Honduras the Republic of Honduras, is a country in Central America. In the past, it was sometimes referred to as "Spanish Honduras" to differentiate it from British Honduras, which became modern-day Belize; the republic of Honduras is bordered to the west by Guatemala, to the southwest by El Salvador, to the southeast by Nicaragua, to the south by the Pacific Ocean at the Gulf of Fonseca, to the north by the Gulf of Honduras, a large inlet of the Caribbean Sea. Honduras was home to several important Mesoamerican cultures, most notably the Maya, before the Spanish invaded in the sixteenth century; the Spanish introduced Roman Catholicism and the now predominant Spanish language, along with numerous customs that have blended with the indigenous culture. Honduras became independent in 1821 and has since been a republic, although it has endured much social strife and political instability, remains one of the poorest countries in the Western Hemisphere. In 1960, the northern part of what was the Mosquito Coast was transferred from Nicaragua to Honduras by the International Court of Justice.
The nation's economy is agricultural, making it vulnerable to natural disasters such as Hurricane Mitch in 1998. The lower class is agriculturally based while wealth is concentrated in the country's urban centers. Honduras has a Human Development Index of 0.625, classifying it as a nation with medium development. When the Index is adjusted for income inequality, its Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index is 0.443. Honduran society is predominantly Mestizo; the nation had a high political stability until its 2009 coup and again with the 2017 presidential election. Honduras has high levels of sexual violence. Honduras has a population exceeding 9 million, its northern portions are part of the Western Caribbean Zone, as reflected in the area's demographics and culture. Honduras is known for its rich natural resources, including minerals, tropical fruit, sugar cane, as well as for its growing textiles industry, which serves the international market; the literal meaning of the term "Honduras" is "depths" in Spanish.
The name could either refer to the bay of Trujillo as an anchorage, fondura in the Leonese dialect of Spanish, or to Columbus's alleged quote that "Gracias a Dios que hemos salido de esas Honduras". It was not until the end of the 16th century. Prior to 1580, Honduras referred to only the eastern part of the province, Higueras referred to the western part. Another early name is Guaymuras, revived as the name for the political dialogue in 2009 that took place in Honduras as opposed to Costa Rica. Hondurans are referred to as Catracho or Catracha in Spanish; the word was coined by Nicaraguans and derives from the last name of the Spanish Honduran General Florencio Xatruch, who in 1857 led Honduran armed forces against an attempted invasion by North American adventurer William Walker. The nickname is considered not derogatory. In pre-Columbian times, modern Honduras was part of the Mesoamerican cultural area. In the west, Mayan civilization flourished for hundreds of years; the dominant state within Honduras' borders was in Copán.
Copán fell with the other Lowland centres during the conflagrations of the Terminal Classic in the 9th century. The Maya of this civilization survive in western Honduras as the Ch'orti', isolated from their Choltian linguistic peers to the west. Remnants of other Pre-Columbian cultures are found throughout the country. Archaeologists have studied sites such as Naco and La Sierra in the Naco Valley, Los Naranjos on Lake Yojoa, Yarumela in the Comayagua Valley, La Ceiba and Salitron Viejo, Selin Farm and Cuyamel in the Aguan valley, Cerro Palenque, Curruste, Despoloncal in the lower Ulua river valley, many others. On his fourth and the final voyage to the New World in 1502, Christopher Columbus landed near the modern town of Trujillo, near Guaimoreto Lagoon, becoming the first European to visit the Bay Islands on the coast of Honduras. On 30 July 1502, Columbus sent his brother Bartholomew to explore the islands and Bartholomew encountered a Mayan trading vessel from Yucatán, carrying well-dressed Maya and a rich cargo.
Bartholomew's men stole the cargo they wanted and kidnapped the ship's elderly captain to serve as an interpreter in the first recorded encounter between the Spanish and the Maya. In March 1524, Gil González Dávila became the first Spaniard to enter Honduras as a conquistador. Followed by Hernán Cortés, who had brought forces down from Mexico. Much of the conquest took place in the following two decades, first by groups loyal to Cristóbal de Olid, by those loyal to Francisco de Montejo but most by those following Alvarado. In addition to Spanish resources, the conquerors relied on armed forces from Mexico—Tlaxcalans and Mexica armies of thousands who remained garrisoned in the region. Resistance to conquest was led in particular by Lempira. Many regions in the north of Honduras never fell to the Spanish, notably the Miskito Kingdom. After the Spanish conquest, Honduras became part of Spain's vast empire in the New World within the Kingdom of Guatemala. Trujillo and Gracias were the first city-capitals.
The Spanish ruled the region for three centuries. Honduras was organized as a province of the Kingdom of Guatemala and the capital was fixed, first at Trujillo on the Atlantic coast, at Comayagua, final
Cerro de las Minas
Cerro de la Minas is an archaeological site located in the modern state of Oaxaca, just to the north of the city of Huajuapan de León. The site belongs to what is called lowland/hot lands Mixtec cultural area; the site is located on a hill that dominates the Valley of Huajuapan, in what are now the neighborhoods of Chapultepec, Santa Rosa, Alta Vista and Del Maestro of the city. This large hill is in a strategic position over the farmlands of the valley, which provided it with its food, as well as the trade routes that cross this valley, which made it regionally important; the site contains a number of settlements and was reserved for the elite of that area during that time. Cerro de las Minas is the only lowland Mixtec archeological site open to the public; this site was systematically explored by Dr. John Paddock in the 1960s, he defined the Ñuiñe culture. 2500 Years ago, there were many Mixtec communities inhabited by mixtec peoples called Ñuu Yata Yata. These groups lived in Cerro de las Diquiyú and Tequixtepec.
The culture developed for 600 years, up to 250-350 CE due to Teotihuacan influence would transform into the Ñuiñe culture. Was an important Ñuiñe culture center, founded in the late Preclassic period, its apogee occurred during the early classic period, between 400 and 800 CE, during this period flourished other major cities such as Monte Alban and Teotihuacan, the latter in the Highland Valley Mexico; the area fell on the trade routes between the Valley of Mexico and the central valleys of Oaxaca, the Valley of Tehuacán and other areas of the Sierra Madre del Sur. Commerce through here dealt in obsidian, textiles, salt, charcoal, plants and copal; the development of this site from a village to a city is divided into two phases: The first is called Ñudee and covers the period from 400 BCE to 250 CE. The site was founded in the late Preclassic period by people who originated from the Santa Teresa site, two km to the south; the second phase is called Ñuiñe and covers the site as a city-state from between 250 CE to about 800 CE.
In both these phases, cultural influences from other Mixtec and Mesoamerican areas can be seen. It was the economic and cultural center of an area with a radius of about 10 to 15 km. Population peak of the site itself was between 2,000 people, its apogee was reached in the Classic period with the development of the Ñuiñe culture among the lowland Mixtec in general, which had its own architecture, ceramics and urns. Starting from 800 CE, the city went into decline due to being subjugated from a neighboring dominion; the area would not grow again until after the Spanish Conquest, with the founding of the Spanish city of Huajuapan in the valley area below, next to the river. This settlement was established in 1525. Cerro de las Minas has characteristics similar to cities in the Mixteca Alta. Characterized by a construction of buildings around several squares, the rest of the population distributed around these plazas.. The construction areas were modified with terraces, called coo yuu, it can be translated as “clay Dyke”, for this reason it was necessary to build stairs around the town.
Cerro de las Minas was decorated with reliefs of inscriptions, using writing system, called ñuiñe. The writing system is similar to Monte Alban inscriptions, which suggests a strong relationship between the valleys and the Mixteca Baja during the classical period. Most of the site covers about fifty hectares on the top and down the sides of the large hill although in 2007, INAH found a pre-Hispanic tomb at the foot of the Cerro de la Minas; the hill was chosen. The center of the site is dominated by three mounds that measure about eight meters high and forty meters in diameters; these form a line through the center of the sites and have large platforms built among them, extending for a total of about 180 meters. In addition, there is a Mesoamerican ball court that measures sixty meters long and fifteen meters wide; the sides of the hill have been terraced to create more flat spaces for a market, the palace and some residential areas. The residential areas contain foundations of stone, with walls of stone or adobe.
Homes built here have thinner walls made with flagstone filling in the gaps from the larger stones. Residential buildings situated in dominant positions have gravesites; this seems to be related to more modern Mixtec burial traditions for those in high or preferred positions in society. The palace is divided into rooms, a central patio and a large tomb, Number 5; this tomb contains three major burials related to the ruling family. A total of nine tombs were discovered, some had been robbed but in other were found human remains and gravestones with the names of the deceased. In addition to these, more than 100 ordinary graves were found. Major investigation and excavation of the site was carried out in the late 1980s and early 1990s by a team of 200 people headed by Marcus Winter. Much of what little is known of this Mixtec region comes from finds at this site finds related to the Mixtec glyph writing system. Most of the finds were contained in Tomb 5, located south of the main plaza in the palace complex.
This tomb contained a large quantity of Mixtec ceramics as well as a multicolored urn with a representation of the god of wind or fire
Celaque National Park
Celaque National Park is a national park in Lempira Ocotepeque and Copán, western Honduras. It covers an area of 266.31 square kilometres. It includes Honduras’ tallest peak, called Cerro Las Minas or Pico Celaque, which reaches 2,870 metres above mean sea level, it has an elevation ranging from 975 to 2,870 metres. Celaque’s terrain is rugged, two-thirds of the area has a slope greater than 60 degrees; the park is classified as a cloud forest with a mean precipitation of 1,600 mm at lower altitudes and a mean of 2,400 mm at higher altitudes. The word celaque is reputed to mean caja de aguas in the local, but now extinct, indigenous Lenca language. Celaque’s nine rivers supplies water to 120 villages nearby including the district capital of Gracias. Celaque is high in biodiversity and is home to pumas and Bolitoglossa celaque, an endangered plethodontid salamander found only in the mountains of Celaque. Between 1970-1980 The Honduran Forestry Development Corporation lead intense logging throughout Celaque’s peaks.
The result was a loss in vital resources to the communities. However, logging was not the only cause of loss of forests; the communities inside the park’s perimeters have created open forest patches due to small-scale farming. The people of La Campa, a town close by, grew nervous and formed a grassroots organization to try to stop the logging, their goal was met in 1987. By forming the park, some 266 square kilometres were nationally protected from logging, outside incursion and market-related forestry exploitation; the success of the park was unknown until recent studies. Between the years 1987-1998 it was found that the area of open forested land decreased while mature forests became the largest forest class in the park. Forest fragmentation increased in inhabited areas. However, with further examination, these results are less impressive. In the 11-year period the environment of the park had changed dramatically; these results were found in high elevations and uninhabited areas of the park and in areas where the environment under examination was established.
Meaning that the increase in mature forests was found in areas that had mature trees but not in areas where open forest or agriculture land had been previously. Though the results of the park’s conservation efforts were positive they aren’t enough to save Celaque’s biodiversity. More recent studies on Celaque’s Conservation efforts have shown less positive results; the change in the park’s environment had slowed down after 1995. Though the park prohibits outside logging and agriculture, it does not restrict the communities that live inside the boundaries; the patchwork on the edges of the park had grown due to increase in community agriculture. Deeper inside the park more agriculture land is being used and much of that land is using unsustainable fertilizers. Inhabitants have grown intensely. 8 communities in Celaque’s upper third create a patchwork of villages. However, only 6% of the land is dedicated to small-scale farming and most of the damage is still being done through illegal logging and commercial agriculture.
Due to the recent high demand of coffee beans, the slopes contain more coffee plantations than ever. Though the transformation of the land into a national park produced positive results, it wasn’t enough to stop the unsustainable practices in the park. There are many NGOs in Honduras. One of, The Federacion de Desarrollo Comunitario de Honduras; the FEDECOH is dedicated to teaching communities sustainable farming practices. They use a 60-acre farm called El Molino at the base of Celaque to teach soil conservation, crop rotation and other sustainable practices. Over ten years they have taught thousands of farmers in 120 rural communities, their new project is ecotourism for Celaque National Park. Friends of Celaque is another organization, founded by a few concerned individuals, their goals are to create awareness through periodical reports, create alliances with other ecological organizations, attract ecologists and other scientists interested in park conservation and to prove that the citizens of the area will benefit from the conservation of the park’s resources.
Though these organizations and many others are doing a lot to protect Celaque National Park, more awareness needs to occur in order to preserve this isolated yet special place
Shuttle Radar Topography Mission
The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission is an international research effort that obtained digital elevation models on a near-global scale from 56°S to 60°N, to generate the most complete high-resolution digital topographic database of Earth prior to the release of the ASTER GDEM in 2009. SRTM consisted of a specially modified radar system that flew on board the Space Shuttle Endeavour during the 11-day STS-99 mission in February 2000, based on the older Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar used on the Shuttle in 1994. To acquire topographic data, the SRTM payload was outfitted with two radar antennas. One antenna was located in the Shuttle's payload bay, the other – a critical change from the SIR-C/X-SAR, allowing single-pass interferometry – on the end of a 60-meter mast that extended from the payload bay once the Shuttle was in space; the technique employed is known as interferometric synthetic aperture radar. Intermap Technologies was the prime contractor for processing the interferometric synthetic aperture radar data.
The elevation models are arranged into tiles, each covering one degree of latitude and one degree of longitude, named according to their south western corners. For example, "n45e006" stretches from 45°N 6°E to 46°N 7°E and "s45w006" from 45°S 6°W to 44°S 5°W; the resolution of the raw data is one arcsecond and coverage includes Africa, North America, South America and Australia. A derived one arcsecond dataset with trees and other non-terrain features removed covering Australia was made available in November 2011. For the rest of the world, only three arcsecond data are available; each one arcsecond tile has each consisting of 3,601 16 bit bigendian cells. The dimensions of the three arcsecond tiles are 1201 x 1201; the original SRTM elevations were calculated relative to the WGS84 ellipsoid and the EGM96 geoid separation values were added to convert to heights relative to the geoid for all the released products. The elevation models derived from the SRTM data are used in geographic information systems.
They can be downloaded over the Internet, their file format is supported. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission is an international project spearheaded by the U. S. National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency and the U. S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. NASA transferred the SRTM payload to the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum in 2003; the elevation datasets are affected by desert no-data areas. These amount to no more than 0.2% of the total area surveyed, but can be a problem in areas of high relief. They affect all summits over 8,000 meters, most summits over 7,000 meters, many Alpine and similar summits and ridges, many gorges and canyons. There are some SRTM data sources which have filled these data voids, but some of these have used only interpolation from surrounding data, may therefore be inaccurate. If the voids are large, or cover summit or ridge areas, no interpolation algorithms will give satisfactory results. Other developers, including NASA World Wind and Google Earth, have improved their results by using 1-arc-second for the United States and 3-arc-second for the rest of the world, data in the interpolation process, due to the poor resolution of these data, poor quality of some of them, they have further improved their earth viewing services by adding data from other sources.
Groups of scientists have worked on algorithms to fill the voids of the original SRTM data. Two datasets offer global coverage void-filled SRTM data at full resolution: the CGIAR-CSI versions and the USGS HydroSHEDS dataset; the CGIAR-CSI version 4 provides the best global coverage full resolution SRTM dataset. The HydroSHEDS dataset was generated for hydrological applications and is suitable for consistent drainage and water flow information. References are provided on the algorithms used and quality assessment; the void-filled SRTM data from Viewfinder Panoramas are high quality at full SRTM resolution. Since November 2012 there is free and global coverage at 3 arc seconds available. In November 2013, LP DAAC released the NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission Version 3.0 Product collection with all voids eliminated. Voids were filled from ASTER GDEM2, secondarily from USGS GMTED2010 – or USGS National Elevation Dataset for the United States and northernmost Mexico according to the announcement.
1-arc second global digital elevation model is available from the United States Geological Survey web site. The United States Government announced on September 23, 2014 over a United Nations Climate Summit that the highest possible resolution of global topographic data derived from the SRTM mission will be released to public. Before the end of the same year, a 1-arc second global digital elevation model was released. Most parts of the world have been covered by this dataset ranging from 54°S to 60°N latitude except for the Middle East and North Africa area. Missing coverage of the Middle East was completed in August 2015. In early June 2011, there were 750,000 confirmed users of SRTM topography dataset. Users in 221 countries have accessed the site. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar Digital elevation model National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer SRTM Water Body Data WorldDEM private data with higher resolution, from newer satellite TerraSAR-X-TanDEM-X Nikolakopoulos, K. G..
"SRTM vs A
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
Presentations – Presentations from both guest speakers and OCLC research from conferences and other events. The presentations are organized into five categories: Conference presentations, Dewey presentations, Distinguished Seminar Series, Guest presentations, Research staff
United Nations University
The United Nations University, established in 1973, is the academic and research arm of the United Nations. It is headquartered in Shibuya, Japan, with diplomatic status as a UN institution. Since 2010, UNU has been authorized by the United Nations General Assembly to grant degrees, it provides a bridge between the UN and the international academic, policy-making and private sector communities. The university is headed by a rector, who holds the rank of Under-Secretary-General of the United Nations. To date, there have been six Rectors at UNU; the current Rector, since March 2013, is Dr. David M. Malone of Canada. List of Rectors of United Nations University: The Council of UNU is the governing board of the University and is composed of 24 members who are appointed by the Secretary-General of the United Nations with the concurrence of the Director-General of UNESCO; the University was established in 1973 and formally began its activities in 1976 following the signature of the permanent headquarters agreement between the United Nations and Japan.
The creation of the United Nations University was set in motion by Secretary-General U Thant in 1969. Over the years, several Institutes of UNU were created to help with the research initiatives of the United Nations. Most notably, in 2007, a vice-rectorate was established in Bonn, Germany, as a way of strengthening UNU's presence in Europe. UNU-ViE is dedicated to developing knowledge-based sustainable solutions for global problems and is, therefore, an active organizer of international science policy dialogues for sustainability. In December 2009, the UN General Assembly amended the UNU Charter to make it possible for UNU to "grant and confer master's degrees and doctorates, diplomas and other academic distinctions under conditions laid down for that purpose in the statutes by the Council."In 2013, UNU-ISP announced its intention to seek accreditation from the National Institution for Academic Degrees and University Evaluation, the Japanese accreditation agency for higher education institutions.
UNU-IAS was formally accredited in April 2015, making it the first international organization to be recognized by the NIAD-UE. The university has several campuses spread over five continents, its headquarters are located at the UNU Centre in Japan. The role of the UN University is to generate new knowledge, enhance individual and institutional capacities, disseminate its useful information to relevant audiences. Within the scope of these five thematic clusters, the UN University undertakes: Cross-cultural, interdisciplinary research and targeted foresight and policy studies; as prescribed in the United Nations University Strategic Plan 2011–2014, the 26 major topics of focus of the UN University's academic work fall within five interdependent thematic clusters: Peace and Human Rights. Global Health and Sustainable Livelihoods. Global Change and Sustainable Development. Science, Technology and Society. Collectively, these thematic clusters define the programme space within which the UN University undertakes its academic activities.
Some key perspectives pervade all aspects of the UN University's work. The academic work of the United Nations University is carried out by a global system of Institutes, Operating Units, Programmes located in more than 12 countries around the world. Institute on Comparative Regional Integration Studies in Bruges, Belgium Institute for Environment and Human Security in Bonn, Germany Institute for Integrated Management of Material Fluxes and of Resources in Dresden, Germany Institute of Advanced Studies in Yokohama, Japan International Institute for Global Health in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Institute on Computing and Society in Macau, China Institute for Natural Resources in Africa in Accra, Ghana Institute for Sustainability and Peace in Tokyo, Japan Maastricht Economic
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the