Saint Paul, Minnesota
Saint Paul is the capital and second-most populous city of the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of 2017, the city's estimated population was 309,180. Saint Paul is the county seat of Ramsey County, the smallest and most densely populated county in Minnesota; the city lies on the east bank of the Mississippi River in the area surrounding its point of confluence with the Minnesota River, adjoins Minneapolis, the state's largest city. Known as the "Twin Cities", the two form the core of Minneapolis–Saint Paul, the 16th-largest metropolitan area in the United States, with about 3.6 million residents. Founded near historic Native American settlements as a trading and transportation center, the city rose to prominence when it was named the capital of the Minnesota Territory in 1849; the Dakota name for Saint Paul is "Imnizaska". Though Minneapolis is better-known nationally, Saint Paul contains the state government and other important institutions. Regionally, the city is known for the Xcel Energy Center, home of the Minnesota Wild, for the Science Museum of Minnesota.
As a business hub of the Upper Midwest, it is the headquarters of companies such as Ecolab. Saint Paul, along with its twin city, Minneapolis, is known for its high literacy rate; the settlement began at present-day Lambert's Landing, but was known as Pig's Eye after Pierre "Pig's Eye" Parrant established a popular tavern there. When Lucien Galtier, the first Catholic pastor of the region, established the Log Chapel of Saint Paul, he made it known that the settlement was now to be called by that name, as "Saint Paul as applied to a town or city was well appropriated, this monosyllable is short, sounds good, it is understood by all Christian denominations". Burial mounds in present-day Indian Mounds Park suggest that the area was inhabited by the Hopewell Native Americans about two thousand years ago. From the early 17th century until 1837, the Mdewakanton Dakota, a tribe of the Sioux, lived near the mounds after fleeing their ancestral home of Mille Lacs Lake from advancing Ojibwe, they called the area I-mni-za ska dan for its exposed white sandstone cliffs.
In the Menominee language it is called Sāēnepān-Menīkān, which means "ribbon, silk or satin village", suggesting its role in trade throughout the region after the introduction of European goods. Following the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, US Army officer Zebulon Pike negotiated 100,000 acres of land from the local Dakota tribes in 1805 to establish a fort; the negotiated territory was located on both banks of the Mississippi River, starting from Saint Anthony Falls in present-day Minneapolis, to its confluence with the Saint Croix River. Fort Snelling was built on the territory in 1819 at the confluence of the Mississippi and Minnesota rivers, which formed a natural barrier to both Native American nations; the 1837 Treaty with the Sioux ceded all local tribal land east of the Mississippi to the U. S. Government. Taoyateduta moved his band at Kaposia across the river to the south. Fur traders and missionaries came to the area for the fort's protection. Many of the settlers were French-Canadians. However, as a whiskey trade flourished, military officers banned settlers from the fort-controlled lands.
Pierre "Pig's Eye" Parrant, a retired fur trader-turned-bootlegger who irritated officials, set up his tavern, the Pig's Eye, near present-day Lambert's Landing. By the early 1840s, the community had become important as a trading center and a destination for settlers heading west. Locals called Pig's Eye Landing after Parrant's popular tavern. In 1841, Father Lucien Galtier was sent to minister to the Catholic French Canadians and established a chapel, named for his favorite saint, Paul the Apostle, on the bluffs above Lambert's Landing. Galtier intended for the settlement to adopt the name Saint Paul in honor of the new chapel. In 1847, a New York educator named Harriet Bishop moved to the area and opened the city's first school; the Minnesota Territory was formalized in Saint Paul named as its capital. In 1857, the territorial legislature voted to move the capital to Saint Peter. However, Joe Rolette, a territorial legislator, stole the physical text of the approved bill and went into hiding, thus preventing the move.
On May 11, 1858, Minnesota was admitted to the union as the thirty-second state, with Saint Paul as the capital. That year, more than 1,000 steamboats were in service at Saint Paul, making the city a gateway for settlers to the Minnesota frontier or Dakota Territory. Natural geography was a primary reason; the area was the last accessible point to unload boats coming upriver due to the Mississippi River Valley's stone bluffs. During this period, Saint Paul was called "The Last City of the East." Industrialist James J. Hill constructed and expanded his network of railways into the Great Northern Railway and Northern Pacific Railway, which were headquartered in Saint Paul. Today they are collectively part of the BNSF Railway. On August 20, 1904, severe thunderstorms and tornadoes damaged hundreds of downtown buildings, causing USD $1.78 million in damages to the city and ripping spans from the High Bridge. In the 1960s, during urban renewal, Saint Paul razed western neighborhoods close to downtown.
The city contended with the creation of the interstate freeway system in a built landscape. From 1959 to 1961, the western Rondo Neighborhood was demolished by the construction of Interstate 94, which brought attention to racial segregation and unequal housing in northern cities; the annual
Solar energy is radiant light and heat from the Sun, harnessed using a range of ever-evolving technologies such as solar heating, solar thermal energy, solar architecture, molten salt power plants and artificial photosynthesis. It is an important source of renewable energy and its technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending on how they capture and distribute solar energy or convert it into solar power. Active solar techniques include the use of photovoltaic systems, concentrated solar power and solar water heating to harness the energy. Passive solar techniques include orienting a building to the Sun, selecting materials with favorable thermal mass or light-dispersing properties, designing spaces that circulate air; the large magnitude of solar energy available makes it a appealing source of electricity. The United Nations Development Programme in its 2000 World Energy Assessment found that the annual potential of solar energy was 1,575–49,837 exajoules.
This is several times larger than the total world energy consumption, 559.8 EJ in 2012. In 2011, the International Energy Agency said that "the development of affordable and clean solar energy technologies will have huge longer-term benefits, it will increase countries’ energy security through reliance on an indigenous and import-independent resource, enhance sustainability, reduce pollution, lower the costs of mitigating global warming, keep fossil fuel prices lower than otherwise. These advantages are global. Hence the additional costs of the incentives for early deployment should be considered learning investments; the Earth receives 174 petawatts of incoming solar radiation at the upper atmosphere. 30% is reflected back to space while the rest is absorbed by clouds and land masses. The spectrum of solar light at the Earth's surface is spread across the visible and near-infrared ranges with a small part in the near-ultraviolet. Most of the world's population live in areas with insolation levels of 150–300 watts/m², or 3.5–7.0 kWh/m² per day.
Solar radiation is absorbed by the Earth's land surface, oceans – which cover about 71% of the globe – and atmosphere. Warm air containing evaporated water from the oceans rises, causing atmospheric circulation or convection; when the air reaches a high altitude, where the temperature is low, water vapor condenses into clouds, which rain onto the Earth's surface, completing the water cycle. The latent heat of water condensation amplifies convection, producing atmospheric phenomena such as wind and anti-cyclones. Sunlight absorbed by the oceans and land masses keeps the surface at an average temperature of 14 °C. By photosynthesis, green plants convert solar energy into chemically stored energy, which produces food and the biomass from which fossil fuels are derived; the total solar energy absorbed by Earth's atmosphere and land masses is 3,850,000 exajoules per year. In 2002, this was more energy in one hour than the world used in one year. Photosynthesis captures 3,000 EJ per year in biomass.
The amount of solar energy reaching the surface of the planet is so vast that in one year it is about twice as much as will be obtained from all of the Earth's non-renewable resources of coal, natural gas, mined uranium combined, The potential solar energy that could be used by humans differs from the amount of solar energy present near the surface of the planet because factors such as geography, time variation, cloud cover, the land available to humans limit the amount of solar energy that we can acquire. Geography affects solar energy potential because areas that are closer to the equator have a greater amount of solar radiation. However, the use of photovoltaics that can follow the position of the sun can increase the solar energy potential in areas that are farther from the equator. Time variation effects the potential of solar energy because during the nighttime there is little solar radiation on the surface of the Earth for solar panels to absorb; this limits the amount of energy. Cloud cover can affect the potential of solar panels because clouds block incoming light from the sun and reduce the light available for solar cells.
In addition, land availability has a large effect on the available solar energy because solar panels can only be set up on land, otherwise unused and suitable for solar panels. Roofs have been found to be a suitable place for solar cells, as many people have discovered that they can collect energy directly from their homes this way. Other areas that are suitable for solar cells are lands that are not being used for businesses where solar plants can be established. Solar technologies are characterized as either passive or active depending on the way they capture and distribute sunlight and enable solar energy to be harnessed at different levels around the world depending on distance from the equator. Although solar energy refers to the use of solar radiation for practical ends, all renewable energies, other than Geothermal power and Tidal power, derive their energy either directly or indirectly from the Sun. Active solar techniques use photovoltaics, concentrated solar power, solar thermal collectors and fans to convert sunlight into useful outputs.
Passive solar techniques include selecting materials with favorable thermal properties, designing spaces that circulate air, referencing the position of a building to the Sun. Active solar technologies increase the supply of energy and are considered supply side technologies, while passive solar technologies reduce
Interceptor Body Armor
The Interceptor Multi-Threat Body Armor System is a bullet-resistant vest, used by the United States Armed Forces from the late 1990s to the late 2000s, with some limited usage into the mid-2010s. The IBA and its design replaced the older standardized fragmentation protective Personnel Armor System for Ground Troops body armor system, designed in the late 1970s and introduced in the early 1980s; the IBA system consists of its core component: the outer tactical vest, which can optionally be worn with a throat protector, groin protector, bicep protector. The latter three auxiliary protectors are removable from the main vest; the IBA was designed in the late 1990s as a replacement for the PASGT vest. It was used by most of the U. S. military's branches during much of the 2000s, was seeing limited use as late as 2015 among some National Guard units. Beginning in 2007 the Improved Outer Tactical Vest began to replace the IBA in the United States Army's service and since it has been replaced in its inventory, with the exception of a few IBAs still in service with the Army National Guard and U.
S. Army Reserve; the U. S. Marine Corps has replaced the IBA with the Modular Tactical Vest and Scalable Plate Carrier, although the IBA is still used by the U. S. Navy for sailors aboard its warships as of 2017 and by the U. S. Army Reserve as of 2018. Though the IBA has been replaced in U. S. military service, it is still used by the militaries of some other countries that have diplomatic relations with the U. S. such as Ukraine and Moldova. As such, the IBA, in production since the late 1990s, is scheduled to be produced by the U. S. until 2020, for sale to foreign customers. The IBA system consists of an Outer Tactical Vest and two Small Arms Protective Insert ballistic plates; the OTV features a carrier shell, three main ballistic panel inserts, which are made with a finely woven Kevlar KM2 fiber. These two parts of the vest are both heat resistant; the soft ballistic panels are produced in five different sizes, which are installed into their respective pocket on the OTV carrier shell. The Interceptor armor has a PALS webbing grid on the front of the vest which accommodate the same type of pockets used in the Modular Lightweight Load-carrying Equipment backpack/carry vest system.
This allows a soldier to tailor-fit his body armor system. While not designed for it, the loops can easily attach All-purpose Lightweight Individual Carrying Equipment -based equipment, as well as many pieces of civilian-made tactical gear, features a large handle on the back just below the collar which can be used to drag a wounded person to safety in an emergency; the IBA system weighed 16.4 pounds, with the vest weighing 8.4 pounds, two plate inserts weighing four pounds each. This is lighter. Due to the increased dangers of improvised explosive devices, newer versions of the vital plates and components have been developed; the Enhanced Small Arms Protective Inserts and Enhanced Side Ballistic Inserts have become available, along with the Deltoid and Axillary Protector System. These new systems are becoming the standard for forward deployed troops; the E-SAPI plates offer increased protection from 7.62mm armor-piercing ammunition. The ESBIs is an attachable MOLLE ballistic panel with a pouch for a 8x6 side-SAPI, for protection of the side of the torso/under the arm.
DAPS consists of two ambidextrous modular components, the Deltoid Protector and the Axillary Protector, provide for additional protection from fragmentary and projectiles to the upper arm and underarm areas. With the IBA, E-SAPI plates, ESBIs, DAPS and with the neck and groin protectors installed the armor is heavier at 33.1 pounds. To increase overall protection, separate accessories can be added to the OTV: Collar device, divided in two parts, a neck and collar protector and a throat protector Groin protector. A "Fighting Load Carrier" vest can be worn atop the IBA to increase magazine and ease equipment carrying capacity, though it is not part of the IBA system proper. With the need of additional accessories to protect troops, some were produced for the ground: Deltoid and axillary protection system. Side plate carriers Back extender Upper Legs protector, a kind of kevlar short Lower Extremity Body Armor Combat diapers The Interceptor vest was tested to stop a 9×19mm 124-grain FMJ bullet at 1,400 ft/s with minimal backface deformation, it has a V-50 of 1,525 ft/s.
This means that the bullet in question must travel faster than 1,525 ft/s for it to have more than a 50% chance of penetration.. The Interceptor cannot, however, be called a Level III-A vest, since military standards do not require protection against heavy.44 Magnum ammunition. The vest will stop lower velocity fragments and has removable neck, shoulder, extended back and groin protection. Additionally, two ceramic plates may be added to the front and back of the vest, with each capable of stopping up to three hits from the round marked on the plate. For SAPI, this is a caliber of up to 7.62×51mm M80 FMJ. For ESAPI, this is a caliber of up to 30-06 M2 AP; this per
Kempten is the largest town of Allgäu, in Swabia, Germany. The population was about 68,000 in 2016; the area was settled by Celts, but was taken over by the Romans, who called the town Cambodunum. Kempten is the oldest urban settlement in Germany; the Greek geographer Strabo mentions in 50 BC a town of the Celtic Estiones named Kambodunon. This is considered the oldest written reference of any German city. So far no archaeological evidence could be found that this Celtic settlement existed. In 15 BC Roman troops led by Nero Claudius Drusus and his brother Tiberius conquered and destroyed an existing Celtic settlement; the settlement was named Cambodunum. In the following years the city was rebuilt on a classical Roman city plan with baths and temples. In wood, the city was rebuilt in stone after a devastating fire that destroyed the entire city in the year 69 AD; the city served as provincial capital of Raetia during the first century before Augsburg took over this role. Extensive archaeological excavations at the end of the 19th century and again during the 1950s at what were the outskirts of Kempten unearthed the extensive structural foundations.
The city was again destroyed in 233 AD by a Suebic tribe. The original site of Cambodunum was abandoned and the settlement moved to a strategically safer location on the Burghalde hill overlooking the river Iller. In the middle of the 5th century the last Roman troops had left the area and the city was taken over by the Alemanni. After the Romans abandoned the settlement, it was moved from the hill down to the plains located next to the river Iller. In written sources, the town appears as Cambidano. Being still predominantly Alemannic, the town once more was destroyed by the Franks in 683 as a consequence of the city's support of an uprising against the Frankish kingdom. Around 700 a monastery — Kempten Abbey — was built, the first in the Allgäu region, founded by two Benedictine monks from the Abbey of Saint Gall, Magnus von Füssen and Theodor. Audogar was the first abbot of the new Benedictine monastery. Through the financial and lobbyist support of Charlemagne’s wife Hildegard, an Allemannic princess, the monastery managed to become one of the most privileged of the Frankish Empire.
After several ravages by the Magyars, Ulrich of Augsburg, bishop of Augsburg and abbot of Kempten, began the rebuilding of the monastery and the city in 941. In 1213, Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II declared the abbots members of the Reichstag and granted the abbot the right to bear the title of Duke; however in 1289, King Rudolf I of Germany granted special privileges to the urban settlement in the river valley, making it the Free Imperial City of Kempten. In 1525 the last property rights of the abbots in the Imperial City were sold in the so-called "Great Purchase", marking the start of the co-existence of two independent cities bearing the same name next to each other. More conflict arose after the Imperial City converted to Protestantism in direct opposition to the Catholic monastery in 1527. During the turmoil of the Thirty Years' War, both cities were destroyed by the imperial forces and the Swedish troops respectively. In 1652 Roman Giel of Gielsberg, the Abbot of Kempten, commissioned the architects Michael Beer and Johann Serro from Graubünden to build St. Lorenz Basilica as a new church to serve the parish and monastery, including a representative residence for the Duke-Abbots.
This is acknowledged as the first large church built in Germany after the end of the Thirty Years' War. During the Napoleonic Wars the Duke-Abbey and Imperial City came under Bavarian rule. In 1819, the two rival cities were united into a single communal entity; the city was the location of a subcamp of the Dachau concentration camp during World War II. Claude Honoré Desiré Dornier born in Kempten im Allgäu was a German aircraft engineer and founder of Dornier GmbH, his legacy remains in the few aircraft named after him, including the Dornier Do 18 and the 12-engine Dornier Do X flying boat, for decades the world's largest and most powerful airplane. The St. Lorenz Basilica The St. Mang Church The Burghalde, a ruin; the Duke-Abbots' Residence The Archaeological Park Cambodunum The City Hall and Square The Erasmuskapelle Kempten is well connected with the region through the A 7 autobahn. Bundesstraßen B 12, B 19 and B 309 intersect in Kempten; the city is on the Allgäu Railway, opened as part of the Ludwig South-North Railway in 1852, Kempten station boasts good InterCity and EuroCity rail connections.
The city bus system is operated by Kemptener Verkehrsbetriebe. The Kempten University of Applied Sciences started in the winter semester of 1978–79 with 89 students and since expanded and now accommodates more than 2800 students in eight degree courses: Business Administration Computer Science Electrical Engineering Industrial Engineering – Electronic and Information Technology Industrial Engineering – Mechanical Engineering with Distribution Management or Information Technology Mechanical Engineering Social Management Tourism and Hospitality ManagementThere are three college preparatory schools, called Gymnasium, offering secondary education to the entire region of the Allgäu. Daniel Abt, German racing driver Carl von Linde, German scientist and inventor in cooling technology Heide Schmidt, Austrian politician Ignaz Kiechle, member of Bundestag 1969-1994, Minister for Food, A
The 3M Company known as the Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company, is an American multinational conglomerate corporation operating in the fields of industry, worker safety, health care, consumer goods. The company produces a variety of products, including adhesives, laminates, passive fire protection, personal protective equipment, window films, paint protection films and orthodontic products, electronic materials, medical products, car-care products, electronic circuits, healthcare software and optical films, it is based in Maplewood, Minnesota, a suburb of St. Paul. In 2017, 3M made $31.7 billion in total sales, the company ranked No. 97 in the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. The company has 91,000 employees and has operations in more than 70 countries. Five businessmen founded 3M in Two Harbors, Minnesota, in 1902. A mining venture, the goal was to mine corundum, but this failed because the mine's mineral holdings were anorthosite, which had no commercial value.
Co-founder John Dwan solicited funds in exchange for stock and Edgar Ober and Lucius Ordway took over the company in 1905. The company moved to Duluth and began researching and producing sandpaper products. William L. McKnight a key executive, joined the company in 1907, A. G. Bush joined in 1909. 3M became financially stable in 1916 and was able to pay dividends. The company moved to St. Paul in 1910, where it remained for 52 years before outgrowing the campus and moving to its current headquarters at 3M Center in Maplewood, Minnesota in 1962; the company began by mining stone from quarries for use in grinding wheels. Struggling with quality and marketing of its products, management supported its workers to innovate and develop new products, which became its core business. Twelve years after its inception, 3M developed its first exclusive product: Three-M-ite cloth. Other innovations in this era included masking tape, waterproof sandpaper, Scotch-brand tapes. By 1929, 3M had made its first moves toward international expansion by forming Durex to conduct business in Europe.
The same year, the company's stock was first traded over the counter and in 1946 listed on the New York Stock Exchange. The company is a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average and of the S&P 500; the founders original plan was to sell the mineral corundum to manufacturers in the East for making grinding wheels. After selling one load, on June 13, 1902, the five went to the Two Harbors office of company secretary John Dwan, on the shore of Lake Superior and is now part of the 3M National Museum, signed papers making Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing a corporation. In reality, however and his associates were not selling what they thought. Failing to make sandpaper with the anorthosite, the founders decided to import minerals like Spanish garnet, after which sale of sandpapers grew. In 1914, customers complained that the garnet was falling off the paper; the founders discovered that the stones had traveled across the Atlantic Ocean packed near olive oil, the oil had penetrated the stones.
Unable to take the loss of selling expensive inventory, they roasted the stones over fire to remove the olive oil. The company's late innovations include waterproof sandpaper and masking tape, as well as cellophane "Scotch Tape" and sound-deadening materials for cars. In 1947, 3M began producing perfluorooctanoic acid by electrochemical fluorination. During the 1950s, the company expanded worldwide with operations in Canada, France, Germany and the United Kingdom in large part by Clarence Sampair. In 1951, DuPont started purchasing PFOA from then-Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company for use in the manufacturing of teflon, a product that brought DuPont a billion-dollar-a-year profit by the 1990s. DuPont referred to PFOA as C8. In 1951, international sales were $20 million. 3M's achievements were recognized by the American Institute of Management naming the company "one of the five best-managed companies in the United States" and included it among the top 12 growth stocks. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, 3M published a line of board games under the "3M bookshelf game series" brand.
These games were marketed to adults and sold through department stores, with learned simple rules but complex game play and depth and with uniformly high-quality components. As such, they are the ancestors of the German "Eurogames"; the games covered a variety of topics, from business and sports simulations to word and abstract strategy games. They were a major publisher at the time for influential U. S. designers Sid Sackson and Alex Randolph. In the mid-1970s, the game line was taken over by Avalon Hill. 3M's Mincom division introduced several models of magnetic tape recorders for instrumentation use and for studio sound recording. An example of the latter is the model M79 recorder, which still has a following today. 3M Mincom was involved in designing and manufacturing video production equipment for the television and video post-production industries in the 1970s and 1980s, with such items as character generators and several different models of video switchers, from models of audio and video routers to video mixers for studio production work.
3M Mincom was involved in some of the first digital audio recordings of the late 1970s to see commercial release when a prototype machine was brought to the Sound 80 studios in Minneapolis. After drawing on the experience of that prototype recorder, 3M introduced in 1979 a commercially available digital audio recording system called the "3M Digital Audio Mastering System", which
A public company, publicly traded company, publicly held company, publicly listed company, or public limited company is a corporation whose ownership is dispersed among the general public in many shares of stock which are traded on a stock exchange or in over the counter markets. In some jurisdictions, public companies over a certain size must be listed on an exchange. A public company can be unlisted. Public companies are formed within the legal systems of particular nations, therefore have national associations and formal designations which are distinct and separate. For example one of the main public company forms in the United States is called a limited liability company, in France is called a "society of limited responsibility", in Britain a public limited company, in Germany a company with limited liability. While the general idea of a public company may be similar, differences are meaningful, are at the core of international law disputes with regard to industry and trade. In the early modern period, the Dutch developed several financial instruments and helped lay the foundations of modern financial system.
The Dutch East India Company became the first company in history to issue bonds and shares of stock to the general public. In other words, the VOC was the first publicly traded company, because it was the first company to be actually listed on an official stock exchange. While the Italian city-states produced the first transferable government bonds, they did not develop the other ingredient necessary to produce a fledged capital market: corporate shareholders; as Edward Stringham notes, "companies with transferable shares date back to classical Rome, but these were not enduring endeavors and no considerable secondary market existed." The securities of a publicly traded company are owned by many investors while the shares of a held company are owned by few shareholders. A company with many shareholders is not a publicly traded company. In the United States, in some instances, companies with over 500 shareholders may be required to report under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Public companies possess some advantages over held businesses.
Publicly traded companies are able to raise funds and capital through the sale of shares of stock. This is the reason publicly traded corporations are important; the profit on stock is gained in form of capital gain to the holders. The financial media and the public are able to access additional information about the business, since the business is legally bound, motivated, to publicly disseminate information regarding the financial status and future of the company to its many shareholders and the government; because many people have a vested interest in the company's success, the company may be more popular or recognizable than a private company. The initial shareholders of the company are able to share risk by selling shares to the public. If one were to hold a 100% share of the company, he or she would have to pay all of the business's debt; this increases asset liquidity and the company does not need to depend on funding from a bank. For example, in 2013 Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg owned 29.3% of the company's class A shares, which gave him enough voting power to control the business, while allowing Facebook to raise capital from, distribute risk to, the remaining shareholders.
Facebook was a held company prior to its initial public offering in 2012. If some shares are given to managers or other employees, potential conflicts of interest between employees and shareholders will be remitted; as an example, in many tech companies, entry-level software engineers are given stock in the company upon being hired. Therefore, the engineers have a vested interest in the company succeeding financially, are incentivized to work harder and more diligently to ensure that success. Many stock exchanges require that publicly traded companies have their accounts audited by outside auditors, publish the accounts to their shareholders. Besides the cost, this may make useful information available to competitors. Various other annual and quarterly reports are required by law. In the United States, the Sarbanes–Oxley Act imposes additional requirements; the requirement for audited books is not imposed by the exchange known as OTC Pink. The shares may be maliciously held by outside shareholders and the original founders or owners may lose benefits and control.
The principal-agent problem, or the agency problem is a key weakness of public companies. The separation of a company's ownership and control is prevalent in such countries as U. K and U. S. In the United States, the Securities and Exchange Commission requires that firms whose stock is traded publicly report their major shareholders each year; the reports identify all institutional shareholders, all company officials who own shares in their firm, any individual or institution owning more than 5% of the firm's stock. For many years, newly created companies were held but held initial
Oshkosh Corporation Oshkosh Truck, is an American industrial company that designs and builds specialty trucks, military vehicles, truck bodies, airport fire apparatus and access equipment. The corporation owns Pierce Manufacturing, a fire apparatus manufacturer in Appleton, Wisconsin. Based in Oshkosh, the company employs 16,000 people around the world, it is organized in four primary business groups: access equipment, defense and emergency, commercial. Founded in 1917 as the Wisconsin Duplex Auto Company, the company was created to build a severe-duty four-wheel-drive truck. After the first prototype was built, the company began to develop rapidly; this first four-wheel-drive truck, known today as "Old Betsy", is still owned by Oshkosh Corporation and housed in one of its assembly plants in Oshkosh. The vehicle still runs and is used in demonstrations and parades; the first mass-produced truck was the 2-ton Model A, with seven produced in 1918. The 3.5-ton Model B and 5-ton Model F followed. The Model TR, introduced in 1933, was a diversification for the company and was the first rubber tired earthmover built.
The Model 50-50, introduced in 1955, was the first truck created for the hauling of concrete. The first ARFF built by Oshkosh was a W Series truck delivered to the U. S. Coast Guard in 1953. Oshkosh has produced aircraft tow tractors, in 1968 the company designed and built the U-30, 45 of which were built for the U. S. Air Force to tow the Lockheed C-5 Galaxy transport aircraft. In 1976 the company won a U. S. Army contract to supply 744 M911 heavy equipment transporters, the first in a long line of U. S. Army contracts that now sees Oshkosh Defense as the sole supplier of medium and heavy tactical trucks to the U. S. Army and Marines. On August 25, 2015, Oshkosh was awarded the U. S. military's Joint Light Tactical Vehicle contract. The initial JLTV award is valued at $6.75 billion for up to 16,901 vehicles. The procurement objective for JLTV stands at 54,599 vehicles, the estimated program cost being $47.6 billion. JLTV will replace the AM General Humvee. On November 7, 2017, the Oshkosh Common Council approved a proposal to sell part of the century-old Lake Shore Golf Course along the shore of Lake Butte des Morts to Oshkosh Corp. for its new headquarters.
On November 22, 2017, the Oshkosh Corporation announced it would build the new headquarters on the golf course. The city plans to redevelop the rest of the golf course into a new public space. Oshkosh Corporation is headquartered in Wisconsin, it has manufacturing operations in eight U. S. states and in Australia, China and Romania and through investments in joint ventures in Mexico and Brazil. The Access Equipment division is headquartered in Pennsylvania. Oshkosh products and services are sold in more than 150 countries around the globe; the company maintains a global service network. Oshkosh Corp. manufactures and services products under the brands of Oshkosh, JLG, Pierce, McNeilus, Jerr-Dan, Oshkosh Specialty Vehicles, Frontline Communications, CON-E-CO, London Machinery Inc. and IMT. Products include JLG and SkyTrak brand telehandlers and tracked boom lifts, other lifting equipment. Light Combat Tactical All-Terrain Vehicle. L-ATV was announced as winner of the Joint Light Tactical Vehicle requirement in August 2015.
The first JLTV order was placed in March 2016. The JLTV will part-replace the AM General HMMWV/Humvee. Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles; the FMTV is the U. S. Army's standard 2.5- and 5-ton truck. The FMTV was manufactured by Stewart and Stevenson by Armor Holdings by what is now BAE Systems Platforms & Services. From 2011 it has been manufactured by Oshkosh. HET; the M1070, in A0 and A1 configurations, is the U. S. Army's current tank transporter tractor; the Global HET is a M1070A1 with three axles instead of four. Heavy Expanded Mobility Tactical Truck - M977 HEMTT; the HEMTT is the U. S. Army's standard 10-ton truck. In evolving configurations it has been in continuous production since 1982. Heavy Expanded Mobility Tactical Truck HEMTT A3 diesel-electric; the HEMTT A3 was a prototype/developmental design with a diesel-electric drive system. LVS. A U. S. Marine Corps 8x8 truck, replaced by the LVSR Logistics Vehicle System Replacement; the LVSR is a family of vehicles, based on a common 5-axle ten-wheel drive 10x10 chassis, that vary in individual configuration by mission requirements.
It replaced the LVS. M-ATV. A medium-weight mine blast protected vehicle developed for use in Afghanistan. MTVR; the MTVR is the standard 5-ton truck of the U. S. Marines. Wheeled Tanker. A UK-specific MTVR development. Sand Cat. A light protected vehicle based on a Ford F550 chassis. P-19R. U. S. Marines' Aircraft Rescue Fire Fighting truck. Special Purpose All-Terrain Vehicle. A developmental light all-terrain buggy-type design Palletized Load System. Five-axle all-wheel drive trucks and companion three-axle trailers. An independent suspension system HMMWV with TAK-4 Suspension upgrade proposal HMMWV Recap COMMAND ZONE Integrated Control And Diagnostics System Propulse hybrid diesel-electric s