Ceremonial counties of England

The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England and informally known as ceremonial counties, are areas of England to which lord-lieutenants are appointed. The areas in England, as well as in Wales and Scotland, are defined by the Lieutenancies Act 1997 as "counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies in Great Britain", in contrast to the areas used for local government, they are informally known as "geographic counties", to distinguish them from other types of counties of England. The distinction between a county for purposes of the lieutenancy and a county for administrative purposes is not a new one; the Local Government Act 1888 established county councils to assume the administrative functions of Quarter Sessions in the counties. It created new entities called "administrative counties". An administrative county comprised all of the county apart from the county boroughs; the act further stipulated that areas that were part of an administrative county would be part of the county for all purposes.

The greatest change was the creation of the County of London, made both an administrative county and a "county". Other differences were small and resulted from the constraint that urban sanitary districts were not permitted to straddle county boundaries. Apart from Yorkshire, counties that were subdivided continued to exist as ceremonial counties. For example, the administrative counties of East Suffolk and West Suffolk, along with the county borough of Ipswich, were considered to make up a single ceremonial county of Suffolk, the administrative county of the Isle of Wight was part of the ceremonial county of Hampshire; the term "ceremonial county" is an anachronism. Apart from minor boundary revisions, these areas changed little until the 1965 creation of Greater London and of Huntingdon and Peterborough, which resulted in the abolition of the offices of Lord Lieutenant of Middlesex, Lord Lieutenant of the County of London, Lord Lieutenant of Huntingdonshire and the creation of the Lord Lieutenant of Greater London and of the Lord Lieutenant of Huntingdon and Peterborough.

In 1974, administrative counties and county boroughs were abolished, a major reform was instituted. At this time, lieutenancy was redefined to use the new metropolitan and nonmetropolitan counties directly. Following a further rearrangement in 1996, Cleveland and Worcester, Humberside were abolished; this led to a resurrection of a distinction between the local government counties and the ceremonial or geographical counties used for lieutenancy, to the adoption of the term "ceremonial counties", which although not used in statute, was used in the House of Commons before the arrangements coming into effect. The County of Avon, formed in 1974 was split between Gloucestershire and Somerset, but its city of Bristol regained the status of a county in itself, which it had lost upon the formation of Avon. Cleveland was partitioned between North Durham. Hereford and Worcester was divided into the restored counties of Worcestershire. Humberside was split between a new ceremonial county of East Riding of Yorkshire.

Rutland was restored as a ceremonial county. Many county boroughs were re-established as "unitary authorities". Most ceremonial counties are, entities comprising local authority areas, as they were from 1889 to 1974; the Association of British Counties, a traditional counties lobbying organisation, has suggested that ceremonial counties be restored to their ancient boundaries. In present-day England, the ceremonial counties correspond to the shrieval counties, each with a high sheriff appointed; the Lieutenancies Act 1997 defines counties for the purposes of lieutenancies in terms of metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties as well as Greater London and the Isles of Scilly. Although the term is not used in the act, these counties are sometimes known as "ceremonial counties"; the counties are defined in Schedule 1, paragraphs 2–5 as amended — these amendments have not altered the actual areas covered by the counties as set out in 1997, only their composition in terms of local government areas, as a result of structural changes in local government.

These are the 48 counties for the purposes of the lieutenancies in England, as defined: Bedfordshire Berkshire Buckinghamshire Cambridgeshire, including Isle of Ely Cheshire held jointly with Chester Cornwall Cumberland Derbyshire Devon held jointly with Exeter Dorset held jointly with Poole Durham Essex Gloucestershire held jointly with Gloucester

Grand Narrows Bridge

The Grand Narrows Bridge is a Canadian railway bridge crossing between Victoria County, Nova Scotia, Cape Breton County. At 516.33 m, it is the longest railroad bridge in the province. The bridge incorporates a swing span at its eastern end to permit the continued passage of marine traffic through the strait, it is an arch truss design, consisting of seven riveted steel trusses, each 73.76 metres long, set on cut stone piers. The Grand Narrows Bridge crosses the Barra Strait of Bras d'Or Lake, carrying the Sydney Subdivision of the Cape Breton and Central Nova Scotia Railway between Iona, Victoria County, on the West side, Grand Narrows, Cape Breton County on the east side. In 1887 the firm of Isbester and Reid contracted to build the foundations of a bridge at Grand Narrows, Cape Breton, a 46-mile stretch of the Intercolonial Railway between the narrows and Point Tupper, near Port Hawksbury. Work was under way by 1889 when one of the principals of the firm, Robert Gillespie Reid, arrived on site and spent some three weeks testing sea bed sediments and measuring the currents running through the Barra Strait.

This was necessary as the strait is deep, over 50 metres deep at its southern end and still over 28 metres deep at the site chosen for the new bridge at the northern limit of the strait between Uniacke Point to the west and Kelly Point to the east. Other complicating factors in the construction of the bridge were the strong, erratic tidal currents in the strait, overburden on the bedrock, the presence of ice during the winter and spring breakup. While the actual length of this structure was not extraordinary, at around seventeen hundred feet, the actual process of laying the masonry foundation was. Cofferdams, made of timber, were built on shore and floated out into the channel; these were sunk in the locations where the bridge piers were to be built and sections were added to the tops until the dams reached from the surface to the bottom of the channel, resting on the floor of the strait. The dams were ballasted around their outer walls pumped dry so excavation of the overburden could begin.

Once bedrock was reached a flat area was quarried out and long anchor bolts were sunk into the rock below. The seven cut stone bridge piers were constructed inside the cofferdams, starting from bedrock, building up to a level about 4 or 5 feet above the surface of the water in the strait; the bridge trusses had been prefabricated in Montreal by the Dominion Bridge Company, were shipped to Grand Narrows. An iron forge was set up on the site for the express purpose of producing rivets, assembly of the trusses was started, first onshore, completed on scows floating in the water; these completed trusses were floated out into the strait, jacked up and lowered into their positions on the bridge piers. R. G. Reid built the Grand Narrows Bridge for the Intercolonial Railway for $530,000. At midnight on October 18, 1890, the five-car special train of Governor General Lord Stanley left Halifax, arrived at Mulgrave in the early morning; the five cars were ferried across the Strait of Canso, reassembled into a train at Point Tupper, with the Intercolonial Railway Company's locomotive #166 in front.

At Iona, Lord Stanley formally declared the railway to Sydney open for traffic, himself drove the train across the Grand Narrows bridge. The official train reached Sydney at 7:10 pm, touching off celebrations that lasted well into the night. By the time of the first World War, as rolling stock on the Sydney Subdivision had continually been getting heavier, it was determined the bridge needed to be upgraded to handle the loads. In 1915 A contract was issued and the spans were replaced, again by Isbester and Reid, with heavier, stronger ones using a method similar to the original placements. Rail traffic was not interrupted for more that 8 hours at a time during the changeover. NotesNautical chart #4278 GREAT BRAS D'OR AND / ET ST PATRICKS CHANNEL, published by Canadian Hydrographic Service, 26 August 2016 Canadian Rail No.499 - 2004. Pp. 43 to 47

Lodi railway station (Lombardy)

Lodi railway station serves the city and comune of Lodi, in the region of Lombardy, northern Italy. Launched 1861, it lies along the Milan–Bologna railway; the station is managed by Rete Ferroviaria Italiana. However, the commercial area of the passenger building is managed by Centostazioni. Train services are operated by Trenitalia; each of these companies is a subsidiary of Italy's state-owned rail company. Lodi railway station is located at the southern edge of the town centre; the station was opened November 14, 1861, right after the Milan–Piacenza section of the Milan–Bologna railway was launched. It has undergone many changes after that. In the stations heyday, its goods yard was connected with a silk spinning mill a short distance away; this piece of rail connection was closed. When further tracks were added, those destined to commuter traffic were increased to four. Around 2004, a fifth track was converted to passenger use, it was used for overtaking goods trains on tracks 2 and 3. In the same period, the goods yard section facing Piazzale della Stazione was converted into a parking lot and into the terminal of coach lines run by LINE.

The warehouse adjacent to Platform 1 suffered a similar fate. It was closed, the area is now used as the LINE ticket office; the passenger building is connected with all tracks by a pedestrian underpass. The platforms are equipped with shelters; the underpass was necessary because the Milan–Bologna railway is one of the busiest in Italy, was busy before the opening of the Milan–Bologna high-speed railway. The station yard has five tracks for passenger service, a number of other tracks for the overtaking of goods trains waiting in the goods yard at the Bologna end of the station. Tracks 1 and 4 are used for the overtaking of goods trains. Near the side street Via Spelta is an operating goods yard, where loads of milk are marshalled before leaving the station by rail. Lodi railway station has about four million passenger movements each year. Most of these movements are commuter trips to and from Milan. Lodi is a stop for most regional trains on the long distance Milan–Bologna and the Milan–Cremona–Mantua railways heading directly to Bologna Centrale, Mantua, Cremona.

Shorter distance regional trains operate to and from Piacenza. Other regional services heading towards Milan stop at Milano Rogoredo, Milano Porta Garibaldi, Milano Lambrate, Milano Centrale, Milano Greco Pirelli, Milano Certosa and Sesto San Giovanni. Calling at Lodi are EuroStar City, InterCity, InterCityNight and express trains, on direct services to and from Napoli Centrale, Reggio Calabria Centrale, Salerno, Bari Centrale, Rimini and Milano Centrale. In addition to these connections, Lodi is now a terminus of line S1 of the Milan suburban railway service, which connects Lodi with Saronno via the loop through Milan; the station provides interchange with urban and suburban buses, taxis. History of rail transport in Italy List of railway stations in Lombardy Rail transport in Italy Railway stations in Italy Media related to Lodi railway station at Wikimedia Commons