The Ophites or Ophians were members of a Christian Gnostic sect depicted by Hippolytus of Rome in a lost work, the Syntagma. It is now thought that accounts of these "Ophites" by Pseudo-Tertullian and Epiphanius of Salamis are all dependent on the lost Syntagma of Hippolytus, it is possible that rather than an actual sectarian name Hippolytus may have invented "Ophite" as a generic term for what he considered heretical speculations concerning the serpent of Genesis or Moses. Apart from the sources directly dependent on Hippolytus and Clement of Alexandria mention the group; the group is mentioned by Irenaeus in Adversus Haereses. Pseudo-Tertullian is the earliest source to mention Ophites, the first source to discuss the connection with serpents, he claims. In addition, Eve is said to have believed the serpent; the name "Jesus" is not mentioned in the account. Epiphanius' account differs from that of Pseudo-Tertullian only in a few places. According to the former, the Ophites did not prefer the snake to Christ, but thought them identical.
This lost earlier treatise of Hippolytus appears to have contained a section on the Ophites, following that on the Nicolaitans, with whom they were brought into connection. Philaster has mistakenly transposed this and two other sections, beginning his treatise on heresies with the Ophites, making the Ophites and Sethians pre-Christian sects; the section of Hippolytus appears to have given a condensed account of the mythological story told by Irenaeus. In giving the name Ophite, however, he appears to have brought into greater prominence than Irenaeus the characteristics of the sect indicated by the word, their honour of the serpent, whom they preferred to Christ, their venerating him because he taught our first parents the knowledge of good and evil, their use of the references to the brazen serpent in the Old and New Testament, their introduction of the serpent into their Eucharistic celebration; the great difference between the earlier and the treatise of Hippolytus is that the former was a mere compilation, his account of the opinions of heresies being in the main derived from the lectures of Irenaeus.
In this book he makes a contemptuous mention of the Ophites in company with the Cainites and Nochaitae as heretics whose doctrines did not deserve the compliment of serious exposition or refutation. And it is strange that he does not seem to suspect that these heretics have any connection with those who form the subject of his fifth book. In that book he treats of sects which paid honour to the serpent, giving to the first of these sects the name Naassenes, a title which he knows is derived from the Hebrew word for serpent. Hippolytus restricted the name Ophites to the sect described by Irenaeus, which has little in common with that which he calls Naassenes; this book contains sections on several other Ophite systems, that of the Peratae, Sethians and of Justinus. Irenaeus gives, in what seems intended for chronological order, a list of heresies, beginning with Simon Magus and ending with Tatian, adds in a kind of appendix a description of a variety of Gnostic sects deriving their origin, as Irenaeus maintains, from the heresy of Simon Magus.
This chronology is not considered accurate by most modern authors. He details. Creation began as a series of emanations: The True and Holy Church: Bythos: Father of All: Ennoia, the Son of Man: The Holy Spirit, the First Woman: Water Darkness The Abyss ChaosOf the beauty of the Holy Spirit, both First and Second Man became enamoured, they generated from her a third male, an Incorruptible Light, called Christ, but the excess of light with which she had been impregnated was more than she could contain, while Christ her right-hand birth was borne upward with his mother, forming with the First and Second Man the True and Holy Church, a drop of light fell on the left hand downwards into the world of matter, was called Sophia or Prunikos, an androgynous being. By this arrival the still waters were set in motion, all things rushing to embrace the Light, Prunikos wantonly playing with the waters, assumed to herself a body, without the protection of which the light was in danger of being absorbed by matter.
Yet when oppressed by the grossness of her surroundings, she strove to escape the waters and ascend to her mother, the body weighed her down, she could do no more than arch herself above the waters, constituting thus the visible heaven. In process of time, however, by intensity of desire she was able to free herself from the encumbrance of the body, leaving it behind to ascend to the region above, called in the language of another sect the middle region. Meanwhile a son
Prajñā or paññā "wisdom" is insight in the true nature of reality, namely anicca, anattā and śūnyatā. Prajñā is translated as "wisdom", but is closer in meaning to "insight", "non-discriminating knowledge", or "intuitive apprehension". Jñā can be translated as "consciousness", "knowledge", or "understanding". Pra is an intensifier which can be translated as "higher", "greater", "supreme" or "premium", or "being born or springing up", referring to a spontaneous type of knowing. Paññā is the fourth virtue of ten Theravāda pāramitās, the sixth of the six Mahāyāna pāramitās. In the Pāli Canon, paññā is concentrated insight into the three characteristics of all things, namely impermanence, suffering and no-self, the four noble truths. In the 5th-century exegetical work Visuddhimagga, one of the most revered books in Theravada Buddhism, Buddhaghoṣa states that the function of paññā is "to abolish the darkness of delusion". In Mahayana Buddhism, the importance of prajna was stressed in combination with compassion.
It took a central place such as the Heart Sutra. Prajna is spoken of as the principal means of attaining nirvāna, through its revelation of the true nature of all things as emptiness. Smaran/Simran Kenshō Mahāvākyas Noble Eightfold Path Five wisdoms Four ways of knowing What is Prajna
Valentinianism was one of the major Gnostic Christian movements. Founded by Valentinus in the second century AD, its influence spread widely, not just within Rome, but from Northwest Africa to Egypt through to Asia Minor and Syria in the east. In the movement's history it broke into an Eastern and a Western school. Disciples of Valentinus continued to be active into the 4th century AD, after the Roman Empire was declared to be Christian. Valentinus and the Gnostic movement that bore his name were considered threats to proto-orthodox Christianity by church leaders and scholars, not only because of their influence, but because of their doctrine and beliefs. Gnostics were condemned as heretics, prominent Church fathers such as Irenaeus of Lyons and Hippolytus of Rome wrote against Gnosticism. Most evidence for the Valentinian theory comes from its critics and detractors, most notably Irenaeus, since he was concerned with refuting Valentinianism. Valentinus was born in 100 AD and died in Alexandria circa 180 AD.
According to Christian scholar Epiphanius of Salamis, he was born in Egypt and schooled in Alexandria. Clement of Alexandria, another Christian scholar and teacher, reports that Valentinus was taught by Theudas, a disciple of the apostle Paul, he was reputed to be an eloquent man who possessed a great deal of charisma and had an innate ability to attract people. He went to Rome some time between AD 136 and 140, in the time of Pope Hyginus, had risen to the peak of his teaching career between AD 150 and 155, during the time of Pius. Valentinus is said to have been a successful teacher, for some time in the mid-2nd century he was a prominent and well-respected member of the Catholic community in Rome. At one point during his career he had hoped to attain the office of bishop, it was after he was passed over for the position that he broke from the Catholic Church. Valentinus was said to have been a prolific writer. Most scholars believe that Valentinus wrote the Gospel of Truth, one of the Nag Hammadi texts.
Notable Valentinians included Heracleon, Florinus and Theodotus. The theology that Irenaeus attributed to Valentinus is complicated and difficult to follow. There is some skepticism among scholars that the system originated with him, many believe that the system Irenaeus was counteracting was the construct of Valentinians. According to Irenaeus, the Valentinians believed. At the centre of the Pleroma was the primal Father or Bythos, the beginning of all things who, after ages of silence and contemplation, projected thirty Aeons, heavenly archetypes representing fifteen syzygies or sexually complementary pairs. Among them was Sophia. Sophia's weakness and passion led to her fall from the Pleroma and the creation of the world and man, both of which are flawed. Valentinians identified the God of the Old Testament as the Demiurge, the imperfect creator of the material world. Man, the highest being in this material world, participates in both the spiritual and the material nature; the work of redemption consists in freeing the former from the latter.
One needed to recognize the Father, the depth of all being, as the true source of divine power in order to achieve gnosis. The Valentinians believed that the attainment of this knowledge by the human individual had positive consequences within the universal order and contributed to restoring that order, that gnosis, not faith, was the key to salvation. Clement wrote that the Valentinians regarded Catholic Christians “as simple people to whom they attributed faith, while they think that gnosis is in themselves. Through the excellent seed, to be found in them, they are by nature redeemed, their gnosis is as far removed from faith as the spiritual from the physical”; the superstructure of the celestial system, the celestial world of Aeons, is here developed in the most complicated way. These Aeons belong to the purely ideal, intelligible, or supersensible world. Together with the source from which they emanate they form the Pleroma; the transition from the immaterial to the material, from the noumenal to the sensible, is brought about by a flaw, or a passion, or a sin, in the female Aeon Sophia.
Epiphanius alleges that the Valentinians “set forth their thirty aeons in mythologic fashion, thinking that they conformed to the years of Jesus”. Of the eight celestial beings of the Ogdoad, four are peculiar to the Valentinian system; the third pair of Aeons and Zoe, occur only here, the place of this pair is not established, occur sometimes before and sometimes after the fourth pair of Aeons, the Anthropos and the Ekklesia. We cannot be far wrong in suspecting that Valentinus was influenced by the prologue of the fourth Gospel. In Valentinianism, Sophia always stands at the center of the system, in some sense she seems to represent the supreme female principle. Sophia is the youngest of the Aeons. Observing the multitude of Aeons and the power of begetting them, she hurries back into the depth of the Father, seeks to emulate him by producing offspring without conjugal intercourse, but only projects an abortion, a formless substance. Upon this she is cast out into the primal sub-stratum of matter.
In the Valentinian systems, the fall of Sophia appears in double guise. The higher Sophia still remains with
Yazdânism, or the Cult of Angels, is a proposed pre-Islamic, native religion of the Kurds. The term was introduced by Kurdish scholar Mehrdad Izady to represent what he considers the "original" religion of the Kurds. According to Izady, Yazdânism is now continued in the denominations of Yazidism and Ishik Alevism; the three traditions subsumed under the term Yazdânism are practiced in isolated communities. The concept of Yazdânism has found a wide perception both within and beyond Kurdish nationalist discourses, but has been disputed by other recognized scholars of Iranian religions. Well established, are the "striking" and "unmistakable" similarities between the Yazidis and the Yaresan or Ahl-e Haqq, some of which can be traced back to elements of an ancient faith, dominant among Western Iranians and likened to practices of pre-Zoroastrian Mithraic religion. Mehrdad Izady defines the Yazdanism as an ancient Hurrian religion and states that Mitanni could have introduced some of the Vedic tradition that appears to be manifest in Yazdanism.
Mehrdad Izady derived the term from a Zoroastrian concept of Holy beings translated as "angels" or "archangels". While he refers to "Yazdânism" as being the real name of this old religion and the sources of modern designation, Yezidi, he has published evidence of this assertion only in his 1992 book, Kurds: A Concise Handbook. One of the few ancient sources that mention the "Sipâsîâns", considered synonymous with the Yazdanis is the Dabestân-e Madâheb, written between 1645 and 1658. In Yazdani theologies, an absolute transcendental God encompasses the whole universe, he binds together the cosmos with his essence, manifests as the heft sirr, who sustain universal life and can incarnate in persons, bâbâ. These seven emanations are comparable to the seven Anunnaki aspects of Anu of ancient Mesopotamian theology, they include Melek Taus, the same as the ancient god Dumuzi son of Enki and the main deity in Yazidi theology, Shaykh Shams al-Din, "the sun of the faith", Mithra; these religions continue the theology of Mesopotamian religions under a Zoroastrian influence, expressed through an Arabic and Persianate Sufi lexicon.
Yazdânism teaches the cyclic nature of the world with reincarnation of the deity and of people being a common feature, traversing incarnations of the soul of a man into human form or an animal or a plant. These religions teach that there are seven cycles of the universe, six of which have happened, while the seventh one is yet to unfold. In each cycle, there is a set of six reincarnated persons who will herald the new cycle and preside over it; the reincarnation of the deity could be in one of the three forms: a "reflection incarnation", a "guest incarnation", or the highest form, an "embodiment incarnation". Jesus and the three leaders of the three primary branches of Yazdânism are all embodiment incarnations, meaning Godhead born in a human body; the principal feature of Yazdânism is the belief in seven benevolent divine beings that defend the world from an equal number of malign entities. While this concept exists in its purest form in Yârsânism and Yazidism, it evolves into "seven saints/spiritual persons", which are called "Yedi Ulu Ozan" in Alevism.
Another important feature of these religions is a doctrine of reincarnation. The belief in reincarnation has been documented among the Nusayri as well; the Yazidis believe in a single God as creator of the world, which he has placed under the care of these seven “holy beings” or angels, whose “chief” is Melek Taus, the “Peacock Angel”. The Peacock Angel, as world-ruler, causes both good and bad to befall individuals, this ambivalent character is reflected in myths of his own temporary fall from God’s favor, before his remorseful tears extinguished the fires of his hellish prison and he was reconciled with God. Melek Taus is sometimes identified by Christians with Shaitan. Yazidis, however dispute this, considering him to be the leader of the archangels, not a fallen angel. According to Christine Allison: The Yazidis of Kurdistan have been called many things, most notoriously “devil-worshippers”, a term used both by unsympathetic neighbours and fascinated Westerners; this sensational epithet is not only offensive to the Yazidis themselves, but quite wrong.
Because of this connection to the Sufi Iblis tradition, some followers of Christianity and Islam equate the Peacock Angel with their own unredeemed evil spirit Satan, which has incited centuries of persecution of the Yazidis as ‘devil worshippers’. Persecution of Yazidis has continued in their home communities within the borders of modern Iraq, under both Saddam Hussein and fundamentalist Sunni Muslim revolutionaries. In August 2014 the Yazidis were targeted by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, or ISIL, in its campaign to ‘purify’ Iraq and neighboring countries of non-Islamic influences. Yazdânis do not maintain any of the requisite five pillars of Islam; the Quran to them is as respectable as is the Bible, yet each denomination of this religion has its own scriptures that the adherents hold in a higher esteem than any one of the former or others. From the Yarsani point of view, the universe is composed of two distinct yet interrelated worlds: the internal and the external, each having its own order and rules.
Bábism known as the Bayání Faith, is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion which professes that there is one incorporeal and incomprehensible God who manifests his will in an unending series of theophanies, called Manifestations of God. It has no more than a few thousand adherents according to current estimates, most of whom are concentrated in Iran, it was founded by ‘Ali Muhammad Shirazi who first assumed the title of Báb from which the religion gets its name, out of the belief that he was the gate to the Twelfth Imam. However throughout his ministry his titles and claims underwent much evolution as the Báb progressively outlined his teachings. Founded in 1844, Bábism flourished in Persia until 1852 lingered on in exile in the Ottoman Empire Cyprus, as well as underground. An anomaly amongst Islamic messianic movements, the Bábí movement signaled a break with Islam, beginning a new religious system with its own unique laws and practices. While Bábism was violently opposed by both clerical and government establishments, it led to the founding of the Bahá'í Faith, whose followers consider the religion founded by the Báb as a predecessor to their own.
Bahá'í sources maintain that the remains of the Bab were clandestinely rescued by a handful of Bábis and hidden. Over time the remains were secretly transported according to the instructions of Bahá'u'lláh and `Abdu'l-Bahá through Isfahan, Baghdad, Beirut, by sea to Acre on the plain below Mount Carmel in 1899. On March 21, 1909, the remains were interred in a special tomb, the Shrine of the Báb, erected for this purpose by `Abdu'l-Bahá, on Mount Carmel in present-day Haifa, Israel. Bábism, a term originating from Orientalists rather than the followers of the religion, comes from the Perso-Arabic noun bab, meaning gate. Additionally, Bayání comes from the triliteral root B-Y-N which forms a class of words relating to concepts of clarity and separation, including Bayán which can refer to explanation, commentary, or exposition as well as the branch of Arabic rhetoric dealing with metaphors and interpretation; the Báb's teachings can be grouped into three broad stages which each have a dominant thematic focus.
His earliest teachings are defined by his interpretation of the Quran and other Islamic traditions. While this interpretive mode continues throughout all three stages of his teachings, a shift takes place where his emphasis moves to the philosophical elucidation and to legislative pronouncements. In the second philosophical stage, the Báb gives an explanation of the metaphysics of being and creation, in the third legislative stage his mystical and historical principles are explicitly united. An analysis of the Báb's writings throughout the three stages shows that all of his teachings were animated by a common principle that had multiple dimensions and forms. In Twelver Shi'a Islamic belief there were twelve Imams, the last of which, known as Imam Mahdi, who communicated with his followers only through certain representatives. According to the Twelver's belief, after the last of these representatives died, the Imam Mahdi went into a state of Occultation. Shi'a Muslims believe that when the world becomes oppressed, the Imam Mahdi will come out of occultation and restore true religion on Earth before the cataclysmic end of the world and judgement day.
In Bábí belief the Báb is the return of the Imam Mahdi, but the doctrine of the Occultation is implicitly denied. In Bábí belief the statements made from previous revelations regarding the Imam Mahdi were set forth in symbols; the Báb stated that he was not only the fulfillment of the Shi`i expectations for the Qá'im, but that he was the beginning of a new prophetic dispensation. The Báb taught that his revelation was beginning an apocalyptic process, bringing the Islamic dispensation to its cyclical end, starting a new dispensation, he taught that the terms "resurrection", "Judgement Day", "paradise" and "hell" used in Shi'a prophecies for the end-times are symbolic. He stated that "Resurrection" means that the appearance of a new revelation, that "raising of the dead" means the spiritual awakening of those who have stepped away from true religion, he further stated that "Judgement Day" refers to when a new Manifestation of God comes, the acceptance or rejection of those on the Earth. Thus the Báb taught that with his revelation the end times ended and the age of resurrection had started and that the end-times were symbolic as the end of the past prophetic cycle.
In the Persian Bayán, the Báb wrote that religious dispensations come in cycles, as the seasons, to renew "pure religion" for humanity. This notion of continuity anticipated future prophetic revelations after the Báb. While the Báb claimed a station of revelation, he claimed no finality for his revelation. One of the core Bábí teachings is the great Promised One, whom the Báb termed He whom God shall make manifest, promised in the sacred writings of previous religions would soon establish the Kingdom of God on the Earth. In the books written by the Báb he entreats his believers to follow He whom God shall make manifest when he arrives and not behave like the Muslims who have not accepted his own revelation; the Báb abrogated Islamic law and in the Persian Bayán promulgated a system of Bábí law, thus establishing a separate religion distinct from Islam. Some of the new laws included changing the direction of the Qibl
Platonism, rendered as a proper noun, is the philosophy of Plato or the name of other philosophical systems considered derived from it. In narrower usage, rendered as a common noun, refers to the philosophy that affirms the existence of abstract objects, which are asserted to "exist" in a "third realm" distinct both from the sensible external world and from the internal world of consciousness, is the opposite of nominalism. Lower case "platonists" need not accept any of the doctrines of Plato. In a narrower sense, the term might indicate the doctrine of Platonic realism; the central concept of Platonism, a distinction essential to the Theory of Forms, is the distinction between the reality, perceptible but unintelligible, the reality, imperceptible but intelligible. The forms are described in dialogues such as the Phaedo and Republic as transcendent perfect archetypes of which objects in the everyday world are imperfect copies. In the Republic the highest form is identified as the Form of the Good, the source of all other forms, which could be known by reason.
In the Sophist, a work, the forms being and difference are listed among the primordial "Great Kinds". In the 3rd century BC, Arcesilaus adopted skepticism, which became a central tenet of the school until 90 BC when Antiochus added Stoic elements, rejected skepticism, began a period known as Middle Platonism. In the 3rd century AD, Plotinus added mystical elements, establishing Neoplatonism, in which the summit of existence was the One or the Good, the source of all things. Platonism had a profound effect on Western thought, many Platonic notions were adopted by the Christian church which understood Plato's forms as God's thoughts, while Neoplatonism became a major influence on Christian mysticism, in the West through St Augustine, Doctor of the Catholic Church whose Christian writings were influenced by Plotinus' Enneads, in turn were foundations for the whole of Western Christian thought; the primary concept is the Theory of Forms. The only true being is founded upon the forms, the eternal, perfect types, of which particular objects of moral and responsible sense are imperfect copies.
The multitude of objects of sense, being involved in perpetual change, are thereby deprived of all genuine existence. The number of the forms is defined by the number of universal concepts which can be derived from the particular objects of sense; the following excerpt may be representative of Plato's middle period metaphysics and epistemology: "Since the beautiful is opposite of the ugly, they are two." "Of course." "And since they are two, each is one?" "I grant that also." "And the same account is true of the just and unjust, the good and the bad, all the forms. Each of them is itself one, but because they manifest themselves everywhere in association with actions and one another, each of them appears to be many." "That's right." "So, I draw this distinction: On one side are those you just now called lovers of sights, lovers of crafts, practical people. "How do you mean?" "The lovers of sights and sounds like beautiful sounds, colors and everything fashioned out of them, but their thought is unable to see and embrace the nature of the beautiful itself."
"That's for sure." "In fact, there are few people who would be able to reach the beautiful itself and see it by itself. Isn't that so?" "Certainly." "What about someone who believes in beautiful things, but doesn't believe in the beautiful itself and isn't able to follow anyone who could lead him to the knowledge of it? Don't you think he is living in a dream rather than a wakened state? Isn't this dreaming: whether asleep or awake, to think that a likeness is not a likeness but rather the thing itself that it is like?" "I think that someone who does, dreaming." "But someone who, to take the opposite case, believes in the beautiful itself, can see both it and the things that participate in it and doesn't believe that the participants are it or that it itself is the participants--is he living in a dream or is he awake? "He's much awake." Book VI of the Republic identifies the highest form as the Form of the Good, the cause of all other Ideas, that on which the being and knowing of all other Forms is contingent.
Conceptions derived from the impressions of sense can never give us the knowledge of true being. It can only be obtained by the soul's activity within itself, apart from the troubles and disturbances of sense. Dialectic, as the instrument in this process, leading us to knowledge of the forms, to the highest form of the Good, is the first of sciences. Neoplatonism, beginning with Plotinus, identified the Good of the Republic with the so-called transcendent, absolute One of the first hypothesis of the Parmenides. Platonist ethics is based on the Form of the Good. Virtue is the recognition of the supreme form of the good. And, since in this cognition, the three parts of the soul, which are reason and appetite, all have their share, we get the three virtues, Wisdom and Moderation; the bond which unites the other virtues is the virtue of Justice, by which each part of the soul is confined to the performance of its proper function. Platonism had a profound effect on Western thought. In many interpretations of the Timaeus Platonism, like Aristotelianism, poses an eternal universe, as opposed to the nearby Judaic tradition that the universe had bee
Christology "the understanding of Christ," is the study of the nature and work of Jesus Christ. It studies Jesus Christ's humanity and divinity, the relation between these two aspects; the earliest Christian writings gave several titles to Jesus, such as Son of Man, Son of God and Kyrios, which were all derived from the Hebrew scriptures. These terms centered around two themes, namely "Jesus as a preexistent figure who becomes human and returns to God," and "Jesus as a creature elected and'adopted' by God."From the second to the fifth century, the relation of the human and divine nature of Christ was a major focus of debates in the early church and at the first seven ecumenical councils. The Council of Chalcedon in 451 issued a formulation of the hypostatic union of the two natures of Christ, one human and one divine, "united with neither confusion nor division". Most of the major branches of Western Christianity and Eastern Orthodoxy subscribe to this formulation, while many branches of Oriental Orthodox Churches reject it, subscribing to miaphysitism.
Christology "the understanding of Christ," is the study of the nature and work of Jesus Christ. It studies Jesus Christ's humanity and divinity, the relation between these two aspects. "Ontological Christology" analyzes the being of Jesus Christ. "Functional Christology" analyzes the works of Jesus Christ, while "soteriological Christology" analyzes the "salvific" standpoints of Christology. Several approaches can be distinguished within Christology; the term "Christology from above" or "high Christology" refers to approaches that include aspects of divinity, such as Lord and Son of God, the idea of the pre-existence of Christ as the Logos, as expressed in the prologue to the Gospel of John. These approaches interpret the works of Christ in terms of his divinity. According to Pannenberg, Christology from above "was far more common in the ancient Church, beginning with Ignatius of Antioch and the second century Apologists." The term "Christology from below" or "low Christology" refers to approaches that begin with the human aspects and the ministry of Jesus and move towards his divinity and the mystery of incarnation.
A basic Christological teaching is that the person of Jesus Christ is both divine. The human and divine natures of Jesus Christ form a duality, as they coexist within one person. There are no direct discussions in the New Testament regarding the dual nature of the Person of Christ as both divine and human, since the early days of Christianity, theologians have debated various approaches to the understanding of these natures, at times resulting in ecumenical councils, schisms. Historical christological doctrines which gained broader support are Monophysitism, Miaphysitism and Monarchianism. Influential Christologies which were broadly condemned as heretical are Docetism and Nestorianism. In Christian theology, atonement is the method by which human beings can be reconciled to God through Christ's sacrificial suffering and death. Atonement is the forgiving or pardoning of sin in general and original sin in particular through the suffering and resurrection of Jesus, enabling the reconciliation between God and his creation.
Due to the influence of Gustaf Aulèn's Christus Victor, the various theories or paradigma's of atonement are grouped as "classical paradigm," "objective paradigm," and the "subjective paradigm": Classical paradigm:Ransom theory of atonement, which teaches that the death of Christ was a ransom sacrifice said to have been paid to Satan or to death itself, in some views paid to God the Father, in satisfaction for the bondage and debt on the souls of humanity as a result of inherited sin. Gustaf Aulén reinterpreted the ransom thory, calling it the Christus Victor doctrine, arguing that Christ's death was not a payment to the Devil, but defeated the powers of evil, which had held humankind in their dominion.. Theosis is a "corollary" of the recapitualtion. Objective paradigm: Satisfaction theory of atonement, developed by Anselm of Canterbury, which teaches that Jesus Christ suffered crucifixion as a substitute for human sin, satisfying God's just wrath against humankind's transgression due to Christ's infinite merit.
Penal substitution called "forensic theory" and "vicarious punishment,", a development by the Reformers of Anselm's satisfaction theory. Instead of considering sin as an affront to God's honour, it sees sin as the breaking of God's moral law. Penal substitution sees sinful man as being subject to God's wrath, with the essence of Jesus' saving work being his substitution in the sinner's place, bearing the curse in the place of man. Moral government theory, "which views God as both the loving creator and moral Governor of the universe." Subjective paradigm: Moral influence theory of atonement, developed, or most notably propagated, by Abelard, who argued that "Jesus died as the demonstration of God's love," a demonstration which can change the hearts and minds of the sinners, turning back to God. Moral example theory, developed by Faustus Socinus in his work De Jesu Christo servatore, who rejected the idea of "vicarious satisfaction." According to