The Iberian Peninsula known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe. The peninsula is principally divided between Portugal, comprising most of their territory, it includes Andorra, small areas of France, the British overseas territory of Gibraltar. With an area of 596,740 square kilometres ), it is both the second largest European peninsula by area, after the Scandinavian Peninsula, by population, after the Balkan Peninsula; the word Iberia is a noun adapted from the Latin word "Hiberia" originated by the Ancient Greek word Ἰβηρία by Greek geographers under the rule of the Roman Empire to refer to what is known today in English as the Iberian Peninsula. At that time, the name did not describe a single political entity or a distinct population of people. Strabo's'Iberia' was delineated from Keltikē by the Pyrenees and included the entire land mass southwest of there. With the fall of the Roman Empire and the establishment of the new Castillian language in Spain, the word "Iberia" appeared for the first time in use as a direct'descendant' of the Greek word "Ἰβηρία" and the Roman word "Hiberia".
The ancient Greeks reached the Iberian Peninsula, of which they had heard from the Phoenicians, by voyaging westward on the Mediterranean. Hecataeus of Miletus was the first known to use the term Iberia, which he wrote about circa 500 BC. Herodotus of Halicarnassus says of the Phocaeans that "it was they who made the Greeks acquainted with... Iberia." According to Strabo, prior historians used Iberia to mean the country "this side of the Ἶβηρος" as far north as the river Rhône in France, but they set the Pyrenees as the limit. Polybius respects that limit, but identifies Iberia as the Mediterranean side as far south as Gibraltar, with the Atlantic side having no name. Elsewhere he says that Saguntum is "on the seaward foot of the range of hills connecting Iberia and Celtiberia." Strabo refers to the Carretanians as people "of the Iberian stock" living in the Pyrenees, who are distinct from either Celts or Celtiberians. According to Charles Ebel, the ancient sources in both Latin and Greek use Hispania and Hiberia as synonyms.
The confusion of the words was because of an overlapping in geographic perspectives. The Latin word Hiberia, similar to the Greek Iberia translates to "land of the Hiberians"; this word was derived from the river Ebro. Hiber was thus used as a term for peoples living near the river Ebro; the first mention in Roman literature was by the annalist poet Ennius in 200 BC. Virgil refers to the Ipacatos Hiberos in his Georgics; the Roman geographers and other prose writers from the time of the late Roman Republic called the entire peninsula Hispania. As they became politically interested in the former Carthaginian territories, the Romans began to use the names Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior for'near' and'far' Hispania. At the time Hispania was made up of three Roman provinces: Hispania Baetica, Hispania Tarraconensis, Hispania Lusitania. Strabo says that the Romans use Hispania and Iberia synonymously, distinguishing between the near northern and the far southern provinces. Whatever language may have been spoken on the peninsula soon gave way to Latin, except for that of the Vascones, preserved as a language isolate by the barrier of the Pyrenees.
The Iberian Peninsula has always been associated with the Ebro, Ibēros in ancient Greek and Ibērus or Hibērus in Latin. The association was so well known. Pliny goes so far as to assert that the Greeks had called "the whole of Spain" Hiberia because of the Hiberus River; the river appears in the Ebro Treaty of 226 BC between Rome and Carthage, setting the limit of Carthaginian interest at the Ebro. The fullest description of the treaty, stated in Appian, uses Ibērus. With reference to this border, Polybius states that the "native name" is Ibēr the original word, stripped of its Greek or Latin -os or -us termination; the early range of these natives, which geographers and historians place from today's southern Spain to today's southern France along the Mediterranean coast, is marked by instances of a readable script expressing a yet unknown language, dubbed "Iberian." Whether this was the native name or was given to them by the Greeks for their residence on the Ebro remains unknown. Credence in Polybius imposes certain limitations on etymologizing: if the language remains unknown, the meanings of the words, including Iber, must remain unknown.
In modern Basque, the word ibar means "valley" or "watered meadow", while ibai means "river", but there is no proof relating the etymology of the Ebro River with these Basque names. The Iberian Peninsula has been inhabited for at least 1.2 million years as remains found in the sites in the Atapuerca Mountains demonstrate. Among these sites is the cave of Gran Dolina, where six hominin skeletons, dated between 780,000 and one million years ago, were found in 1994. Experts have debated whether these skeletons belong to the species Homo erectus, Homo heidelbergensis, or a new species called Homo antecessor. Around 200,000 BP, during the Lower Paleolithic period, Neanderthals first entered the Iberian Peninsula. Around 70,000 BP, during the Middle Paleolithic period, the last glacial event began and the Neanderthal Mousterian culture was established. Around 37,000 BP, during the Upper Paleolithic, the Neanderthal Châtelperronian cultural period began. Emanating from Southern France, this culture extended into the north of the p
Miróbriga is an ancient Roman town located near the village and civil parish of Santiago do Cacém, in the municipality of the same name in the south-west of Portugal. Archeology revealed that the town occupied the site of an ancient Iron Age settlement that existed since the 9th century B. C. With the Roman colonization a commercial area developed around the Forum; the baths, among the best preserved in Portugal, consist of two adjoining buildings for male and female use respectively. The residential areas are still little known. Close to the baths, there is a bridge with a single, semicircular arch; the hippodrome, the only one whose entire ground plan is known in Portugal, is located further from the centre. Excavations and investigations, suggest that the earliest settlement began to take shape in the 9th century B. C. and that the defensive walls began appearing between the 4th-3rd century B. C; this settlement occupied an area of 11,800 m², with the population inhabiting the area along the embankment and north-east corner of Castelo Velho, of which only a wall and temple remains.
By about the second half of the 1st century Roman occupation began, expanding the site and occupying an area of 28,000 m². At this time the thermal baths and paved road along the southeast were constructed, reflecting the Flavian economic prosperity. Around the first half of the 2nd century, the construction of the Oriental baths and hippodrome was begun, followed by a second phase of construction in the second half of the 2nd century and 3rd century. Around the second half of the 2nd century, there were signs of abandon, that may reflect the period of political crisis caused by barbarian invasions during this period. By the end of the 4th century, there is a marked reduction in the population, although a level of continuity persisted on the site: around the small Chapel of São Brás; the ruins were rediscovered and referenced by André de Resende in the 16th century, but they were never studied until the 18th century. On 1 June 1992 the Instituto Português do Património Arquitectónico (forerunner of Institute for the Management of Architectural and Archaeological Heritage took over the management of the site, by Decree-Law No.106F/92.
This was followed in 1996-1997 by the acquisition of the lands that surrounded the site, as part of the ZEP-Zona de Protecção Especial designation. On 1 February 1999, a dispatch from the Ministries of Equipment and Territory Administration, Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of Culture, recognized the importance of safeguarding the Roman ruins, authorized the construction of an Interpretative Centre; the project began in 2000, in a project designed by architect Paula Santos, that included a 700 m² space. Castelo Velho hill dominates the site, one kilometre north-west from the urban centre of modern Santiago do Cacém, which overlooks the northern plain of Chãos Salgados. Miróbriga is situated in a privileged location, on the ancient roadways of the region with access to the coast. Within close proximity is a Windmill of Cumeadas; the settlement is structured around Roman roads with many paved accesses. Around the west-east axis are the ruins of the residential homes. To the east, are the former baths constructed over a canal and composed of two buildings in a "L" shape.
Each building has: an entry into the massage hall, a gymnasium, changing room, the bathing space, which included the frigidarium (cold baths and caldarium and a communal latrine. The halls are warmed by a hypocaustsystem that heated the floors of baths, located in the south part of the buildings, it was a subterranean system formed by pillars and arches, with tile, that allowed the circulation of warm air to produce heated environments, supported by kilns. To the east of the baths is a small, single-arch bridge, that provided access along the west-east access that leads to the "forum", an Imperial temple and a temple dedicated to Venus. Between these two are the remains of an older temple dedicated to the local divinity. North of the forum are the ruins of the visitors houses, separated by another road; the hippodrome was a rectangular space with curved seating on the northern end, while segmented seat on the south, used for chariot or horse races. It was a 370 metre by 75 metre space, bisected by a spine with posts on either end, a triumphal arch on the south entrance.
The Interpretative Centre is located on an elevated area at the entrance to the site, with several paths leading away from this site into the ruins. Lusitania Sines Notes SourcesCruz e Silva, João Gualberto da, Apontamentos e considerações sobre as pesquisas arqueológicas realizadas desde 1922 nos concelhos de Santiago do Cacém, Sines e Odemira, 3, Portugal: Arquivo de Beja MOP, ed. Obras em Monumentos Nacionais - Congresso Internacional de História da Arte, s.l. Lisbon, Portugal: Ministério das Obras Públicas/DGMEN Almeida, D. Fernando de, "Nota sobre os restos do circo romano de Miróbriga dos Célticos", Revista de Guimarães, 73, Portugal MOP, ed. Relatório da Actividade do Ministério no ano de 1955, Portugal: Ministério das Obras Públicas Barata, Maria Filomena, 1997, Miróbriga - Arquitectura e urbanismo in https://www.academia.edu/807569/Mirobriga_Arquitectura_e_Urbanismo.
The Albiones or Albioni were a Gallaecian people living the north coast of modern Spain in western Asturias and eastern Galicia mentioned by Pliny. They are included in maps of Roman Spain; the name Albiones is attested on the "stele of Nicer Clutosi" found near Vegadeo, which has the inscription: ☧ NICER CLUTOSI C CARIACA PRINCIPIS ALBIONUM AN LXXV HI S EST, which can be translated as " Nicer, of Clutoso from the house of Cariaca, prince of the Albions, 75 years, lies here." This same area was settled by a group of Britons in the post-Roman period, from whom the region took the name Britonia or Bretoña, mentioned in ecclesiastical sources as Britonensis ecclesia and an episcopal see called the sedes Britonarum - see the History of Galicia. Detailed map of the Pre-Roman Peoples of Iberia Stone of Nicer prince of the albions. From "People of Asturias Museum" Oviedo
The Arevaci or Aravaci, were a Celtic people who settled in the Meseta Central of northern Hispania and which dominated most of Celtiberia from the 4th to late 2nd centuries BC. The Vaccaei were their allies; the Arevaci were of Celtic part of the Celtiberians. There is an overwhelming amount of evidence that the ancestors of the Celtiberian groups were installed in the Meseta area of the Iberian peninsula from at least 1000 BC and much earlier; some think their ancestors were early ‘Q-Celtic’ speakers from Gaul who migrated to the peninsula around the mid-6th century BC, arriving at about the same time as the powerful Vaccaei people of the western meseta. This led some modern historians to state that the Arevaci were an offshoot of the latter, thus their tribal name which means ‘Are-Vaccei’ or ‘eastern’ Vacceians. However, an alternative etymology is given by the Roman geographer Pliny the elder who calls them Celtiberi Arevaci, adding that they borrowed their name from the river Areva and thus their designation could be translated as ‘those who dwell at the Areva’ or ‘on the Areva’.
The nucleus of the Arevaci homeland was centered on the modern provinces of Soria and most of Guadalajara up to the Tagus sources, extending to the eastern half of Segovia and the southeastern Burgos, but for a while they dominated parts of neighbouring Zaragoza province. They founded or seized several important city-states in northern Celtiberia, namely: Clunia, Voluce/Veluka, Uxama Argelae, Termantia named Termes or Termesos, Savia Numantia. Other towns mentioned in the sources, such as Segovia, Comfluenta, Lutia, Mallia and Colenda have not yet been located, they shared with the Vaccaei the same social structure of collectivist type which enabled the latter to exploit the wheat- and grass-growing areas of the western plateau, though archeological evidence suggests that the Arevaci were predominantly stock-raisers who practiced transhumance in the grazing lowlands of the upper Ebro valley. They reared sheep and oxen, as attested by the tribute of thirty talents imposed upon Numantia and Termantia by Consul Quintus Aulus Pompeius in 139 BC, for which the numantines and termantines paid in the form of 3,000 ox-hides, 800 horses, 9,000 Sagum woolen cloaks.
They practiced the rite of excarnation by exposing the corpses of warriors slain in battle to the vultures, as described by Silius Italicus and Claudius Aelianus, attested by funerary stelae and painted pottery from Numantia. Regarded by the Greeks and Romans as the most militaristic people of the eastern Meseta, the Arevaci were said by Herodotus to have embarked early on an expansionist policy by taking part in the Celtici migrations of the 5th century BC alongside off-shots of Lusones and Vaccaei peoples to settle in the Iberian southwest. In the late 4th-early 3rd centuries BC however, the Arevaci shifted the direction of their expansion to the east, towards the upper Duero and south into the central Iberian system mountains. Here they displaced the earlier inhabitants the Pellendones, conquering the towns of Savia and Numantia and submitted the Uraci, thus gaining control over the strategic towns of Aregrada, Cortona and Arcobriga. In around the mid-3rd century BC, the Arevaci founded with their neighbours the Lusones and Titii a tribal federation designated the Celtiberian confederacy, with Numantia as federal capital.
During the Second Punic War the confederacy kept itself neutral, though Celtiberian mercenaries are mentioned fighting for both sides on a number of occasions. The first Roman incursion into the Celtiberian heartland occurred around 195 BC under Consul Cato the Elder, who attacked unsuccessfully the towns of Seguntia Celtiberorum and Numantia, where he delivered a speech to the numantines; the Arevaci and the Belli revolted against Roman rule in the Celtiberian War. Upon the fall of Numantia in 134-133 BC, the Romans forcibly disbanded the Celtiberian confederacy and allowed the Pellendones and Uraci to regain their independence from the Arevaci, who were now technically submitted and absorbed into Hispania Citerior province; the remaining Arevacian cities managed to keep much of their military capabilities intact, led by Clunia and Termantia they helped defending Celtiberia from invasion attempts by both the Lusitani in 114 BC and the Cimbri, who poured from the Pyrenees around 104-103 BC.
Emboldened by these successes – and resented by the lack of Roman recognition for their efforts – the Arevaci began secretly hatching plots against Roman rule by stirring up their disgruntled Celtiberian neighbours into the 99-81 BC uprisings. However, not only were the Arevacians ruthlessly quashed by Proconsul Titus Didius in 92 BC, but had to endure the destruction of their new capital, Termantia. In spite of being technically submitted and aggregated to Hispania Citerior after 93 BC, the Arevacians’ own relationship with Rome remained uneasy. During the Sertorian Wars, the Arevaci sided with Quintus Sertorius and provided unspecified troops to his army. In fact, they still continued to resist Roman integration and assimilation policies for decades, a situation coupled by fiscal abuse that led to sporadic outbursts of violence well into the 1st century AD
The Coelerni were an ancient Celtic tribe of Gallaecia in Hispania, part of Calaician or Gallaeci people, living in what was to become the Roman Province of Hispania Citerior, convent of Bracara Augusta, in what is now the southern part of the province of Ourense. Some sources, like Alarcão state that the Coelerni lived in the north of modern Portugal, in the province of Trás-os-Montes, in the mountains between the rivers Tua and Sabor - this seems to be incorrect and predates the finding of the Tessera Hospitalis of Castromao; however there was a lusitanian people of the Colarni living near the Douro river in Lamego, that could have some link with the galician Coelerni. The Coelerni are known from few literary sources, such as Pliny and Ptolemy, because they appear as one of the ten civitates of the convent Bracarensis that are cited in the Inscription of the Peoples of Chaves, a column in the Roman bridge in Chaves where those people rend homage to Emperor Vespasian. Pliny, knew the Iberian Peninsula, as he had worked there as an administrator during the reign of Vespasian.
The results of a census he passes on to us informs about the following: «The jurisdiction of Lucus contains 15 peoples both unimportant and bearing outlandish names, excepting the Celtici and the Lemavi, but with a free population amounting to about 166,000. In a similar way the 24 states of Braga contain 285,000 persons, of whom besides the Bracari themselves may be mentioned, without wearying the reader, the Biballi, Callaeci, Equaesi and Querquerni; the main city of the Coelerni was Coeliobriga, now Castromao in Celanova. This Castro was inhabited from the 6th century BC until the beginning of the 4th century CE. A Treaty of Friendship between the Coelerni and the Romans was made in 132. A Tessera Hospitalis was found stating a pact of hospitality between the tribe of the Coelerni, thus accepting their peaceful integration in Hispania Citerior, the Roman military commander of the Legion VII Gemina Civitas Limicorum, Gneo Antonius Aquilus Novaugustanus, in exchange for their defence under Emperor Hadrian.
The exact text of the Tessera Hospitalis states: G IVLIO. SERVIO. AUGURINO. G TREBIO. SERGIANO. COS. COELERNI. EX-HISPANIA. CITERIORE. CONVENTUS. BRACARI. CVM. G. AN TONIO. AQUILO. NOVAUGUSTANO. PRAEF. COH. I. CELTIBERORUM. LIBERIS. POSTERISQUE. EIVS. HOS PITIUM. FECERUNT. G. ANTONIVS. AQVILVS. CUM. COELER NIS. LIBERIS. POSTERISQUE. EORUM. HOSPITIUM. FECIT. LEGATUS. EGIT P. CAMPANIVS. GEMINVS. Which can be translated as: Being Consuls Gneo Julio Augurino and Gneo Trebio Sergiano, the Coelerni of Hispania Citerior and of the convent Bracari, made a pact of hospitality with Gneo Antonio Aquilino Novaugustano, prefect of the first Cohort of the Celtiberians, with his sons and descendants. Gneo Antonio Aquilo made a pact of hospitality with their sons and descendants. Acted as legate Publius Campanius Geminus. Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula Comité Español, Tabvla Imperii Romani. Hoja K-29: Porto. Unión Académica Internacional. Instituto Geográfico Nacional. Madrid, 1991. Alonso, Juan L. Garcia, La Península Ibérica en la Geografía de Claudio Ptolomeu, Euskal.
Herrika Unibertsitatea, Gasteiz 2003. Pliny, Naturalis Historia, III, 3. Detailed map of the Pre-Roman Peoples of Iberia
Northeastern Iberian script
The northeastern Iberian script known as Levantine Iberian or Iberian because the Iberian script was the most used, was the main means of written expression of the Iberian language. The language is expressed by the southeastern Iberian script and the Greco-Iberian alphabet. To understand the relationship between northeastern Iberian and southeastern Iberian scripts, one should point out that they are two different scripts with different values for the same signs. However, it is clear they have a common origin and the most accepted hypothesis is that northeastern Iberian script was derived from the southeastern Iberian script; some researchers have concluded that it is linked to the Phoenician alphabet alone, but others believe the Greek alphabet had a role. All the paleohispanic scripts, with the exception of the Greco-Iberian alphabet, share a common distinctive typological characteristic: they represent syllabic value for the occlusives, monophonemic value for the rest of the consonants and vowels.
In a writing system they are neither alphabets nor syllabaries, but are rather mixed scripts that are identified as semi-syllabaries. The basic signary contains 28 signs: 15 syllabic and 8 consonantic; the northeastern script was nearly deciphered in 1922 by Manuel Gómez-Moreno Martínez, who systematically linked the syllabic signs with the occlusive values. The decipherment was based on the existence of a large number of coin legends that could be linked to ancient place names known from Roman and Greek sources. There are two variants of the northeastern Iberian script: the dual variant is exclusive to the ancient inscriptions from the 4th and 3rd centuries BCE and its distinctive characteristic is the use of the dual system; this system was discovered by Joan Maluquer de Motes in 1968 and allows differentiation of the occlusive signs between voiced and unvoiced by the use of an additional stroke. The simple sign represents the voiced value whilst the complex sign represents the unvoiced value.
The non-dual variant is exclusive of the modern inscriptions from the 2nd and 1st centuries BCE. The inscriptions that use the northeastern Iberian script have been found in the northeastern quadrant of the Iberian Peninsula: along the coast from Roussillon to Alicante, but with a deep penetration in the Ebro Valley; the northeastern Iberian inscriptions have been found on different object types, representing 95% of the total finds, nearly all the scripts were written from left to right. The oldest northeastern Iberian script date to the 4th or maybe the 5th century BCE; the modern ones date from the end of the 1st century BCE or maybe the beginning of the 1st century CE. In recent years four northeastern Iberian abecedaries or signaries have been published: the Castellet de Bernabé signary, the Tos Pelat signary, the Ger signary and the Bolvir signary, all of them belonging to the dual variant of the script. Greco-Iberian alphabet Iberian scripts Paleohispanic scripts Celtiberian script Southeastern Iberian script Tartessian script Paleohispanic languages Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula Correa, José Antonio: «Representación gráfica de la oposición de sonoridad en las oclusivas ibéricas », AION 14, pp. 253–292.
Ferrer i Jané, Joan: Novetats sobre el sistema dual de diferenciació gràfica de les oclusives sordes i sonores, Palaeohispanica 5, pp. 957–982. Ferrer i Jane Joan: «Els sistemes duals de les escriptures ibèriques», Palaeohispanica 13, pp. 451-479. Gómez-Moreno, Manuel: «De Epigrafia ibérica: el plomo de Alcoy», Revista de filología española 9, pp. 34–66. Hoz, Javier de: «El nuevo plomo inscrito de Castell y el problema de las oposiciones de sonoridad en ibérico», Symbolae Ludouico Mitxelena septuagenario oblatae, pp. 443–453. Maluquer de Motes, Joan: Epigrafía prelatina de la península ibérica, Barcelona. Quintanilla, Alberto: «Sobre la notación en la escritura ibérica del modo de articulación de las consonantes oclusivas», Studia Palaeohispanica et Indogermánica J. Untermann ab Amicis Hispanicis Oblata, pp. 239–250. Rodríguez Ramos, Jesús: Análisis de epigrafía íbera, Vitoria-Gasteiz. Untermann, Jürgen: Monumenta Linguarum Hispanicarum. III Die iberischen Inschriften aus Spanien, Wiesbaden. Velaza, Javier: Epigrafía y lengua ibéricas, Barcelona.
Media related to Iberian scripts at Wikimedia Commons The levantine Iberian writing- Jesús Rodríguez Ramos
The Iberians were a set of people that Greek and Roman sources identified with that name in the eastern and southern coasts of the Iberian peninsula, at least from the 6th century BC. The Roman sources use the term Hispani to refer to the Iberians; the term Iberian, as used by the ancient authors, had two distinct meanings. One, more general, referred to all the populations of the Iberian peninsula without regard to ethnic differences; the other, more restricted ethnic sense, refers to the people living in the eastern and southern coasts of the Iberian Peninsula, which by the 6th century BC had absorbed cultural influences from the Phoenicians and the Greeks. This pre-Indo-European cultural group spoke the Iberian language from the 7th to the 1st century BC. Other peoples related to the Iberians are the Vascones, though more related to the Aquitani than to the Iberians; the rest of the peninsula, in the northern, northwestern and southwestern areas, was inhabited by Celts or Celtiberians groups and the Pre-Celtic or Proto-Celtic Indo-European Lusitanians and the Turdetani.
The Iberian culture developed from the 6th century BC, as early as the fifth to the third millennium BC in the eastern and southern coasts of the Iberian peninsula. The Iberians lived in villages and oppida and their communities were based on a tribal organization; the Iberians in the Spanish Levant were more urbanized than their neighbors in the central and northwestern regions of the Iberian peninsula. The peoples in the central and northwest regions were Celtic, semi-pastoral and lived in scattered villages, though they had a few fortified towns like Numantia, they had a knowledge of writing, including bronze, agricultural techniques. In the centuries preceding Carthaginian and Roman conquest, Iberian settlements grew in social complexity, exhibiting evidence of social stratification and urbanization; this process was aided by trading contacts with the Phoenicians and Carthaginians. By the late 5th and early 4th centuries BC a series of important social changes led to the consolidation of an aristocracy and the emergence of a clientele system.
"This new political system led, among other things, to cities and towns that centered around these leaders known as territorial nucleation. In this context, the oppidum or fortified Iberian town became the centre of reference in the landscape and the political space."The settlement of Castellet de Banyoles in Tivissa was one of the most important ancient Iberian settlements in the north eastern part of the Iberian peninsula, discovered in 1912. The'Treasure of Tivissa', a unique collection of silver Iberian votive offerings was found here in 1927. Lucentum was another ancient Iberian settlement, as well as Castelldefels Castle. Mausoleum of Pozo Moro near the town of Chinchilla de Monte-Aragón in Castile-La Mancha seems to mark the location of another big settlement. Sagunto is the location of an ancient Iberian and Roman city of Saguntum, where a big fortress was built in the 5th century BC. Greek colonists made the first historical reference to the Iberians in the 6th century BC, they defined Iberians as non-Celtic peoples south of the Ebro river.
The Greeks dubbed as "Iberians" another people in the Caucasus region known as Caucasian Iberians. It is thought; the Iberians traded extensively with other Mediterranean cultures. Iberian pottery and metalwork has been found in France and North Africa; the Iberians had extensive contact with Greek colonists in the Spanish colonies of Emporion and Hemeroskopeion. The Iberians may have adopted some of the Greeks' artistic techniques. Statues such as the Lady of Baza and the Lady of Elx are thought to have been made by Iberians well acquainted with Greek art. Thucydides stated that one of the three original tribes of Sicily, the Sicani, were of Iberian origin, though "Iberian" at the time could have included what we think of as Gaul; the Iberians had contacts with the Phoenicians, who had established various colonies in southern Andalucia. Their first colony on the Iberian Peninsula was founded in 1100 BC and was called Gadir renamed by the Romans as Gades. Other Phoenician colonies in southern Iberia included Malaka and Abdera.
After the First Punic war, the massive war debt suffered by Carthage led them to attempt to expand their control over the Iberian peninsula. Hamilcar Barca began this conquest from his base at Cádiz by conquering the Tartessian Guadalquivir river region, rich in silver. After Hamilcar's death, his son-in-law Hasdrubal continued his incursions into Iberia, founding the colony of Qart Hadasht and extending his influence all the way to the southern bank of the river Ebro. After Hasdrubal's assassination in 221 BC, Hannibal assumed command of the Carthaginian forces and spent two years completing the conquest of the Iberians south of the Ebro. In his first campaign, Hannibal defeated the Olcades, the Vaccaei and the Carpetani expanding his control over the river Tagus region. Hannibal laid siege to Roman ally of Saguntum and this led to the beginning of the Second Punic War; the Iberian theater was a key battleground during this war and many Iberian and Celtiberian warriors fought for both Rome and Carthage, though most tribes sided with Carthage.
Rome sent Publius Cornelius Scipio to conquer Iberia from Carthage. Gnaeus subsequently defeated the Iberian Ilergetes tribe north of the Ebro who