Purmamarca is a town in the Tumbaya Department of the Jujuy Province in Argentina. The name of the town can be interpreted as the combination of Aymara language words purma and marca, though desert in that language can refer to uncivilised or not touched by human hand, thus the name is interpreted as Town of the virgin land; the locality lies on Provincial Route 16, 4km West of National Route 9, 65 km from Provincial capital San Salvador de Jujuy and 22 km from Tilcara. It is located at the Quebrada de Purmamarca, sometimes considered part of the Quebrada de Humahuaca; the Cerro de los Siete Colores shows its colourful face to the nearby town. Relegated from the commercial axis of the province, the area gained some economic thrust due to two different yet related events: On the one hand, the town's road connection has been improved by the so-called Capricorn Axis asphalted commercial route via Cuesta del Lipán to Paso de Jama towards Atacama, the Pacific Ocean. Though this brought little direct benefit for the local industry, it did improve the influx of tourism.
On the other hand, the Quebrada de Humahuaca was declared World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 2003, increasing the interest of both national and international tourism to the area. The colonial style and the Cerro de Siete Colores, as well as limited yet growing lodging options, make the town an interesting destination for tourists visiting the Argentine North. Most other economic activities are linked to the tourism, including the manufacturing of handicrafts that are sold at the local market in the main plaza, to lodging and tours; the city's attraction include the aforementioned Cerro de los Siete Colores and the town handicraft market. It serves as a starting point for treks such as the Paseo de los Colorados and Purmamarca River, tours to Salinas Grandes, the Huachichocana archaeological site and the Laguna de Guayatayoc with its pink flamencos and wild geese. Cerro de los Siete Colores Iruya Second Malón de la Paz Army of the North Purmamarca media at Commons
Quebrada de Humahuaca
The Quebrada de Humahuaca is a narrow mountain valley located in the province of Jujuy in northwest Argentina, 1,649 km north of Buenos Aires. It is about 155 km long, oriented north-south, bordered by the Altiplano in the west and north, by the Sub-Andean hills in the east, by the warm valleys in the south; the name quebrada translates as ravine. It receives its name from a small city of 11,000 inhabitants; the Grande River, dry in winter, flows copiously through the Quebrada in the summer. The region has always been a crossroads for economic and cultural communication, it has been populated for at least 10,000 years, since the settlement of the first hunter-gatherers, evidenced by substantial prehistoric remains. It was a caravan road for the Inca Empire in the 15th century an important link between the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata and the Viceroyalty of Peru, as well as a stage for many battles of the Spanish War of Independence; the Quebrada de Humahuaca was made a UNESCO World Heritage Site on 2 July 2003.
Iruya Abra Pampa Hornillos de Eresma Huacalera Humahuaca La Quiaca Maimará Purmamarca Cerro de los Siete Colores Pucará de Tilcara Tilcara Volcán Serranía de Hornocal UNESCO World Heritage Centre - Description of the site. Jujuy Province - Official website. Municipal information: Municipal Affairs Federal Institute, Municipal Affairs Secretariat, Ministry of Interior, Argentina. Pictures from Humahuaca
Argentina the Argentine Republic, is a country located in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, the largest Spanish-speaking nation; the sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; the earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The Inca Empire expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times; the country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century.
Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city; the country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook. The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century. Following the Great Depression in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment, though it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades. Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his widow, Isabel Martínez de Perón, ascended to the presidency, she was overthrown in 1976 by a U.
S.-backed coup which installed a right-wing military dictatorship. The military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism that lasted until the election of Raúl Alfonsín as President in 1983. Several of the junta's leaders were convicted of their crimes and sentenced to imprisonment. Argentina is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America, retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America, membership in the G-15 and G-20 major economies, it is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Union of South American Nations, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Organization of Ibero-American States. Despite its history of economic instability, it ranks second highest in the Human Development Index in Latin America; the description of the country by the word Argentina has been found on a Venetian map in 1536.
In English the name "Argentina" comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian. Argentina means in Italian " of silver, silver coloured" borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine " of silver" > "silver coloured" mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in; the Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Terra Argentina "land of silver" or Costa Argentina "coast of silver". In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina; the name Argentina was first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are plata and prata and " of silver" is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.
The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region. Although "Argentina" was in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" after independence; the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents. The name "Argentine Confederation" was commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic", that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as valid. In the English language the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina and resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name'Argentine Republic'.'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, now the country is referred to as "Argentina".
In the Spanish language "Argentina" is feminine, taking the feminine article "La" as the i
Jujuy is a province of Argentina, located in the extreme northwest of the country, at the borders with Chile and Bolivia. The only neighboring Argentine province is Salta to the south. Pre-Columbian inhabitants known as the Omaguacas and Ocloyas, who were conquered by the Incas during their expansion period, practiced agriculture and domesticated the guanaco, they had huts made of mud, erected stone fortresses to protect their villages. An example of such fortresses is Pucará de Tilcara, Pucará meaning "fortress". In 1593, a small settlement was erected in the Jujuy valley by the effort of Francisco de Argañaraz y Murguía. In spite of the attacks of the Calchaquíes and Omaguacas aborigines, the population and activity of the village consolidated and grew. At the end of the 17th century, the customs to the Viceroyalty of Peru was transferred from Córdoba to Jujuy. With the separation from Peru and the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, Jujuy lost its importance and its population started to diminish.
During the May Revolution and the battles for the independence of the United provinces of the South, many confrontations took place in Jujuy because the Spanish concentrated their forces in Peru. The people of Jujuy had to endure the Jujuy Exodus, a massive evacuation with a scorched earth policy, led by General Manuel Belgrano; the Spanish surrendered, but the war affected the economy of the area. After a series of internal conflicts, the province declared its autonomy from Tucumán and Salta Provinces on November 18, 1834. Jujuy started a gradual process of economic and social improvement, at the end of the 19th century, the sugarcane industry arose. At the beginning of the following century, the railway connected the province with Buenos Aires, La Paz, Bolivia. Heavy industry first arrived in Jujuy at the hand of General Manuel Savio, a presidential economic advisor who, in 1945, had Argentina's first modern steel mill installed in Jujuy. In 1969, Jujuy joined oil-rich neighboring Salta Province with the discovery of petroleum by the state-owned YPF.
There are three main areas in Jujuy. The Río Grande of Jujuy cuts through the Quebrada de Humahuaca canyon, of heights between 1,000 and 3,500 meters. To the Southeast, the sierras descends to the Gran Chaco region; the vast difference in height and climate produces desert areas such as the Salinas Grandes salt mines, subtropical Yungas jungle. In spite of the different areas, the terrain of the province is arid and semi-desertic, except for the El Ramal valley of the San Francisco River. Temperature difference between day and night is wider in higher lands, precipitations are scarce outside the temperate area of the San Francisco River; the Grande River and the San Francisco River flow to the Bermejo River. The San Juan, La Quiaca and Sansana flow to the Pilcomayo River. Jujuy's economy is moderately underdeveloped, yet diversified, its 2006 economy was an estimated US$2.998 billion, or, US$4,899 per capita. Jujuy is, despite its rural profile, not agrarian. Agriculture contributes about 10% to output and the main agricultural activity is sugarcane.
Its processing represents more than half of the province's gross production, 30% of the national sugar production. The second agricultural activity is tobacco, cultivated in the Southeastern valley, as a major national producer. Other crops include beans and tomatoes, other vegetables for local consumption. Cattle and goats are raised on a small scale for local dairies, llamas, vicuñas and guanacos are raised in significant numbers for wool. Manufacturing is more prominent in Jujuy than in some neighboring provinces, adding 15% to its economy. Jujuy is the second largest Argentine producer of iron, used by the Altos Hornos Zapla steel mill. Other industrial activities include mining for construction material, petroleum extraction at Caimancito, salt production from Salinas Grandes salt basin, the paper production fed by the Jujuy's forests with 20% of the industrial product of the province; the province has been served since 1967 by the Gobernador Horacio Guzmán International Airport. An important and still growing activity, tourism in the area brings a number of Argentine tourists, tourists from other South American countries and Europeans.
Most tourists head for San Salvador de Jujuy to start their exploration of the province. The Horacio Guzmán international airport, 34 km from San Salvador, connects the province with Buenos Aires, Córdoba, some destinations in Bolivia. Apart from the fantastic contrast of land colours and formations, tourists are attracted by the strong aboriginal roots in the culture of Jujuy. Aymará and Quechua cultures coexist in the area, ruins of the Incas are well conserved. Tourists who come to Jujuy visit the area of the Quebrada de Humahuaca and its Cerro de los Siete Colores, Pucará de Tilcara, Salinas Grandes and many small towns. Other less frequent destinations include the Calilegua National Park in the Yungas jungle, La Quiaca, Laguna de Pozuelos, Laguna Guayatayoc; the province is divided into 16 departments. Department: Cochinoca El Carmen Doctor Manuel Belgrano Humahuaca Ledesma Palpalá Rinconada San Antonio San Pedro Santa Bárbara Santa Catalina Susques Tilcara Tumbaya Valle Grande Yav
The Andes or Andean Mountains are the longest continental mountain range in the world, forming a continuous highland along the western edge of South America. This range is about 7,000 km long, about 200 to 700 km wide, of an average height of about 4,000 m; the Andes extend from north to south through seven South American countries: Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia and Argentina. Along their length, the Andes are split into several ranges, separated by intermediate depressions; the Andes are the location of several high plateaus – some of which host major cities such as Quito, Bogotá, Medellín, Sucre, Mérida and La Paz. The Altiplano plateau is the world's second-highest after the Tibetan plateau; these ranges are in turn grouped into three major divisions based on climate: the Tropical Andes, the Dry Andes, the Wet Andes. The Andes Mountains are the world's highest mountain range outside Asia; the highest mountain outside Asia, Argentina's Mount Aconcagua, rises to an elevation of about 6,961 m above sea level.
The peak of Chimborazo in the Ecuadorian Andes is farther from the Earth's center than any other location on the Earth's surface, due to the equatorial bulge resulting from the Earth's rotation. The world's highest volcanoes are in the Andes, including Ojos del Salado on the Chile-Argentina border, which rises to 6,893 m; the Andes are part of the American Cordillera, a chain of mountain ranges that consists of an continuous sequence of mountain ranges that form the western "backbone" of North America, Central America, South America and Antarctica. The etymology of the word Andes has been debated; the majority consensus is that it derives from the Quechua word anti, which means "east" as in Antisuyu, one of the four regions of the Inca Empire. The Andes can be divided into three sections: The Southern Andes in Chile. In the northern part of the Andes, the isolated Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta range is considered to be part of the Andes; the term cordillera comes from the Spanish word "cordel", meaning "rope".
The Andes range is about 200 km wide throughout its length, except in the Bolivian flexure where it is about 640 kilometres wide. The Leeward Antilles islands Aruba and Curaçao, which lie in the Caribbean Sea off the coast of Venezuela, were thought to represent the submerged peaks of the extreme northern edge of the Andes range, but ongoing geological studies indicate that such a simplification does not do justice to the complex tectonic boundary between the South American and Caribbean plates; the Andes are a Mesozoic–Tertiary orogenic belt of mountains along the Pacific Ring of Fire, a zone of volcanic activity that encompasses the Pacific rim of the Americas as well as the Asia-Pacific region. The Andes are the result of tectonic plate processes, caused by the subduction of oceanic crust beneath the South American Plate, it is the result of a convergent plate boundary between the Nazca Plate and the South American Plate The main cause of the rise of the Andes is the compression of the western rim of the South American Plate due to the subduction of the Nazca Plate and the Antarctic Plate.
To the east, the Andes range is bounded by several sedimentary basins, such as Orinoco, Amazon Basin, Madre de Dios and Gran Chaco, that separate the Andes from the ancient cratons in eastern South America. In the south, the Andes share a long boundary with the former Patagonia Terrane. To the west, the Andes end at the Pacific Ocean, although the Peru-Chile trench can be considered their ultimate western limit. From a geographical approach, the Andes are considered to have their western boundaries marked by the appearance of coastal lowlands and a less rugged topography; the Andes Mountains contain large quantities of iron ore located in many mountains within the range. The Andean orogen has a series of oroclines; the Bolivian Orocline is a seaward concave bending in the coast of South America and the Andes Mountains at about 18° S. At this point, the orientation of the Andes turns from Northwest in Peru to South in Chile and Argentina; the Andean segment north and south of the orocline have been rotated 15° to 20° counter clockwise and clockwise respectively.
The Bolivian Orocline area overlaps with the area of maximum width of the Altiplano Plateau and according to Isacks the orocline is related to crustal shortening. The specific point at 18° S where the coastline bends is known as the "Arica Elbow". Further south lies the Maipo Orocline or Maipo Transition Zone located between 30° S and 38°S with a break in trend at 33° S. Near the southern tip of the Andes lies the Patagonian orocline; the western rim of the South American Plate has been the place of several pre-Andean orogenies since at least the late Proterozoic and early Paleozoic, when several terranes and microcontinents collided and amalgamated with the ancient cratons of eastern South America, by the South American part of Gondwana. The formation of the modern Andes began with the events of the Triassic when Pangaea began the break up that resulted in developing several rifts; the development continued through the Jurassic Period. It was during the Cretaceous Period that the Andes began to take their present form, by the uplifting and folding of sedimentary and metamorphic rocks of the ancient cratons to the east.
The rise of the Andes has not been constant, as different regions have had different degrees of tectonic stress and erosion. Tectonic forces above the subduction zone al
Pucará de Tilcara
The Pucará de Tilcara is a pre-Inca fortification or pukara located on a hill just outside the small town of Tilcara, in the Argentine province of Jujuy. The location was strategically chosen to be defensible and to provide good views over a long stretch of the Quebrada de Humahuaca; the Pucará de Tilcara was declared a National Monument in 2000. It has been rebuilt, is the only publicly accessible archaeological site in the Quebrada de Humahuaca. Traces of human habitation in the area date back more than 10,000 years; the fortified town was built by the Omaguaca tribe, who settled in the area around the 12th century. Experts in agriculture and pottery, they were renowned warriors. During their time, the pucará served as an important military center. At its peak, the pucará covered up to about 15 acres and housed over 2,000 inhabitants, living in small square stone buildings with low doorways and no windows. Besides living quarters, the pucará contained corrals for animals, sites to perform religious ceremonies and burial sites.
In the late 15th century, the tribes of the Quebrada were conquered by the Incas under Tupac Inca Yupanqui, who used the pucará as a military outpost and to secure the supply of metals such as silver and copper which were mined nearby. The Incan domination of the area only lasted for about half a century, ended with the arrival of the Spanish in 1536, who founded the modern town of Tilcara in 1586. In 1908, the ethnographer Juan Bautista Ambrosetti of the University of Buenos Aires and his student Salvador Debenedetti rediscovered the site and catalogued over 3,000 artifacts during their first three years of digging. Starting in 1911 they began to rebuild some of the structures. In 1948 Eduardo Casanova took over and oversaw the opening of the site as an archaeological museum in 1966. Excavation and rebuilding efforts are still governed by the University of Buenos Aires; the museum contains ten rooms, three of which are for temporary exhibitions, a library and administrative offices. The seven permanent rooms display over 5,000 valuable historical pieces from various Indian cultures.
Among the most valuable is a mummified body discovered clothed in an excellent state of preservation in the Atacama Desert. However, this is no longer being exhibited. Room 1 is for Argentina and the neighbouring countries of Chile and Bolivia, includes inter alia the mummified body from San Pedro de Atacama. Room 2 deals with the Indian culture of Peru and displays ceramics of the Nazca and Chimú Indians. Room 3 displays items from the time of the Spanish Conquest. Rooms 4 and 5 display items from Puna and Jujuy, including an important reconstruction of a burial ground of the Aymara Indians. Room 6 displays pieces from the ancient fortification of Pucará de Tilcara itself. Room 7 displays further pieces from the Quebrada de Humahuaca. A small botanical garden with cactus species native to the area, located next to the pucará, is worth visiting. Jujuy website: Pucará de Tilcara Deia.com: article on Tilcara and the pucará La Nación article 16 August 2002: La Quebrada de Humahuaca se fortalece en el Pucará de Tilcara Belli, E. Zaburlín, M. and Seldes, V. 2004: Museo Arqueológico y Museo del "Pucará de Tilcara", in the section Dossier: Museos de la UBA, in UBA: Encrucijadas, No.
26, June 2004. Universidad de Buenos Aires Casanova, Eduardo, 1978: El Pucará de Tilcara. Universidad de Buenos Aires, Fac. de Filosofía y Letras, Instituto Interdisciplinario Tilcara
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form and alignment that have arisen from the same cause an orogeny. Mountain ranges are formed by a variety of geological processes, but most of the significant ones on Earth are the result of plate tectonics. Mountain ranges are found on many planetary mass objects in the Solar System and are a feature of most terrestrial planets. Mountain ranges are segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys. Individual mountains within the same mountain range do not have the same geologic structure or petrology, they may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes, for example thrust sheets, uplifted blocks, fold mountains, volcanic landforms resulting in a variety of rock types. Most geologically young mountain ranges on the Earth's land surface are associated with either the Pacific Ring of Fire or the Alpide Belt.
The Pacific Ring of Fire includes the Andes of South America, extends through the North American Cordillera along the Pacific Coast, the Aleutian Range, on through Kamchatka, Taiwan, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, to New Zealand. The Andes is 7,000 kilometres long and is considered the world's longest mountain system; the Alpide belt includes Indonesia and Southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, Caucasus Mountains, Balkan Mountains fold mountain range, the Alps, ends in the Spanish mountains and the Atlas Mountains. The belt includes other European and Asian mountain ranges; the Himalayas contain the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, 8,848 metres high and traverses the border between China and Nepal. Mountain ranges outside these two systems include the Arctic Cordillera, the Urals, the Appalachians, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Great Dividing Range, the Altai Mountains and the Hijaz Mountains. If the definition of a mountain range is stretched to include underwater mountains the Ocean Ridges form the longest continuous mountain system on Earth, with a length of 65,000 kilometres.
The mountain systems of the earth are characterized by a tree structure, where mountain ranges can contain sub-ranges. The sub-range relationship is expressed as a parent-child relationship. For example, the White Mountains of New Hampshire and the Blue Ridge Mountains are sub-ranges of the Appalachian Mountains. Equivalently, the Appalachians are the parent of the White Mountains and Blue Ridge Mountains, the White Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains are children of the Appalachians; the parent-child expression extends to the sub-ranges themselves: the Sandwich Range and the Presidential Range are children of the White Mountains, while the Presidential Range is parent to the Northern Presidential Range and Southern Presidential Range. The position of mountains influences climate, such as snow; when air masses move up and over mountains, the air cools producing orographic precipitation. As the air descends on the leeward side, it warms again and is drier, having been stripped of much of its moisture.
A rain shadow will affect the leeward side of a range. Mountain ranges are subjected to erosional forces which work to tear them down; the basins adjacent to an eroding mountain range are filled with sediments which are buried and turned into sedimentary rock. Erosion is at work while the mountains are being uplifted until the mountains are reduced to low hills and plains; the early Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado provides an example. As the uplift was occurring some 10,000 feet of Mesozoic sedimentary strata were removed by erosion over the core of the mountain range and spread as sand and clays across the Great Plains to the east; this mass of rock was removed as the range was undergoing uplift. The removal of such a mass from the core of the range most caused further uplift as the region adjusted isostatically in response to the removed weight. Rivers are traditionally believed to be the principal cause of mountain range erosion, by cutting into bedrock and transporting sediment.
Computer simulation has shown that as mountain belts change from tectonically active to inactive, the rate of erosion drops because there are fewer abrasive particles in the water and fewer landslides. Mountains on other planets and natural satellites of the Solar System are isolated and formed by processes such as impacts, though there are examples of mountain ranges somewhat similar to those on Earth. Saturn's moon Titan and Pluto, in particular exhibit large mountain ranges in chains composed of ices rather than rock. Examples include the Mithrim Montes and Doom Mons on Titan, Tenzing Montes and Hillary Montes on Pluto; some terrestrial planets other than Earth exhibit rocky mountain ranges, such as Maxwell Montes on Venus taller than any on Earth and Tartarus Montes on Mars, Jupiter's moon Io has mountain ranges formed from tectonic processes including Boösaule Montes, Dorian Montes, Hi'iaka Montes and Euboea Montes. Peakbagger Ranges Home Page Bivouac.com