University of New Mexico
The University of New Mexico is a public research university in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Founded in 1889, UNM offers bachelor's, master's, professional degree programs in multiple fields, its Albuquerque campus encompasses over 600 acres, there are branch campuses in Gallup, Los Alamos, Rio Rancho and Los Lunas. UNM is categorized as an R1 doctoral university in the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education; the University of New Mexico was founded on February 28, 1889, with the passage of House Bill No. 186 by the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of New Mexico. Bernard Shandon Rodey, a judge of the territory of New Mexico, pushed for Albuquerque as the location of the university and was one of the authors of the statute that created UNM, earning him the title of "Father of the University." Two years Elias S. Stover became the first president of the University and the following year the university's first building, Hodgin Hall, opened; the third president of UNM, William G. Tight, who served from 1901–09, introduced many programs for students and faculty, including the first fraternity and sorority.
Tight introduced the Pueblo Revival architecture. During Tight's term, the first Pueblo Revival style building on campus, the Estufa, was constructed, the Victorian-style Hodgin Hall was plastered over to create a monument to Pueblo Indian culture. However, Tight was vilified for his primitivism and was removed from office for political reasons, though history would vindicate him as the Pueblo Revival style became the dominant architectural style on campus. Under David Ross Boyd, the university's fifth president, the campus was enlarged from 20 to 300 acres and a 200,000-acre federal land grant was made to the university. In 1922, the university was accredited by the North Central Association of Schools. During this time, more facilities were constructed for the university, but it was under the tenure of James F. Zimmerman, the university's seventh president, that the university underwent its first major expansion. Under Zimmerman, many new buildings were constructed, student enrollment increased, new departments were added, greater support was generated for scientific research.
Among the new buildings constructed were Zimmerman Library, Scholes Hall, the first student union building, the university's first gymnasium and its first stadium. John Gaw Meem, an architect based in Santa Fe, was contracted to design many of the buildings constructed during this period, is credited with imbuing the campus with its distinctive Pueblo Revival style. During World War II, University of New Mexico was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission. In 1945, the university hired John Philip Wernette to be its eighth president. Upon arrival, Wernette focused on improving the university's faculty and services, he instituted an eighteen-point program of procedures for the selection of new faculty and appointed a committee to ensure better teaching candidates for faculty members. He developed a program for faculty advancement. Offices of the General Placement Bureau, Veterans Assistance, Testing and Counseling Services were formed to assist students and Wernette required all seniors in 1946 to take the Graduate Record Examinations test to provide the school with a measurement of how well it was educating its students.
The university started the School of Business Administration during his tenure. In 1947 Wernette came into conflict with the Board of Regents over the hiring of two faculty members who he thought were unqualified, his contract was not renewed by the Board of Regents in 1948. Thomas L. Popejoy, the ninth and the first native New Mexican university president, was appointed in 1948 and oversaw the university through the next twenty years, a period of major growth for the university. During this time, enrollment jumped from nearly 5,000 to more than 14,000, new programs such as medicine, nursing and law were founded, new facilities such as Mesa Vista Hall, Mitchell Hall, Johnson Gymnasium, new dormitories, the current student union building, the College of Education complex, the business center, the engineering complex, the Fine Arts Center, the Student Health Center, University Stadium, University Arena, the first facilities on North Campus were constructed; this period saw the foundation of UNM's branch facilities in Los Alamos and Gallup and the acquisition of the D.
H. Lawrence Ranch north of Taos. During the early 1970s, two sit-in protests at the university led to a response from law enforcement officers. On May 5, 1970, a protest over the Vietnam War and the Kent State massacre occupied the Student Union Building; the National Guard was ordered to arrest those inside. On May 10, 1972, a peaceful sit-in protest near Kirtland Air Force Base led to the arrest of thirty-five people and was pushed back to UNM, leading to eight more arrests; the following day, tear gas was used against hundreds of demonstrators on campu
The cervical canal is the spindle-shaped, flattened canal of the cervix, the neck of the uterus. It communicates with the uterine cavity via the internal orifice of the uterus and with the vagina via the external orifice of the uterus; the internal orifice of the uterus is an interior narrowing of the uterine cavity. It corresponds to a slight constriction known as the isthmus that can be seen on the surface of the uterus about midway between the apex and base; the external orifice of the uterus is a small, somewhat circular opening on the rounded extremity of the cervix, opening to the vagina. Through this aperture, the cervical cavity communicates with that of the vagina; the external orifice is bounded by an anterior and a posterior. The anterior is shorter and thicker, though it projects lower than the posterior because of the slope of the cervix. Both lips are in contact with the posterior vaginal wall. Prior to pregnancy the external orifice has a rounded shape. Following parturition, the orifice takes on an appearance more like a transverse slit or is "H-shaped".
The wall of the canal presents an anterior and a posterior longitudinal ridge, from each of which proceed a number of small oblique columns, the palmate folds, giving the appearance of branches from the stem of a tree. The folds on the two walls are not opposed, but fit between one another so as to close the cervical canal; the endocervical mucosa is a site. Endocervical adenocarcinoma, like cervical cancer arises in the milieu of human papilloma virus infection; as most endometrial cancers are adenocarcinomas, differentiation of endocervical adenocarcinoma and endometrial adenocarcinomas is required, as the treatment differs. Immunohistochemical staining is helpful in this regard, endocervical adenocarcinomas are CEA and p16 positive and estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and vimentin negative. Cervical pregnancy This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 1260 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy figure: 43:05-18 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center
Obstetrics is the field of study concentrated on pregnancy and the postpartum period. As a medical specialty, obstetrics is combined with gynecology under the discipline known as obstetrics and gynecology, a surgical field. Prenatal care is important in screening for various complications of pregnancy; this includes routine office visits with physical exams and routine lab tests: Complete blood count Blood type General antibody screen for HDN Rh D negative antenatal patients should receive RhoGam at 28 weeks to prevent Rh disease. Rapid plasma reagin to screen for syphilis Rubella antibody screen Hepatitis B surface antigen Gonorrhea and Chlamydia culture PPD for tuberculosis Pap smear Urinalysis and culture HIV screenGenetic screening for Down syndrome and trisomy 18, the national standard in the United States, is evolving away from the AFP-Quad screen for Down syndrome, done in the second trimester at 16–18 weeks; the newer integrated screen can be done at 10 plus weeks to 13 plus weeks with an ultrasound of the fetal neck and two chemicals PAPP-A and βHCG.
It gives an accurate risk profile early. A second blood screen at 15 to 20 weeks refines the risk more accurately; the cost is higher than an "AFP-quad" screen due to the ultrasound and second blood test, but it is quoted to have a 93% pick up rate as opposed to 88% for the standard AFP/QS. This is an evolving standard of care in the United States. MSAFP/quad. Screen – elevations, low numbers or odd patterns correlate with neural tube defect risk and increased risks of trisomy 18 or trisomy 21 Ultrasound either abdominal or transvaginal to assess cervix, placenta and baby Amniocentesis is the national standard for women over 35 or who reach 35 by mid pregnancy or who are at increased risk by family history or prior birth history. Hematocrit Group B Streptococcus screen. If positive, the woman receives IV penicillin or ampicillin while in labor—or, if she is allergic to penicillin, an alternative therapy, such as IV clindamycin or IV vancomycin. Glucose loading test – screens for gestational diabetes.
Most doctors do a sugar load in a drink form of 50 grams of glucose in cola, lime or orange and draw blood an hour later. The standard modified criteria have been lowered to 135 since the late 1980s. Obstetric ultrasonography is used for dating the gestational age of a pregnancy from the size of the fetus, determine the number of fetuses and placentae, evaluate for an ectopic pregnancy and first trimester bleeding, the most accurate dating being in first trimester before the growth of the foetus has been influenced by other factors. Ultrasound is used for detecting congenital anomalies and determining the biophysical profiles, which are easier to detect in the second trimester when the foetal structures are larger and more developed. Specialised ultrasound equipment can evaluate the blood flow velocity in the umbilical cord, looking to detect a decrease/absence/reversal or diastolic blood flow in the umbilical artery. X-rays and computerized tomography are not used in the first trimester, due to the ionizing radiation, which has teratogenic effects on the foetus.
No effects of magnetic resonance imaging on the foetus have been demonstrated, but this technique is too expensive for routine observation. Instead, obstetric ultrasonography is the imaging method of choice in the first trimester and throughout the pregnancy, because it emits no radiation, is portable, allows for realtime imaging; the safety of frequent ultrasound scanning has not be confirmed. Despite this, increasing numbers of women are choosing to have additional scans for no medical purpose, such as gender scans, 3D and 4D scans. A normal gestation would reveal a gestational sac, yolk sac, fetal pole; the gestational age can be assessed by evaluating the mean gestational sac diameter before week 6, the crown-rump length after week 6. Multiple gestation is evaluated by the number of placentae and amniotic sacs present. Other tools used for assessment include: Fetal screening is used to help assess the viability of the fetus, as well as congenital abnormalities. Fetal karyotype can be used for the screening of genetic diseases.
This can be obtained via amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling Foetal haematocrit for the assessment of foetal anemia, Rh isoimmunization, or hydrops can be determined by percutaneous umbilical blood sampling, done by placing a needle through the abdomen into the uterus and taking a portion of the umbilical cord. Fetal lung maturity is associated with. Reduced production of surfactant indicates decreased lung maturity and is a high risk factor for infant respiratory distress syndrome. A lecithin:sphingomyelin ratio greater than 1.5 is associated with increased lung maturity. Nonstress test for fetal heart rate Oxytocin challenge test A pregnant woman may have intercurrent diseases, that is, other diseases or conditions that may become worse or be a potential risk to the pregnancy. Diabetes mellitus and pregnancy deals with the interactions of diabetes mellitus and pregnanc
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
Gestational age is a measure of the age of a pregnancy, taken from the woman's last menstrual period, or the corresponding age of the gestation as estimated by a more accurate method if available. Such methods include adding 14 days to a known duration since fertilization, or by obstetric ultrasonography; the popularity of using such a definition of gestational age is that menstrual periods are always noticed, while there is a lack of a convenient way to discern when fertilization occurred. The initiation of pregnancy for the calculation of gestational age can be different from definitions of initiation of pregnancy in context of the abortion debate or beginning of human personhood. According to American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the main methods to calculate gestational age are: Directly calculating the days since the beginning of the last menstrual period Early obstetric ultrasound, comparing the size of an embryo or fetus to that of a reference group of pregnancies of known gestational age, using the mean gestational age of other embryos or fetuses of the same size.
If the gestational age as calculated from an early ultrasound is contradictory to the one calculated directly from the last menstrual period, it is still the one from the early ultrasound, used for the rest of the pregnancy. In case of in vitro fertilization, calculating days since oocyte retrieval or co-incubation and adding 14 days. Gestational age can be estimated by calculating days from ovulation if it was estimated from related signs or ovulation tests, adding 14 days by convention. A more complete listing of methods is given in following table: As a general rule, the official gestational age should be based on the actual beginning of the last menstrual period, unless any of the above methods gives an estimated date that differs more than the variability for the method, in which case the difference cannot be explained by that variability alone. For example, if there is a gestational age based on the beginning of the last menstrual period of 9.0 weeks, a first-trimester obstetric ultrasonography gives an estimated gestational age of 10.0 weeks, the difference of 1.0 weeks between the tests is larger than the 2 SD variability of the ultrasonography estimate, indicating that the gestational age estimated by ultrasonography should be used as the official gestational age.
Once the estimated due date is established, it should be changed, as the determination of gestational age is most accurate earlier in the pregnancy. Following are diagrams for estimating gestational age from obstetric ultrasound, by various target parameters: The fertilization age is the time from the fertilization, it occurs within a day of ovulation, which, in turn, occurs on average 14.6 days after the beginning of the preceding menstruation. There is considerable variability in this interval, with a 95% prediction interval of the ovulation of 9 to 20 days after menstruation for an average woman who has a mean LMP-to-ovulation time of 14.6. In a reference group representing all women, the 95% prediction interval of the LMP-to-ovulation is 8.2 to 20.5 days. The actual variability between gestational age as estimated from the beginning of the last menstrual period is larger because of uncertainty which menstrual cycle gave rise to the pregnancy. For example, the menstruation may be scarce enough to give the false appearance that an earlier menstruation gave rise to the pregnancy giving an estimated gestational age, one month too large.
Vaginal bleeding occurs during 15-25% of first trimester pregnancies, may be mistaken as menstruation giving an estimated gestational age, too low. Gestational age is used for example for: The events of prenatal development, which occur at specific gestational ages. Hence, the gestational timing of a fetal toxin exposure, fetal drug exposure or vertically transmitted infection can be used to predict the potential consequences to the fetus. Estimated date of delivery Scheduling prenatal care Estimation of fetal viability Calculating the results of various prenatal tests. Birth classification into for example preterm, term or postterm. Classification of infant deaths and stillbirths Postnatally to estimate various risk factors The mean pregnancy length has been estimated to be 283.4 days of gestational age as timed from the first day of the last menstrual period and 280.6 days when retrospectively estimated by obstetric ultrasound measurement of the fetal biparietal diameter in the second trimester.
Other algorithms take into account other variables, such as whether this is the first or subsequent child, the mother's race, length of menstrual cycle, menstrual regularity. In order to have a standard reference point, the normal pregnancy duration is assumed by medical professionals to be 280 days of gestational age. Furthermore, actual childbirth has only a certain probability of occurring within the limits of the estimated due date. A study of singleton live births came to the result that childbirth has a standard deviation of 14 days when gestational age is estimated by first trimester ultrasound, 16 days when estimated directly by last menstrual period; the most common system used among healthcare professionals is Naegele's rule, which estimates the expected date of delivery by adding a year, subtracting three months, adding seven d
The uterine appendages are the structures most related structurally and functionally to the uterus. They can be defined in different ways: Some sources define the adnexa as the fallopian tubes and ovaries. Others include the supporting tissues". Another source defines the appendages as the "regions of the true pelvis posterior to the broad ligaments". One dictionary includes the fallopian tubes and ligaments; the term "adnexitis" is sometimes used to describe an inflammation of the uterine appendages. In this context, it replaces the terms salpingitis; the term adnexal mass is sometimes used when the location of a uterine mass is not yet more known. 63% of ectopic pregnancies present with an adnexal mass. Depending on the size of the mass, it could be a medical emergency. Term "Adnexectomy" in Gynaecology is used for Salpingo-Oophorectomy. Adnexa
The pelvis is either the lower part of the trunk of the human body between the abdomen and the thighs or the skeleton embedded in it. The pelvic region of the trunk includes the bony pelvis, the pelvic cavity, the pelvic floor, below the pelvic cavity, the perineum, below the pelvic floor; the pelvic skeleton is formed in the area of the back, by the sacrum and the coccyx and anteriorly and to the left and right sides, by a pair of hip bones. The two hip bones connect the spine with the lower limbs, they are attached to the sacrum posteriorly, connected to each other anteriorly, joined with the two femurs at the hip joints. The gap enclosed by the bony pelvis, called the pelvic cavity, is the section of the body underneath the abdomen and consists of the reproductive organs and the rectum, while the pelvic floor at the base of the cavity assists in supporting the organs of the abdomen. In mammals, the bony pelvis has a gap in the middle larger in females than in males, their young pass through this gap.
The pelvic region of the trunk is the lower part of the trunk, between the thighs. It includes several structures: the bony pelvis, the pelvic cavity, the pelvic floor, the perineum; the bony pelvis is the part of the skeleton embedded in the pelvic region of the trunk. It is subdivided into the pelvic spine; the pelvic girdle is composed of the appendicular hip bones oriented in a ring, connects the pelvic region of the spine to the lower limbs. The pelvic spine consists of the coccyx; the pelvic cavity defined as a small part of the space enclosed by the bony pelvis, delimited by the pelvic brim above and the pelvic floor below. Each hip bone consists of 3 sections, ilium and pubis. During childhood, these sections are separate bones, joined by the triradiate cartilage. During puberty, they fuse together to form a single bone; the pelvic cavity is a body cavity, bounded by the bones of the pelvis and which contains reproductive organs and the rectum. A distinction is made between the lesser or true pelvis inferior to the terminal line, the greater or false pelvis above it.
The pelvic inlet or superior pelvic aperture, which leads into the lesser pelvis, is bordered by the promontory, the arcuate line of ilium, the iliopubic eminence, the pecten of the pubis, the upper part of the pubic symphysis. The pelvic outlet or inferior pelvic aperture is the region between the subpubic angle or pubic arch, the ischial tuberosities and the coccyx. Ligaments: obturator membrane, inguinal ligament Alternatively, the pelvis is divided into three planes: the inlet and outlet; the pelvic floor has two inherently conflicting functions: One is to close the pelvic and abdominal cavities and bear the load of the visceral organs. To achieve both these tasks, the pelvic floor is composed of several overlapping sheets of muscles and connective tissues; the pelvic diaphragm is composed of the coccygeus muscle. These arise between the symphysis and the ischial spine and converge on the coccyx and the anococcygeal ligament which spans between the tip of the coccyx and the anal hiatus; this leaves a slit for the urogenital openings.
Because of the width of the genital aperture, wider in females, a second closing mechanism is required. The urogenital diaphragm consists of the deep transverse perineal which arises from the inferior ischial and pubic rami and extends to the urogential hiatus; the urogenital diaphragm is reinforced posteriorly by the superficial transverse perineal. The external anal and urethral sphincters close the urethra; the former is surrounded by the bulbospongiosus which narrows the vaginal introitus in females and surrounds the corpus spongiosum in males. Ischiocavernosus clitoridis. Modern humans are to a large extent characterized by large brains; because the pelvis is vital to both locomotion and childbirth, natural selection has been confronted by two conflicting demands: a wide birth canal and locomotion efficiency, a conflict referred to as the "obstetrical dilemma". The female pelvis, or gynecoid pelvis, has evolved to its maximum width for childbirth—a wider pelvis would make women unable to walk.
In contrast, human male pelvises are not constrained by the need to give birth and therefore are more optimized for bipedal locomotion. The principal differences between male and female true and false pelvis include: The female pelvis is larger and broader than the male pelvis, taller and more compact; the female inlet is oval in shape, while the male sacral promontory projects further. The sides of the male pelvis converge from the inlet to the outlet, whereas the sides of the female pelvis are wider apart; the angle between