort of diluted version of Caslon", William Morris's biographer William S. Peterson describes it as "a pallid imitation of Caslon" and James Mosley describes it as "bland", it went out of fashion in body text in favour of new designs such as Times New Roman or more authentic revivals such as Baskerville and Bembo by the mid-twentieth century in Britain, although Hugh Williamson in 1956 noted that it was still popular for niche uses due to an extensive character support accumulated over the years of its popularity. More positive reviews come from Nesbitt, who describes it as "a light face, but well-designed throughout" and Macmillan, who describes Phemister's engraving technique as "of the highest quality".
Several digitisations are available of adaptations. Whittington Press sample Effra Press, showing Monotype Old Style series 2 & 151 and bold weights