Jakarta the Special Capital Region of Jakarta, is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. Located on the northwest coast of the world's most populous island, Java, it is the centre of economics and politics of Indonesia, with a population of 10,075,310 as of 2014. Jakarta metropolitan area has an area of 6,392 square kilometers, known as Jabodetabek, it is the world's second largest urban agglomeration with a population of 30,214,303 as of 2010. Jakarta is predicted to reach 35.6 million people by 2030 to become the world's biggest megacity. Jakarta's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, attract migrants from across the Indonesian archipelago, combining many communities and cultures. Established in the 4th century as Sunda Kelapa, the city became an important trading port for the Sunda Kingdom, it was the de facto capital of the Dutch East Indies. Jakarta is a province with special capital region status, but is referred to as a city; the Jakarta provincial government consists of five administrative cities and one administrative regency.
Jakarta is nicknamed the Big Durian, the thorny strongly-odored fruit native to the region, as the city is seen as the Indonesian equivalent of New York. Jakarta is an alpha world city and is the seat of the ASEAN secretariat, making it an important city for international diplomacy. Important financial institutions such as Bank of Indonesia, Indonesia Stock Exchange, corporate headquarters of numerous Indonesian companies and multinational corporations are located in the city; as of 2017, the city is home for two Fortune 500 and four Unicorn companies. In 2017, the city's GRP PPP was estimated at US$483.4 billion. Jakarta has grown more than Kuala Lumpur and Beijing. Jakarta's major challenges include rapid urban growth, ecological breakdown, gridlock traffic and congestion and inequality, potential crimes and flooding. Jakarta is sinking up to 17 cm per year, coupled with the rising of sea level, has made the city more prone to flooding. Jakarta has been home to multiple settlements: Sunda Kelapa, Batavia, Jakarta.
Its current name "Jakarta" derives from the word Jayakarta, derived from Sanskrit language. It was named after troops of Fatahillah defeated and drove away Portuguese invaders from the city in 1527. Before it was named "Jayakarta", the city was known as "Sunda Kelapa". In the colonial era, the city was known as Koningin van het Oosten in the 17th century for the urban beauty of downtown Batavia's canals and ordered city layout. After expanding to the south in the 19th century, this nickname came to be more associated with the suburbs, with their wide lanes, green spaces and villas. During Japanese occupation the city was renamed as Jakarta Tokubetsu Shi; the north coast area of western Java including Jakarta, was the location of prehistoric Buni culture that flourished from 400 BC to 100 AD. The area in and around modern Jakarta was part of the 4th century Sundanese kingdom of Tarumanagara, one of the oldest Hindu kingdoms in Indonesia; the area of North Jakarta around Tugu became a populated settlement at least in the early 5th century.
The Tugu inscription discovered in Batutumbuh hamlet, Tugu village, North Jakarta, mentions that King Purnawarman of Tarumanagara undertook hydraulic projects. Following the decline of Tarumanagara, its territories, including the Jakarta area, became part of the Hindu Kingdom of Sunda. From the 7th to the early 13th century, the port of Sunda was under the Srivijaya maritime empire. According to the Chinese source, Chu-fan-chi, written circa 1225, Chou Ju-kua reported in the early 13th century Srivijaya still ruled Sumatra, the Malay peninsula and western Java; the source reports the port of Sunda as strategic and thriving, mentioning pepper from Sunda as among the best in quality. The people worked in agriculture and their houses were built on wooden piles; the harbour area became known as Sunda Kelapa and by the 14th century, it was a major trading port for the Sunda kingdom. The first European fleet, four Portuguese ships from Malacca, arrived in 1513, while looking for a route for spices.
The Sunda Kingdom made an alliance treaty with the Portuguese by allowing them to build a port in 1522 to defend against the rising power of Demak Sultanate from central Java. In 1527, Fatahillah, a Javanese general from Demak attacked and conquered Sunda Kelapa, driving out the Portuguese. Sunda Kelapa was renamed Jayakarta, became a fiefdom of the Banten Sultanate, which became a major Southeast Asia trading centre. Through the relationship with Prince Jayawikarta of Banten Sultanate, Dutch ships arrived in 1596. In 1602, the English East India Company's first voyage, commanded by Sir James Lancaster, arrived in Aceh and sailed on to Banten where they were allowed to build a trading post; this site became the centre of English trade in Indonesia until 1682. Jayawikarta is thought to have made trading connections with
Thomas Pink is a British shirt-maker, founded in London in 1984 by Irish brothers James and John Mullen. The Mullen brothers were no strangers to shirt making. James Mullen had read law at Trinity College Dublin, followed by a business degree at University College Dublin, he went on to set up a launderette business in Dublin, before coming up with the concept of Thomas Pink. The company was named after an 18th-century tailor in Mayfair, London; the shirts were produced using fabric spun and woven in mills in Lancashire, however these closed down shortly after the company was established, with the fabric being sourced from Italian mills. The first Thomas Pink shop was located in Chelsea. Of the location, James Mullen was quoted in 1997 as saying "we can afford to be in secondary positions because the sort of customers who come to us know what they want and as long as we advertise, as long as it's still convenient, it works."At one stage the brothers employed their father's factory to manufacture shirts for the company, but this connection had ceased by the mid-1990s, although the shirts were still produced at that time in Ireland.
During the 1990s customers included Michael Portillo, Viscount Linley, Hugh Grant, John F. Kennedy Jr. and Elle Macpherson. In July 1997 the company opened its first overseas store in Ireland, on Dawson Street in Dublin, with a store in New York City following in September 1997. In 1999 Thomas Pink became part of the Louis Vuitton Moët Hennessy group when they purchased 70% of the company for around €48m. By the time of purchase by LVMH, Thomas Pink had 20 shops, including 17 in the UK, one in Dublin and two in the United States; the store on Madison Avenue was the largest shirt store in the world and was twice the size of the flagship store on Jermyn Street. LVMH purchased the remaining 30% stake in the company they did not own in 2003. In 2012 Thomas Pink launched legal proceedings in the UK against Victoria's Secret, marketing lingerie under the label "Pink". Although Victoria's Secret attempted to raise a number of defences including revocation for non-use, attacking the validity of the marks for descriptiveness and lack of distinctiveness, in July 2014 in the High Court of England and Wales Judge Colin Birss ruled in Thomas Pink's favour.
Victoria's Secret, owned by L Brands, is making efforts to protect its trademarks in the United States, where the British trademark ruling did not have any effect. Media related to Thomas Pink at Wikimedia Commons
Bulgari is an Italian luxury brand known for its jewellery, fragrances and leather goods. While the majority of design and marketing is overseen and executed by Bulgari, the company does, at times, partner with other entities. For example, Bulgari eyewear is produced through a licensing agreement with Luxottica, Bulgari formed a joint venture with Marriott International in 2001 to launch its hotel brand, Bulgari Hotels & Resorts, a collection of properties and resort destinations around the world. Part of the LVMH Group, Bulgari was founded in Rome in 1884 by the silversmith Sotirios Voulgaris as a single jewellery shop that has, over the years, become an international brand; the company has evolved into a player in the luxury market, with an established and growing network of stores. The trademark is written BVLGARI in the classical Latin alphabet, it is derived from the surname of the company's founder, Sotirios Voulgaris; the root of the surname Voulgaris is Βούλγαρ, which in Greek translates as "Bulgarian".
In Italy, he changed it to Bulgari. The BVLGARI logo was used for the first time in 1934, when its gilded brass letters graced the central doorway of the Via Condotti flagship store. In reference to ancient Rome, the “U” was replaced with the letter “V”, a logo was born. Since the trademark is written BVLGARI in the classical Latin alphabet; the Voulgaris were a silversmithing family from the Epirus region of Ottoman Greece. Whether or not the Voulgaris family of Corfu and the Voulgaris family of the Italian jewelers Bulgari from Epirus share the same paternal line is unclear, but the count Stefanos Voulgaris denied that the Bulgari family of the Italian jewelers family is genealogically related to the Voulgaris family of Corfu. According to chronicles of the Voulgaris family written in Venetian Corfu, the "Voulgaris family of Saint Spyridon of Corfu" descend from the royal figures of barbarian peoples from the Volga river, who "finally settled in Moesia near the Haemus mountains, located in Bulgaria", so the founding father of this family was described as the "Triballian" Prince Stefan Lazarevic in the 16th century testemant of the family, becoming such by taking refugee in the Venetian island Corfu.
The founder of the Bulgari brand is Sotirios Voulgaris, born in March 1857 in the Epirus Village of Paramithia, Ottoman Empire and was one of eleven children of his father Georgios Voulgaris and his Aromanian mother Eleni Stronggaris. In 1881, Sotirios Bulgari moved to Rome and, in 1884, opened his first store on via Sistina 85. In 1888, he married Aromanian Eleni Basio with whom he had six children: Constantine-Georgios, Leonidas-Georgios, Maria-Athena, Sofia and Spyridon, so Leonidas-Georgios is the father of the current chairman of the company Paolo Bulgari. In 1905, he unveiled the Via Condotti shop. In its early years, Bulgari was known for silver pieces that borrowed elements from Byzantine and Islamic art, combining them with floral motifs. At the time, Paris was the apex of fashion and creativity, its trends influenced Sotirio’s designs for decades: jewels of the early 20s were characterised by platinum Art Deco settings while those of the 30s featured geometric diamond motifs—sometimes set in combination with coloured gemstones.
Convertible jewels were popular during the time, one of Bulgari’s major piece was the Trombino, a small trumpet-shaped ring. In 1932 Sotirio died, leaving the business to his two sons and Costantino, who each had a keen interest in precious stones and jewels. During the Second World War, most new jewellery was crafted out of gold, as gems were scarce, designs became more natural feeling; as the 40s came to a close, Bulgari introduced Serpenti bracelet-watches. In the 50s some of Bulgari best-known clients included Elizabeth Taylor, Anna Magnani, Ingrid Bergman and Gina Lollobrigida as Rome earned a reputation as "Hollywood on the Tiber" with the Cinecittà studios. At the same time, Bulgari went to a new style; the post-war boom saw a return to precious materials white metals covered in diamonds. In the 50s, Bulgari launched its first floral brooches—called en tremblant because of their trembling diamond corollas. At the end of the 50s, Bulgari began to establish its motifs, introducing structured, symmetrical shapes in yellow gold set with brilliant gems—chosen for their colour rather than intrinsic value.
Among these multi-hued jewels, cabochon cuts were another innovation. These new pieces were a significant departure from classical Parisian design. After Giorgio's death in 1966, his son Gianni led the company as co-chief executive with his cousin Marina. During the 1970s, Bulgari stores opened in New York, Monte Carlo and Paris; this era marks the beginning of the Group’s international expansion, with Gianni as chairman and CEO. A number of new motifs made their debut as well—jewels became recognisable for their angular forms, strong colours, oval elements with cabochons and maxi sautoirs, whilst the predominant use of yellow gold made precious pieces feel all the more wearable, became known as a Bulgari trademark. In 1977, Bulgari entered the world of horlogerie with the launch of the BVLGARI BVLGARI watch. At the time, Gianni led a complete overhaul of the company. In the early 80s, to oversee all p
Benefit Cosmetics LLC is a manufacturer of cosmetics founded and headquartered in San Francisco, California selling at over 2,000 counters in more than 30 countries. It is a subsidiary of LVMH. Twin sisters and founders Jean and Jane Ford were born in Indiana. After they attended Indiana University, the two appeared in commercials for Calgon bath products before moving to San Francisco; the decision of opening their own business was based on a coin toss, with the options being either a casserole cafe or a beauty boutique. Founded as a beauty boutique named The Face Place in 1976 in San Francisco's Mission District, the shop specialized in quick-fix products for beauty dilemmas, their first product was a blush and lip tint called "Rose tint", now renamed "benetint". The Fords created the rose flushed tint for an exotic dancer, in need of a nipple tint. Benetint is most famously known by this story, it remains the company's best-selling product, with over 10 million bottles sold; the Face Place moved to Kearny Street in downtown San Francisco in the 1980s, with the move came the debut of their original lip-plumping product, lip plump.
In 1989, the product catalog was developed. The Fords focused on department store distribution, soon after the original Face Place was renamed Benefit Cosmetics in 1990. In 1991 Benefit opened up in its first U. S. department store in Henri Bendel in New York City. With significant success in the U. S. Benefit went international in 1997 with their expansion into Harrods in London. Soon after, the Benefit Cosmetics product website was launched. LVMH acquired Benefit Cosmetics on September 14, 1999. In 2001, Benefit launched Bathina. Benefit opened its first "Brow Bar" in 2003, at San Francisco. In 2008, Jean's daughters Maggie and Annie joined the company, focusing on the Home Shopping Network business of the company as well as store openings worldwide. Benefit cosmetics have counters in many different retail stores such as Debenhams, Boots pharmacy and Arnotts. Since Benefit's opening, the company has branched out their products to skin care, eyes/face/lip cosmetics and accessories. On April 21, 2012, Benefit Cosmetics won a Guinness World Record for accomplishing the most eyebrow waxes performed in 8 hours by a team, completing 382 eyebrow waxes.
Benefit Cosmetic's "Hoola Matte Bronzer" was named the best beauty product by Nylon in 2014. The "Hoola Matte Bronzer" has been given much recognition, including being on the list of Top 10 Best Bronzers of 2018 and named the most sold bronzer in Britain by Vogue; the "Hoola Matte Bronzer" was announced to be the #1 best-selling bronzer in the United States. A beauty blog called Temptalia named Benefit's "They're Real" mascara as the Reader's Choice winner for Best High End Mascara from 2013 to 2015; as well as receiving the Reader's Choice Award of Best Mascara in department stores by Allure in 2014. Official Website Bailey Clark Instagram- OfficialBaileyC Snapchat- Blue203040
Ready-to-wear or prêt-à-porter is the term for factory-made clothing, sold in finished condition in standardized sizes, as distinct from made to measure or bespoke clothing tailored to a particular person's frame. Off-the-peg is sometimes used for items other than clothing such as handbags. Ready-to-wear has rather different place in the spheres of fashion and classic clothing. In the fashion industry, designers produce ready-to-wear clothing, intended to be worn without significant alteration because clothing made to standard sizes fits most people, they use standard patterns, factory equipment, faster construction techniques to keep costs low, compared to a custom-sewn version of the same item. Some fashion houses and fashion designers produce mass-produced and industrially manufactured ready-to-wear lines but others offer garments that are not unique but are produced in limited numbers. Ready-to-wear military uniforms were mass-produced in the United States during the War of 1812. High-quality ready-to-wear garments for men became available soon thereafter, as the simple, flattering cuts and muted tones of the contemporary fashion made proportionate sizing possible in mass production.
In 1868, Isidore and Modeste Dewachter offered ready-to-wear clothing for men and children to Belgian clientele when they opened the first chain department stores, Dewachter frères. By 1904, the chain was managed by Isidore's son and had grown to 20 cities and towns in Belgium and France, with some cities having multiple stores. Louis Dewachter became an internationally known landscape artist, painting under the pseudonym Louis Dewis. In the early 19th century, women's fashion was ornate and dependent on a precise fit, so ready-to-wear garments for women did not become available until the beginning of the 20th century. Before, women would alter their styled clothing in order to stay up to date with fashion trends. Women with larger incomes purchased new tailored clothing in current styles while middle-class and lower-class women adjusted their clothing to fit changes in fashion by adding new neck collars, shortening skirts, or cinching shirt waists; the widespread adoption of ready-to wear clothing reflected a variety of factors including economic disparities, a desire for an independent fashion industry, an increase in media attention.
The demand for affordable and fashionable women's clothing sparked designers and department stores to manufacture clothing in bulk quantities that were accessible to women of all classes and incomes. Through the emergence of the US ready-to-wear market, designers like Chanel with their shift dress or the mail-order catalogs sent to rural farms by Sears allowed women to purchase clothing faster and at a cheaper price. Another significant factor created by the ready-to-wear industry was the US development of a style independent from Europe; the US fashion market turned away from Parisian style in favor of an individualized apparel industry promoted through advertisements and articles in magazines like Women's Wear Daily, Harper’s Bazaar, Ladies Home Journal. Ready-to-wear sparked new interests in health and diet as manufactured clothing set specific, standardized sizes in attire in order to increase quantities for profit. Women of larger sizes had difficulties finding apparel in department stores, as most manufacturers maintained and sold the limited sizes across the nation.
Overall ready-to-wear fashion exposed women to the newest styles and fashion trends, leading to a substantial increase in profits by US factories from $12,900,583 in 1876 to $1,604,500,957 in 1929. The ready-to-wear fashion revolution led to an expansion of the US fashion industry that made fashionable apparel accessible, cost effective, commensurable. Interest in ready to wear was sparked by democratizing influences in fashion including the works of Yves Saint Laurent. Fashion houses that produce a women's haute couture line, such as Chanel, Dior and Saint Laurent produce a ready-to-wear line, which returns a greater profit because of the higher volume of garments made and the greater availability of the clothing; the construction of ready-to-wear clothing is held to a different standard than that of haute couture due to its industrial nature. High-end ready-to-wear lines are sometimes based upon a famous gown or other pattern, duplicated and advertised to raise the visibility of the designer.
In high-end fashion, ready-to-wear collections are presented by fashion houses each season during a period known as Fashion Week. This takes place on a city-by-city basis, the most prominent of these include London, New York and Paris, are held twice a year—the Fall/Winter shows take place in February, the Spring/Summer collections are shown in September. Smaller lines including the Cruise and Pre-Fall collections, which add to the retail value of a brand, are presented separately at the fashion designer's discretion. Ready-to-wear fashion weeks occur separately and earlier than those of haute couture
Bernard Jean Étienne Arnault is a French business magnate, an investor, art collector. Arnault is the chairman and chief executive officer of LVMH, the world's largest luxury-goods company, he is the richest person in Europe and the fourth-richest person in the world according to Forbes magazine, with a net worth of $88.1 billion, as of April 2019. In April 2018, he became the richest person in fashion. After graduating from the Lycée Maxence Van Der Meersch in Roubaix, Arnault was admitted to the École Polytechnique in Palaiseau, from which he graduated with an engineering degree in 1971, his father, Jean Leon Arnault, a graduate of École Centrale Paris, was a manufacturer and the owner of the civil engineering company, Ferret-Savinel. After graduation, Arnault joined his father's company, in 1971. In 1976, he convinced his father to liquidate the construction division of the company for 40 million French francs and to change the focus of the company to real estate. Using the name Férinel, the new company developed a specialty in holiday accommodation.
Named the Director of Company Development in 1974, he became the CEO in 1977. In 1979, he succeeded his father as president of the company. In 1984, with the help of Antoine Bernheim, a senior partner of Lazard Frères, Arnault acquired the Financière Agache, a luxury goods company, he became the CEO of Financière Agache and subsequently took control of Boussac Saint-Frères, a textile company in turmoil. Boussac owned Christian Dior, the department store Le Bon Marché, the retail shop Conforama, the diapers manufacturer Peaudouce, he sold nearly all the company's assets, keeping only the prestigious Christian Dior brand and Le Bon Marché department store. In 1987, shortly after the creation of LVMH, the brand new luxury group resulting from the merger between two companies, Arnault mediated a conflict between Alain Chevalier, Moët Hennessy's CEO, Henri Racamier, president of Louis Vuitton; the new group held property rights to Dior perfumes that Arnault believed should be incorporated into Dior Couture.
In July 1988, Arnault provided $1.5 billion to form a holding company with Guinness that held 24% of LVMH's shares. In response to rumors that the Louis Vuitton group was buying LVMH's stock to form a "blocking minority", Arnault spent $600 million to buy 13.5% more of LVMH, making him LVMH's largest shareholder. In January 1989, he spent another $500 million to gain control of a total of 43.5% of LVMH's shares and 35% of its voting rights, thus reaching the "blocking minority" that he needed to stop the dismantlement of the LVMH group. On 13 January 1989, he was unanimously elected chairman of the executive management board. Since Arnault led the company through an ambitious development plan, transforming it into one of the largest luxury groups in the world, alongside Swiss luxury giant Richemont and French-based Kering. In eleven years, the market value of LVMH has multiplied by at least fifteen, while the sales and profit rose by 500%, he promoted decisions towards decentralizing the group's brands.
As a result of these measures, the brands are now viewed as independent firms with their own history. Arnault's professional decisions support the idea that LVMH has "shared advantages" such as having the strong brands that help finance those that are still developing; the portfolio of major luxury brands has a history of stability, thus its solidity allows for new acquisitions and group development. It is because of this strategy. In July 1988, Arnault acquired Céline. In 1993, LVMH acquired Kenzo. In the same year, Arnault bought out the French economic newspaper La Tribune; the company never achieved the desired success, despite his 150 million euro investment, he sold it in November 2007 in order to buy a different French economic newspaper, Les Échos, for 240 million euros. In 1994, LVMH acquired the perfume firm Guerlain. In 1996, Arnault bought out Loewe, followed by Marc Jacobs and Sephora in 1997; these brands were integrated into the group: Thomas Pink in 1999, Emilio Pucci in 2000 and Fendi, DKNY and La Samaritaine in 2001.
In the 1990s, Arnault decided to develop a centre in New York to manage LVMH's presence in the United States. He chose Christian de Portzamparc to supervise this project; the result was the LVMH Tower that opened in December 1999. From 2010 until 2013, Arnault was a member of the Board of Advisors of the Malaysian 1MDB fund. From 1998 to 2001, Arnault invested in a variety of web companies such as Boo.com and Zebank through his holding Europatweb. Groupe Arnault invested in Netflix in 1999. In 2007, Blue Capital announced that Arnault owns jointly with the California property firm Colony Capital acquired 10.69% of France's largest supermarket retailer and the world's second-largest food distributor Carrefour. In 2008, he bought Princess Yachts for 253 million euros, he subsequently took control of Royal van Lent for an identical sum. Arnault's collection includes work by Picasso, Yves Klein, Henry Moore, Andy Warhol, he was instrumental in establishing LVMH as a major patron of art in France. The LVMH Young Fashion Designer was created as an international competition open to students from fine-arts schools.
Every year, the winner is awarded a grant to support the creation of the designer's own label and with a year of mentorship. From 1999 to 2003, he owned Phillips de Pury & Company, an art auction house, bought out the first French auctioneer, Tajan. In 2006, Arnault started the building project of the Louis Vuitton Foundation. Dedicated to creation and contemporary art, the building was designed by the architect Frank Gehry; the Foundation's grand
Christian Dior SE
Christian Dior SE known as Dior, is a European luxury goods company controlled and chaired by French businessman Bernard Arnault, who heads LVMH, the world's largest luxury group. Dior itself holds 42.36% shares of and 59.01% voting rights within LVMH. The company was founded in 1946 by designer Christian Dior, it designs and retails leather goods, fashion accessories, jewelry, fragrance and skin care products, while maintaining its tradition as a creator of haute-couture under the Christian Dior Couture division. The Christian Dior label remains for women's offerings, although the company operates the Dior Homme division for men and the baby Dior label for children's wear. Products are sold throughout its portfolio of retail stores worldwide, as well as through its online store; the House of Dior was established on 16 December 1946 in "a private house" at 30 Avenue Montaigne Paris B. However, the current Dior corporation celebrates "1947" as the opening year. Dior was financially backed by wealthy businessman Marcel Boussac.
Boussac had invited Dior to design for Philippe et Gaston, but Dior refused, wishing to make a fresh start under his own name rather than reviving an old brand. The new couture house became a part of "a vertically integrated textile business" operated by Boussac, its capital was at workforce at 80 employees. The company was a vanity project for Boussac and was a "majorly owned affiliate of Boussac Saint-Freres S. A. Nevertheless, Dior was allowed a then-unusual great part in his namesake label despite Boussac's reputation as a "control freak". Dior's creativity negotiated him a good salary. On 12 February 1947, Dior launched his first fashion collection for Spring–Summer 1947; the show of "90 models of his first collection on six mannequins" was presented in the salons of the company's headquarters at 30 Avenue Montaigne. The two lines were named "Corolle" and "Huit". However, the new collection went down in fashion history as the "New Look" after the editor-in-chief of Harper's Bazaar Carmel Snow exclaimed, "It's such a new look!"
The New Look was a revolutionary era for women back in the forties. When the collection was presented, the editor in chief showed appreciation by saying; the debut collection of Christian Dior is credited with having revived the fashion industry of France. Along with that, the New Look brought back the spirit of haute couture in France as it was considered glamorous and young-looking. "We were witness to a revolution in fashion and to a revolution in showing fashion as well." The silhouette was characterised by a small, nipped-in waist and a full skirt falling below mid-calf length, which emphasised the bust and hips, as epitomized by the'Bar' suit from the first collection. The collection overall showcased more stereotypically feminine designs in contrast to the popular fashions of wartime, with full skirts, tight waists, soft shoulders. Dior retained some of the masculine aspects as they continued to hold popularity through the early 1940s, but he wanted to include more feminine style; the New Look became popular, its full-skirted silhouette influencing other fashion designers well into the 1950s, Dior gained a number of prominent clients from Hollywood, the United States, the European aristocracy.
As a result, which had fallen from its position as the capital of the fashion world after WWII, regained its preeminence. The New Look was welcomed in western Europe as a refreshing antidote to the austerity of wartime and de-feminizing uniforms, was embraced by stylish women such as Princess Margaret in the UK. According to Harold Koda, Dior credited Charles James with inspiring The New Look. Dior's designs from the "New Look" did not only affect the designers in the 1950s, but still some of the newer designers we know from now in the 2000s, including Thom Browne, Miuccia Prada, Vivienne Westwood. Dior's evening dresses from that time are still referred to by many designers, they have been seen in different wedding themed catwalks with multiple layers of fabric building up below the small waist. Examples include Vivienne Westwood's Ready-to-Wear Fall/Winter 2011 and Alexander McQueen's Ready to Wear Fall/Winter 2011. Not everyone was pleased with the New Look, however; some considered the amount of material to be wasteful after years of cloth rationing.
Feminists in particular were outraged, feeling that these corseted designs were restrictive and regressive, that they took away a woman's independence. Fellow designer Coco Chanel remarked, "Only a man who never was intimate with a woman could design something that uncomfortable." Despite such protests, the New Look was influential, continuing to inform the work of other designers and fashion well into the 21st century. For the 60th anniversary of the New Look in 2007, John Galliano revisited it for his Spring-Summer collection for Dior. Galliano used the wasp waist and rounded shoulders and updated with references to origami and other Japanese influences. In 2012 Raf Simons revisited the New Look for his debut haute couture collection for Dior, wishing to update its ideas for the 21st century in a minimalist but sensual and sexy manner. Simons's work for Dior retained the luxurious fabrics and silhouette, but encouraged self-respect for the woman's body and liberation of expression; the design process for this collection, produced in only eight weeks, is documented in Dior and I, presenting Simons's use of technology and modernist re-interpretations.