Historic districts in the United States
Historic districts in the United States are designated historic districts recognizing a group of buildings, properties, or sites by one of several entities on different levels as or architecturally significant. Buildings, structures and sites within a historic district are divided into two categories and non-contributing. Districts vary in size: some have hundreds of structures, while others have just a few; the U. S. federal government designates historic districts through the United States Department of Interior under the auspices of the National Park Service. Federally designated historic districts are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, but listing imposes no restrictions on what property owners may do with a designated property. State-level historic districts may follow similar criteria or may require adherence to certain historic rehabilitation standards. Local historic district designation offers, by far, the most legal protection for historic properties because most land use decisions are made at the local level.
Local districts are administered by the county or municipal government. The first U. S. historic district was established in Charleston, South Carolina in 1931, predating the U. S. federal government designation by more than three decades. Charleston city government designated an "Old and Historic District" by local ordinance and created a board of architectural review to oversee it. New Orleans followed in 1937, establishing the Vieux Carré Commission and authorizing it to act to maintain the historic character of the city's French Quarter. Other localities picked up on the concept, with the city of Philadelphia enacting its historic preservation ordinance in 1955; the regulatory authority of local commissions and historic districts has been upheld as a legitimate use of government police power, most notably in Penn Central Transportation Co. v. City of New York; the Supreme Court case validated the protection of historic resources as "an permissible governmental goal." In 1966 the federal government created the National Register of Historic Places, soon after a report from the U.
S. Conference of Mayors had stated Americans suffered from "rootlessness." By the 1980s there were thousands of federally designated historic districts. Some states, such as Arizona, have passed referendums defending property rights that have stopped private property being designated historic without the property owner's consent or compensation for the historic overlay. Historic districts are two types of properties and non-contributing. Broadly defined, a contributing property is any property, structure or object which adds to the historical integrity or architectural qualities that make a historic district, listed locally or federally, significant. Different entities governmental, at both the state and national level in the United States, have differing definitions of contributing property but they all retain the same basic characteristics. In general, contributing properties are integral parts of the historic context and character of a historic district. In addition to the two types of classification within historic districts, properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places are classified into five broad categories.
They are, structure, site and object. All but the eponymous district category are applied to historic districts listed on the National Register. A listing on the National Register of Historic Places is governmental acknowledgment of a historic district. However, the Register is "an honorary status with some federal financial incentives." The National Register of Historic Places defines a historic district per U. S. federal law, last revised in 2004. According to the Register definition a historic district is: a geographically definable area, urban or rural, possessing a significant concentration, linkage, or continuity of sites, structures, or objects united by past events or aesthetically by plan or physical development. A district may comprise individual elements separated geographically but linked by association or history. Districts established under U. S. federal guidelines begin the process of designation through a nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. The National Register is the official recognition by the U.
S. government of cultural resources worthy of preservation. While designation through the National Register does offer a district or property some protections, it is only in cases where the threatening action involves the federal government. If the federal government is not involved the listing on the National Register provides the site, property or district no protections. For example, if company A wants to tear down the hypothetical Smith House and company A is under contract with the state government of Illinois the federal designation would offer no protections. If, company A was under federal contract the Smith House would be protected. A federal designation is little more than recognition by the government that the resource is worthy of preservation. In general, the criteria for acceptance to the National Register are applied but there are considerations for exceptions to the criteria and historic districts have influence on some of those exceptions; the National Register does not list religious structures, moved structures, reconstructed structures, or properties that have achieved significance within the last 50 years.
However, if a property falls into one of those categories and are "integral parts of districts that do meet the criteria" an exception allowing their listing will be made. Historic dis
University of Florida College of Veterinary Medicine
The University of Florida College of Veterinary Medicine is the veterinary school of the University of Florida in Gainesville, Florida. Founded in 1976, it is one of six academic colleges and schools that compose the university's J. Hillis Miller Health Science Center, it is located on Florida campus. The College of Veterinary Medicine offers the Doctor of Veterinary Medicine degree; the current DVM enrollment includes 371 students. An additional 69 students are enrolled in graduate programs; the college is organized into six units: College Administration, the Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, the Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathology, the Department of Physiological Sciences, the Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, the UF Veterinary Hospitals. The UF Veterinary Hospitals include the UF Large Animal Hospital; the UF Veterinary Hospitals are a major animal referral center in the Southeast. An estimated 44,000 animals are seen and treated each year at the UF Veterinary Hospitals and through field visits.
U. S. News and World Report ranks the college at 12th overall for veterinary medicine. University of Florida College of Dentistry University of Florida College of Medicine University of Florida College of Nursing University of Florida College of Pharmacy University of Florida College of Public Health and Health Professions Official website UF Health Online courses in Aquatic Animal Health from UF CVM Online courses from the Maddie's Shelter Medicine Program Gainesville Sun info about the College About the Clinical Services they provide Capital Campaign info for the College Gainesville Sun Article about the College Gainesville Sun article about the new Animal Hospital
The bourdon is the heaviest of the bells that belong to a musical instrument a chime or a carillon, produces its lowest tone. As an example, the largest bell of a carillon of 64 bells, the sixth largest bell hanging in the world, in the Southern Illinois town of Centralia, is identified as the'bourdon.' It weighs 11,000 pounds and is tuned to G. In the Netherlands where carillons are native, the heaviest carillon is in Grote Kerk in Dordrecht; the biggest bell serving as bourdon of any carillon is the low C bell at Riverside Church, New York City. Cast in 1929 as part of the Rockefeller Carillon, it weighs 41,000 pounds and measures 10 feet 2 inches across; this is the largest tuned bell cast. Although carillons are by definition chromatic, the next bell up from the bourdon is traditionally a whole tone higher in pitch, leaving a semitone out of the instrument; the heaviest bell in a diatonically tuned English-style ring of bells is called the tenor. If a larger, heavier bell is present it would be called a bourdon.
Campanology Carillon Pieter and François Hemony
University of Florida Campus Historic District
The University of Florida Campus Historic District is a historic district on the campus of the University of Florida in Gainesville, Florida. The district, bounded by West University Avenue, Southwest 13th Street, Stadium Road and Gale Lemerand Drive, encompasses 650 acres and contains 11 listed buildings plus contributing properties. On April 20, 1989, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places. On June 24, 2008, additional information was approved which resulted in the addition of 6 contributing properties Note: These were all designed by William Augustus Edwards, although Rolfs Hall was finished by Rudolph Weaver. Note: These were designed by Rudolph Weaver, except for University Auditorium, designed by William Augustus Edwards. Note: These are outside the district: Johnson Hall was UFs original dining hall. Located west of Dauer, it was designed by William Augustus Edwards, built 1912 and burned 1987; the Academic Advising Center now occupies the site. Old Benton Hall, was designed by William Augustus Edwards, built 1911 and demolished 1966.
Grinter Hall, built in 1971, now occupies the site. Original Post Office, third building on campus, demolished before 1977 to make way for General Purpose Building A, now Turlington Hall. In 1927 Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. did a landscape plan for UF. In 1931 the central plaza became the Plaza of the Americas. Buildings at the University of Florida List of Registered Historic Places in Alachua County, Florida Murphree Area Florida's Office of Cultural and Historical Programs - Alachua County Historic Markers in Alachua County University of Florida Historic Sites Guide UF Preservation Plan & Guidelines for Rehabilitation & New Construction UF Historic Campus Brochure and Map: 2 pages
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
Bob Graham Center for Public Service
The Bob Graham Center for Public Service, housed at the University of Florida in Gainesville, is a community of students and citizens who share a commitment to training the next generation of public and private sector leaders for Florida, the United States and the international community. To continue his legacy of leadership, former Florida Governor and U. S. Senator Bob Graham founded the center to further his dedication to the idea that citizens need a firm grounding in democratic government to discharge their rights and responsibilities. Graham visits the center introducing and interviewing speakers for the public programming and meeting with and hosting seminars for center students; the center, located in Pugh Hall on the University of Florida campus, held its grand opening in March 2008. The Bob Graham Center's mission includes encouraging discussion and analysis of current issues that affect citizens locally and globally; the Center hosts public events, featuring to date: seven former state governors, four sitting or former United States senators, four sitting or former United States congressmen, three former national party chairmen, one former Secretary of State, one former supreme court justice and four former ambassadors, as well as numerous journalists and activists.
These events are open to the public and most feature audience question-and-answer sessions. Most events are streamed archived on the Center's website; the Bob Graham Center provides University of Florida students with the opportunity to combine academic coursework and credentials with a living curriculum of internships and real-world case studies. The Center offers a Public Leadership Minor, an interdisciplinary program for undergraduates interested in careers in the public and private sectors; the Minor is designed to complement a variety of majors, including those in the natural sciences, social sciences and business. Students pursuing the Minor participate in workshops and the Center’s public programming, an internship is required. Students have numerous opportunities to get involved in public service projects, such as serving on the Public Service Council or participating in the Civic Polling or Civic Library projects; the Knight Foundation Grant In December 2010, the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation awarded a three-year, three-million dollar grant to the Bob Graham Center to support its pioneering approach to prepare University of Florida students to be informed and engaged citizens.
There are five distinct categories of activities in the three-year Knight Grant. They are: Knight Effective Citizenship Fellows - the intent is to assemble a group of visiting scholars to collaborate with scholars at UF and other universities, as well as experts and advocates for participatory citizenship from other sectors; the case studies developed for the Civic Library draw upon journalistic and academic accounts and interviews with key participants. They describe the actual experiences of individual citizens or groups who have sought to influence the actions and decisions of governments in Florida and elsewhere. Issues on the local, state and international stage are examined by graduate students and professors from all disciplines. Bob Graham Center case studies are available for use by teachers at the secondary and higher education levels and individuals or organizations who are interested in the topics discussed in the cases; the Florida Joint Center for Citizenship The Florida Joint Center for Citizenship is a partnership between the Lou Frey Institute of Politics and Government at the University of Central Florida and the Bob Graham Center.
Established in 2007 by formal agreement between the University of Florida and the University of Central Florida, the Joint Center develops initiatives intended to strengthen civics education and improve the condition of Florida's civic health. The Bob Graham Center’s Civil Debate Wall—popularly known as "The Wall"—is a series of interconnected touch-screen devices that allow students and citizens to share ideas and solutions to some of the most pressing political questions facing the nation. Installed at the University of Florida’s Pugh Hall, home of the Bob Graham Center, The Wall operates in real time and can be synchronized to smart phones and its own website—www.civildebatewall.com. Bob Graham College of Liberal Arts and Sciences University of Florida Civil Debate Wall Official website Alligator article on the Bob Graham Center Gainesville Sun info about the College
Collegiate Gothic is an architectural style subgenre of Gothic Revival architecture, popular in the late-19th and early-20th centuries for college and high school buildings in the United States and Canada, to a certain extent Europe. A form of historicist architecture, it took its inspiration from Gothic buildings, it has returned in the 21st century in the form of prominent new buildings at schools and universities including Princeton and Yale. Ralph Adams Cram, arguably the leading Gothic Revival architect and theoretician in the early 20th century, wrote about the appeal of the Gothic for educational facilities in his book Gothic Quest: "Through architecture and its allied arts we have the power to bend men and sway them as few have who depended on the spoken word, it is for us, as part of our duty as our highest privilege to act...for spreading what is true." Gothic Revival architecture was used for American college buildings as early as 1829, when "Old Kenyon" was completed on the campus of Kenyon College in Gambier, Ohio.
Another early example was Alexander Jackson Davis's University Hall, on New York University's Washington Square campus. Richard Bond's church-like library for Harvard College, Gore Hall, became the model for other library buildings. James Renwick, Jr.'s Free Academy Building, for what is today City College of New York, continued in the style. Inspired by London's Hampton Court Palace, Swedish-born Charles Ulricson designed Old Main at Knox College in Galesburg, Illinois. Following the Civil War, idiosyncratic High Victorian Gothic buildings were added to the campuses of American colleges, including Yale College. In 1871, English architect William Burges designed a row of vigorous French Gothic-inspired buildings for Trinity College – Seabury Hall, Northam Tower, Jarvis Hall – in Hartford, Connecticut. Tastes became more conservative in the 1880s, "collegiate architecture soon after came to prefer a more scholarly and less restless Gothic." Beginning in the late-1880s, Philadelphia architects Walter Cope and John Stewardson expanded the campus of Bryn Mawr College in an understated English Gothic style, sensitive to site and materials.
Inspired by the architecture of Oxford and Cambridge universities, historicists but not literal copyists, Cope & Stewardson were influential in establishing the Collegiate Gothic style. Commissions followed for collections of buildings at the University of Pennsylvania, Princeton University, Washington University in St. Louis, marking the nascent beginnings of a movement that transformed many college campuses across the country. In 1901, the firm of Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge created a master plan for a Collegiate Gothic campus for the fledgling University of Chicago spent the next 15 years completing it; some of their works, such as the Mitchell Tower, were near-literal copies of historic buildings. George Browne Post designed the City College of New York's new campus at Hamilton Heights, Manhattan, in the style; the style was experienced up-close by a wide audience at the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis, Missouri; the World's Fair and 1904 Olympic Games were held on the newly completed campus of Washington University, which delayed occupying its buildings until 1905.
The movement gained further momentum when Charles Donagh Maginnis designed Gasson Hall at Boston College in 1908. Maginnis & Walsh went on to design Collegiate Gothic buildings at some twenty-five other campuses, including the main buildings at Emmanuel College, the law school at the University of Notre Dame. Ralph Adams Cram designed one of the most poetic collections of Collegiate Gothic buildings for the Princeton University Graduate College. James Gamble Rogers did extensive work at Yale University, beginning in 1917; some critics claim he took historicist fantasy to an extreme, while others choose to focus on what is considered to be the resulting beautiful and sophisticated Yale campus. Rogers was criticized by the growing Modernist movement, his cathedral-like Sterling Memorial Library, with its ecclesiastical imagery and lavish use of ornament, came under vocal attack from one of Yale's own undergraduates: A modern building constructed for purely modern needs has no excuse for going off in an orgy of meretricious medievalism and stale iconography.
Other architects, notably John Russell Pope and Bertram Goodhue, advocated for and contributed to Yale's particular version of Collegiate Gothic. When McMaster University moved to Hamilton, Canadian architect William Lyon Somerville designed its new campus in the style. American architect Alexander Jackson Davis is "generally credited with coining the term" documented in a handwritten description of his own "English Collegiate Gothic Mansion" of 1853 for the Harrals of Bridgeport, Connecticut. By the 1890s, the movement was known as "Collegiate Gothic". In his praise for Cope & Stewardson's Quadrangle Dormitories at the University of Pennsylvania, architect Ralph Adams Cram revealed some of the racial and cultural implications underlying the Collegiate Gothic: It was, of course, in the great group of dormitories for the University of Pennsylvania that Cope and Stewardson first came before the entire country as the