General Aviation represents the'private transport' and recreational flying component of aviation. General aviation is the name or term given to all civil aviation aircraft operations with the exception of commercial air transport or aerial work, they are flight activities not involving commercial air transportation of passengers, cargo or mail for remuneration or hire, or an aerial work operation such as agriculture, photography, surveying and patrol, search and rescue, aerial advertisement, etc. It covers certain commercial and private flights that can be carried out under both visual flight and instrument flight rules, such as light aircraft and private jets or helicopters. General aviation thus represents the'private transport' component of aviation; the International Civil Aviation Organization defines civil aviation aircraft operations in three categories: General Aviation, Aerial Work and Commercial Air Transport. The International Council of Aircraft Owner and Pilot Associations includes the following definitions for General Aviation aircraft activities: Corporate Aviation: Company own-use flight operations Fractional Ownership Operations: aircraft operated by a specialized company on behalf of two or more co-owners Business Aviation: self-flown for business purposes Personal/Private Travel: travel for personal reasons/personal transport Air Tourism: self-flown incoming/outgoing tourism Recreational Flying: powered/powerless leisure flying activities Air Sports: Aerobatics, Air Races, Rallies etc.
In 2003 the European Aviation Safety Agency was established as the central EU regulator, taking over responsibility for legislating airworthiness and environmental regulation from the national authorities. Of the 21,000 civil aircraft registered in the UK, 96 percent are engaged in GA operations, annually the GA fleet accounts for between 1.25 and 1.35 million hours flown. There are 28,000 Private Pilot Licence holders, 10,000 certified glider pilots; some of the 19,000 pilots who hold professional licences are engaged in GA activities. GA operates from more than 1,800 airports and landing sites or aerodromes, ranging in size from large regional airports to farm strips. GA is regulated by the Civil Aviation Authority, although regulatory powers are being transferred to the European Aviation Safety Agency; the main focus is on standards of airworthiness and pilot licensing, the objective is to promote high standards of safety. General aviation is popular in North America, with over 6,300 airports available for public use by pilots of general aviation aircraft.
In comparison, scheduled flights operate from around 560 airports in the U. S. According to the U. S. Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association, general aviation provides more than one percent of the United States' GDP, accounting for 1.3 million jobs in professional services and manufacturing. Most countries have authorities that oversee all civil aviation, including general aviation, adhering to the standardized codes of the International Civil Aviation Organization. Examples include the Federal Aviation Administration in the United States, the Civil Aviation Authority in the United Kingdom, Civil Aviation Authority of Zimbabwe in Zimbabwe, the Luftfahrt-Bundesamt in Germany, the Bundesamt für Zivilluftfahrt in Switzerland, Transport Canada in Canada, the Civil Aviation Safety Authority in Australia, the Directorate General of Civil Aviation in India and Iran Civil Aviation Organization in Iran. Aviation accident rate statistics are estimates. According to the U. S. National Transportation Safety Board, in 2005 general aviation in the United States suffered 1.31 fatal accidents for every 100,000 hours of flying in that country, compared to 0.016 for scheduled airline flights.
In Canada, recreational flying accounted for 0.7 fatal accidents for every 1000 aircraft, while air taxi accounted for 1.1 fatal accidents for every 100,000 hours. More experienced GA pilots appear safer, although the relations between flight hours, accident frequency, accident rates are complex and difficult to assess. Environmental impact of aviation List of current production certified light aircraftAssociationsAircraft Owners and Pilots Association Canadian Owners and Pilots Association Experimental Aircraft Association General Aviation Manufacturers Association National Business Aviation Association International Aircraft Owners and Pilots Associations European General Aviation Safety Team "No Plane No Gain" website about business aviation Save-GA.org website concerned with General Aviation in the United States "GA price index". Flight International. 13 Oct 1979
Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6
The Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6 is a turboprop aircraft engine produced by Pratt & Whitney Canada. Its design was started in 1958, it first ran in February 1960, first flew on 30 May 1961, entered service in 1964 and has been continuously updated since, it consists of two basic sections: a gas generator with accessory gearbox and a free power turbine with reduction gearbox, is seemingly mounted backwards in an aircraft in so far as the intake is at the rear and the exhaust at the front. Many variants of the PT6 have been produced, not only as turboprops but for helicopters, land vehicles, boats, as auxiliary power units and for industrial uses. By November 2015, 51,000 had been produced, had logged 400 million flight hours from 1963 to 2016, it is known for its reliability with an in-flight shutdown rate of 1 per 651,126 hours in 2016. The PT6A covers the power range between 580 and 1,940 shp while the PT6B/C are turboshaft variants for helicopters. In 1956, Pratt & Whitney Canada's president, Ronald Riley, ordered engineering manager Dick Guthrie to hire a team of gas turbine specialists to design a small gas turbine engine.
Demand for the Wasp radial engine was still strong and its production was profitable but the aim was to become Canada's prime engine company by focussing on a small gas turbine engine. Riley gave Guthrie a modest budget of C$100,000. Guthrie recruited twelve engineers with experience gained at various places including the National Research Council in Ottawa, Orenda Engines in Ontario, Bristol Aero Engines and Blackburn Aircraft, they completed the detailed design of an engine for Canadair's small jet trainer, the CL-41. It was a 3,000lb thrust turbojet but the design was taken over by P&WA who developed it into the Pratt & Whitney JT12; the team had to wait for market assessments to define their next engine, a 450 shaft horsepower turboprop for twin-engined aircraft, the PT6. The early development of the PT-6, which first ran in December 1963, was beset with engineering problems, cost overruns and lack of sales, it was cancelled. The team lacked the ability to deal with the technical difficulties, i.e. how to develop the engine, because, as one of the team Elvie Smith recalled, they came from research and design backgrounds.
They learned how to run a development program, such as tesing around the clock rather than on one shift, from a PWA team which directed the development for several months. The PT-6 first flew on 30 May 1961, mounted as a third engine in the nose of a Beech 18 aircraft, converted by de Havilland at its Downsview, Ontario facility. Full-scale production started with service entry the following year; the Beech 18 continued as a PT6 and propeller flying test-bed until it was replaced with a Beech King Air in 1980. The King Air test-engine or propeller replaced one of the standard ones. In 1974 the Beech 18 had been unable to fly fast enough and high enough to test the PT6A-50 for the de Havilland Canada Dash 7 so a Vickers Viscount was modified as a PT6 test-bed with a Dash-7 installation in the nose; the first production PT-6 model, the PT6A-6, was certificated in December 1963. The first application was the Beech Queen Air, enticing the U. S. Army to buy a fleet of the U-21 Ute variant; this helped launch the King Air with Beechcraft selling about 7,000 by 2012.
From 1963 to 2016 power-to-weight ratio was improved by 50%, brake specific fuel consumption by 20% and overall pressure ratio reached 14:1. Its development continues and while today its basic configuration is the same as in 1964, updates have included a cooled first-stage turbine vane, additional compressor and turbine stages and single-crystal turbine blades in the early 1990s, its pressure ratio is 13:1 in the AgustaWestland AW609 tiltrotor, the highest that can be used without cooled turbine blades. In response to the General Electric GE93, in 2017 Pratt & Whitney Canada started testing core technology and systems for a proposed 2,000hp engine to replace the most powerful versions of the PT6, it was considered to be a development of the PT6C core, would fit between the 1,750 shp PT6C-67C/E and the 2,300 shp PW100 family. It was expected to be ready to launch by the end of 2017 for an initial helicopter platform with a 10-15% reduction in brake specific fuel consumption; this 2,000 hp engine would target a possible new market such as a Super PC-12, a more powerful TBM, or a bigger King Air.
When de Havilland Canada asked for a much larger engine for the DHC-8 twice the power of the Large PT6, Pratt & Whitney Canada responded with a new design known as the PT7 renamed Pratt & Whitney Canada PW100. The rate at which parts deteriorate in a gas turbine is unbalanced insofar as the hottest parts need replacing or repairing more than the cooler-running parts. If the hotter parts can be removed without disturbing the rest of the engine, for example without removing the complete engine from the aircraft, maintenance costs are reduced, it was achieved with the PT6 by having the hottest parts, the gas generator turbine and combustor, at the propeller end. They are removed without disturbing the rest of the engine with its connections to the aircraft; this arrangement was patented by one of the original PT6 team. An early design improvement, incorporated in the PT6A-20, was the pipe diffuser patented by Vrana, another of the original PT6 team, it replaced the vaned type of diffuser used in centrifugal compressors.
The pipe diffuser became standard design practise for P&WC. Another design change improved the part-speed functioning of the compressor, it is common to bleed air from a compressor to make it work properly at low engine speeds. The PT6 has a bleed arrangement which reuses the bleed air by returning it in a tangential direction at the entry to the com
The Cessna 172 Skyhawk is an American four-seat, single-engine, high wing, fixed-wing aircraft made by the Cessna Aircraft Company. First flown in 1955, more 172s have been built than any other aircraft. Measured by its longevity and popularity, the Cessna 172 is the most successful aircraft in history. Cessna delivered the first production model in 1956 and as of 2015, the company and its partners had built more than 44,000; the aircraft remains in production today. The Skyhawk's main competitors have been the Beechcraft Musketeer and Grumman AA-5 series, the Piper Cherokee, more the Diamond DA40 and Cirrus SR20; the Cessna 172 started life as a tricycle landing gear variant of the taildragger Cessna 170, with a basic level of standard equipment. In January 1955, Cessna flew an improved variant of the Cessna 170, a Continental O-300-A-powered Cessna 170C with larger elevators and a more angular tailfin. Although the variant was tested and certified, Cessna decided to modify it with a tricycle landing gear, the modified Cessna 170C flew again on 12 June 1955.
To reduce the time and cost of certification, the type was added to the Cessna 170 type certificate as the Model 172. The 172 was given its own type certificate, 3A12; the 172 became an overnight sales success, over 1,400 were built in 1956, its first full year of production. Early 172s were similar in appearance to the 170s, with the same straight aft fuselage and tall landing gear legs, although the 172 had a straight tailfin while the 170 had a rounded fin and rudder. In 1960, the 172A incorporated revised landing gear and the swept-back tailfin, still in use today; the final aesthetic development, found in the 1963 172D and all 172 models, was a lowered rear deck allowing an aft window. Cessna advertised this added rear visibility as "Omni-Vision."Production halted in the mid-1980s, but resumed in 1996 with the 160 hp Cessna 172R Skyhawk. Cessna supplemented this in 1998 with the 180 hp Cessna 172S Skyhawk SP; the Cessna 172 may be modified via a wide array of supplemental type certificates, including increased engine power and higher gross weights.
Available STC engine modifications increase power from 180 to 210 hp, add constant-speed propellers, or allow the use of automobile gasoline. Other modifications include additional fuel tank capacity in the wing tips, added baggage compartment tanks, added wheel pants to reduce drag, or enhanced landing and takeoff performance and safety with a STOL kit; the 172 has been equipped with the 180 hp fuel injected Superior Air Parts Vantage engine. A Cessna 172 was used in 1958 to set the world record for flight endurance. On December 4, 1958, Robert Timm and John Cook took off from McCarran Airfield in Las Vegas, Nevada, in a used Cessna 172, registration number N9172B, they landed back at McCarran Airfield on February 7, 1959, after 64 days, 22 hours, 19 minutes and 5 seconds in flight. The flight was part of a fund-raising effort for the Damon Runyon Cancer Fund. Food and water were transferred by matching speeds with a chase car on a straight stretch of road in the desert and hoisting the supplies aboard with a rope and bucket.
Fuel was taken on by hoisting a hose from a fuel truck up to the aircraft, filling an auxiliary belly tank installed for the flight, pumping that fuel into the aircraft's regular tanks and filling the belly tank again. The drivers steered while a second person matched speeds with the aircraft with his foot on the vehicle's accelerator pedal. Engine oil was added by means of a tube from the cabin, fitted to pass through the firewall. Only the pilot's seat was installed; the remaining space was used for a pad. The right cabin door was replaced with an easy-opening, accordion-type door to allow supplies and fuel to be hoisted aboard. Early in the flight, the engine-driven electric generator failed. A Champion wind-driven generator was hoisted aboard, taped to the wing support strut, plugged into the cigarette lighter socket; the pilots decided to end the marathon flight because with 1,558 hours of continuously running the engine during the record-setting flight, plus several hundred hours on the engine beforehand, the engine's power output had deteriorated to the point at which they were able to climb away after refueling.
The aircraft is on display in the passenger terminal at McCarran International Airport. Photos and details of the record flight can be seen in a small museum on the upper level of the baggage claim area. After the flight, Cook said: Next time I feel in the mood to fly endurance, I'm going to lock myself in our garbage can with the vacuum cleaner running; that is. 172The basic 172 appeared in November 1955 as the 1956 model and remained in production until replaced by the 172A in early 1960. It was equipped with a Continental O-300 145 hp six-cylinder, air-cooled engine and had a maximum gross weight of 2,200 lb. Introductory base price was US$8,995 and a total of 4,195 were constructed over the five years. 172AThe 1960 model 172A introduced a swept-back rudder, as well as float fittings. The price was US$9,450 and 1,015 were built. 172BThe 172B was introduced in late 1960 as the 1961 model and featured a shorter landing gear, engine mounts lengthened three inches, a reshaped cowling, a pointed propeller spinner.
For the first time, the "Skyhawk" name was applied to an available deluxe option package. This added optional equipment included full exteri
Cessna 441 Conquest II
The Cessna 441 Conquest II is the first turboprop powered aircraft designed by Cessna and was meant to fill the gap between their jets and piston-engined aircraft. It was developed in November 1974, with the first aircraft delivered in September 1977, it is 8 -- 9 passenger turbine development of the Cessna 404 Titan. The original design from 1972 for this aircraft was known as the Model 435 and was to be powered by Continental GTSIO-520X engines with three bladed propellers. By 1975 the designed evolved into the turboprop powered Model 441; the aircraft has retractable tricycle landing gear and on takeoff has a ground roll of 1,785 ft. The high aspect ratio wings use bonded construction techniques. Cessna renamed the model 441 the Conquest II in 1983; the Conquest is powered by two Garrett TPE331 turboprops powering two Hartzell three bladed propellers. 1984 models starting with constructor number 195 used lighter weight four-bladed McCauley propellers. A 441 with Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-112 turboprops was flown in 1986 but did not enter production.
The Cessna 441 is limited to 22,500 hours of air time by a Cessna Supplementary Inspection Document. This life-limit SID is mandatory in the USA for air carriers operating the aircraft but is advisory only for private operators; the ICAO designator for the Cessna Conquest as used in flight plans is C441. A smaller aircraft was marketed as the Cessna 425 Conquest I, itself a turbine development of the Cessna 421; the majority of Cessna 441s have been modified by installing Garrett TPE331-10 engines in place of the earlier versions of this same engine that it was delivered with. This modification reduces maintenance costs while increasing horsepower, service ceiling, fuel efficiency and range. Cessna 441s with this conversion tend to have higher resale values than aircraft that have not been converted. Converting from the standard three blade propellers to smaller diameter Hartzell four blade propellers results in a climb rate improved by 200 fpm and a 5 kn increase in cruise speed as well as reducing cabin noise and improving ground clearance.
The Conquest is operated by corporate owners, air charter operators and by the Royal Flying Doctor Service in Australia. Examples of the type have been exported to many countries including Austria, Canada, Finland, Iceland, Norway, South Africa and the United Kingdom. Many remain in service. Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1982–83General characteristics Crew: 1 or 2 pilots Capacity: 8-10 passengers Length: 39 ft 0 in Wingspan: 49 ft 4 in Height: 13 ft 2 in Wing area: 253.6 sq ft Aspect ratio: 9.6:1 Airfoil: NACA 23018 at root, NACA 23019 at tip Empty weight: 5,682 lb Gross weight: 9,850 lb Powerplant: 2 × Garrett TPE331-8-403S turboprops, 636 shp each Propellers: 4-bladed McCauleyPerformance Maximum speed: 340 mph at 16,000 ft Cruise speed: 298 mph at 35,000 ft Stall speed: 86 mph. The General Aviation Handbook. Hinckley, England: Midland Publishing. ISBN 978-1-85780-222-1. Taylor, John W. R.. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1982–83. London: Jane's Yearbooks. ISBN 0-7106-0748-2. Airliners.net - Photographs Airliners.net - Cessna Conquest
The Cessna 180 is a four- or six-seat, fixed conventional gear general aviation airplane, produced between 1953 and 1981. Though the design is no longer in production, many of these aircraft are still in use as personal aircraft and in utility roles such as bush flying. Cessna introduced the heavier and more powerful 180 as a complement to the Cessna 170, it came to be known as the Skywagon. The prototype Cessna 180, N41697, first flew on May 26, 1952. Cessna engineering test pilot William D. Thompson was at the controls. In all its versions, 6,193 Cessna 180s were manufactured. In 1956, a tricycle gear version of this design was introduced as the Cessna 182, which came to bear the name Skylane. Additionally, in 1960, Cessna introduced a heavier, more powerful sibling to the 180, the conventional gear Cessna 185. For a time, all three versions of the design were in production; the airframe of the 180 is all-metal, constructed of aluminum alloy. The fuselage is a semi-monocoque structure, with exterior skin sheets riveted to formers and longerons.
The strut-braced wings are constructed of exterior skin sheets riveted to spars and ribs. The landing gear of the 180 is in a conventional arrangement, with main gear legs made of spring steel, a steerable tailwheel mounted on a hollow tapered steel tube. Cessna 180s produced between 1953 and 1963 have two side windows, while 1964 to 1981 models feature three side windows, as they use the same fuselage as the Cessna 185. 180s can be equipped with skis. The Cessna 180 gained recognition as the aircraft chosen by Geraldine Mock, the first woman pilot to fly around the world; the flight was made in 1964 in her 1953 model, the Spirit of Columbus, as chronicled in her book Three-Eight Charlie. The Cessna factory obtained the aircraft and kept it at the Pawnee manufacturing plant after the epic flight, suspended from the ceiling over one of the manufacturing lines, it is on display at the National Air and Space Museum. 180 Four seat high wing light aircraft powered by a 225 hp Continental O-470-A, O-470-J, or a 230 hp O-470-K engine, landplane gross weight 2,550 lb and first certified on 23 December 1952.
180A Four seat high wing light aircraft powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-K, landplane gross weight 2,650 lb and first certified on 17 December 1956. 180B Four seat high wing light aircraft powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-K, landplane gross weight 2,650 lb and first certified on 22 August 1958. 180C Four seat high wing light aircraft powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-L or O-470-R, landplane gross weight 2,650 lb and first certified on 8 July 1959. 180D Four seat high wing light aircraft powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-L or O-470-R, landplane gross weight 2,650 lb and first certified on 14 June 1960. 180E Four seat high wing light aircraft powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-L or O-470-R, landplane gross weight 2,650 lb and first certified on 21 September 1961. 180F Four seat high wing light aircraft powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-L or O-470-R, landplane gross weight 2,650 lb and first certified on 25 June 1962. 180G Six seat high wing light aircraft powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-L or O-470-R, landplane gross weight 2,800 lb and first certified on 19 July 1963.
180H Six seat high wing light aircraft powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-L or O-470-R, landplane gross weight 2,800 lb and first certified on 17 June 1964. 180I There was no "I" model Cessna 180. 180J Six seat high wing light aircraft powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-R or O-470-S, landplane gross weight 2,800 lb and first certified on 13 October 1972. 180K Six seat high wing light aircraft powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-U for which AVGAS 100 or 100LL is specified. The Cessna 180 is popular with air charter companies and is operated by private individuals and companies. Australia19 Cessna 180s were in service with both the Australian Army and RAAF from 1959 to 1974. Royal Australian Air Force No. 16 Air Observation Post Flight RAAF Australian Army Aviation No. 16 Army Light Aircraft Flight No. 161 Reconnaissance Flight – The Australian Army operated a number of Cessna 180s as surveillance aircraft with the 161 Reconnaissance Flight during the Vietnam War. Burkina FasoUnion of Burma Air Force - 10 Cessna 180s operated in 1982.
El Salvador Guatemala HondurasHonduran Air Force IsraelIsraeli Air Force Khmer RepublicKhmer Air Force – operated 2 Cessna 180s. Kingdom of LaosRoyal Lao Air Force Nicaragua PhilippinesPhilippine Air Force ThailandRoyal Thai Navy UruguayUruguayan Air Force Data from CessnaGeneral characteristics Crew: one Capacity: five passengers Length: 25 ft 9 in Wingspan: 35 ft 10 in Height: 7 ft 9 in Wing area: 174 sq ft Empty weight: 1,700 lb Gross weight: 2,800 lb Powerplant: 1 × Continental O-470-U, 230 hp Propellers: 2-bladed constant speed, 6 ft 10 in diameterPerformance Maximum speed: 148 kn Cruise speed: 142 kn Stall speed: 48 kn Range: 890 nmi Service ceiling: 17,700 ft Rate of climb: 1,100 ft/min Related development Cessna 170 Cessna 182 Cessna 185 Gaines, Mike. "World Air Forces 1982". Flight International. Vol. 122 no. 3835. Pp. 1327–1388. ISSN 0015-3710. Retrieved 18 March 2019. Hatch, Paul F.. "World Air Forces 1988". F
Wichita is the largest city in the U. S. state of Kansas and the county seat of Sedgwick County. As of 2017, the estimated population of the city was 390,591. Wichita is the principal city of the Wichita metropolitan area which had an estimated population of 644,610 in 2015. Located in south-central Kansas on the Arkansas River, Wichita began as a trading post on the Chisholm Trail in the 1860s and was incorporated as a city in 1870, it became a destination for cattle drives traveling north from Texas to Kansas railroads, earning it the nickname "Cowtown."In the 1920s and'30s, businessmen and aeronautical engineers established aircraft manufacturing companies in Wichita, including Beechcraft and Stearman Aircraft. The city became a U. S. aircraft production hub known as "The Air Capital of the World." Textron Aviation, Learjet and Spirit AeroSystems continue to operate design and manufacturing facilities in Wichita, the city remains a major center of the American aircraft industry. Wichita is home to McConnell Air Force Base, Wichita Dwight D. Eisenhower National Airport, the largest airport in Kansas.
As an industrial hub, Wichita is a regional center of culture and trade. It hosts several universities, large museums, theaters and entertainment venues, notably Intrust Bank Arena and Century II Performing Arts & Convention Center; the city's Old Cowtown Museum maintains historical artifacts and exhibits on the city's early history. Wichita State University is the third-largest post-secondary institution in the state. Archaeological evidence indicates human habitation near the confluence of the Arkansas and Little Arkansas Rivers, the site of present-day Wichita, as early as 3000 B. C. In 1541, a Spanish expedition led by explorer Francisco Vázquez de Coronado found the area populated by the Quivira, or Wichita, people. Conflict with the Osage in the 1750s drove the Wichita further south. Prior to American settlement of the region, the site was located in the territory of the Kiowa. Claimed first by France as part of Louisiana and acquired by the United States with the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, it became part of Kansas Territory in 1854 and the state of Kansas in 1861.
The Wichita returned in 1864 due to the American Civil War and established a settlement on the banks of the Little Arkansas. During this period, trader Jesse Chisholm established a trading post at the site, one of several along a trail extending south to Texas which became known as the Chisholm Trail. After the war, the Wichita permanently relocated south to Indian Territory. In 1868, trader James R. Mead established another trading post at the site, surveyor Darius Munger built a house for use as a hotel, community center, post office. Business opportunities attracted area hunters and traders, a new settlement began to form; that summer and others organized the Wichita Town Company, naming the settlement after the Wichita tribe. In 1870, Munger and German immigrant William "Dutch Bill" Greiffenstein filed plats laying out the city's first streets. Wichita formally incorporated as a city on July 21, 1870. Wichita's position on the Chisholm Trail made it a destination for cattle drives traveling north from Texas to access railroads which led to markets in eastern U.
S. cities. The Atchison and Santa Fe Railway reached the city in 1872; as a result, Wichita became a railhead for the cattle drives, earning it the nickname "Cowtown". Across the Arkansas River, the town of Delano became an entertainment destination for cattlemen thanks to its saloons and lack of law enforcement; the area had a reputation for violence until local lawmen, Wyatt Earp among them, began to assertively police the cowboys. By the end of the decade, the cattle trade had moved west to Dodge City. Wichita annexed Delano in 1880. Rapid immigration resulted in a speculative land boom in the late 1880s, stimulating further expansion of the city. Fairmount College, which grew into Wichita State University, opened in 1886. By 1890, Wichita had become the third-largest city in the state after Kansas City and Topeka with a population of nearly 24,000. After the boom, the city entered an economic recession, many of the original settlers went bankrupt. In 1914 and 1915, deposits of oil and natural gas were discovered in nearby Butler County.
This triggered another economic boom in Wichita as producers established refineries, fueling stations, headquarters in the city. By 1917, there were five operating refineries in Wichita with another seven built in the 1920s; the careers and fortunes of future oil moguls Archibald Derby, who founded Derby Oil, Fred C. Koch, who established what would become Koch Industries, both began in Wichita during this period; the money generated by the oil boom enabled local entrepreneurs to invest in the nascent airplane manufacturing industry. In 1917, Clyde Cessna built his Cessna Comet in the first aircraft built in the city. In 1920, two local oilmen invited Chicago aircraft builder Emil "Matty" Laird to manufacture his designs in Wichita, leading to the formation of the Swallow Airplane Company. Two early Swallow employees, Lloyd Stearman and Walter Beech, went on to found two prominent Wichita-based companies, Stearman Aircraft in 1926 and Beechcraft in 1932, respectively. Cessna, started his own company in Wichita in 1927.
The city became such a center of the industry that the Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce dubbed it the "Air Capital of the World" in 1929. Over the following decades and aircraft manufacturing continued to drive expansion of the city. In 1934, Stearman's Wichita facilities became part of Boeing which would become the city's largest employer. I
The Cessna 205, 206, 207, known as the Stationair are a family of single-engined, general aviation aircraft with fixed landing gear, used in commercial air service and for personal use. The family was developed from the popular retractable-gear Cessna 210 and produced by the Cessna Aircraft Company; the line's combination of a powerful engine, rugged construction and a large cabin has made these aircraft popular bush planes. Cessna describes the 206 as "the sport-utility vehicle of the air." These airplanes are used for aerial photography and other utility purposes. They can be equipped with floats, amphibious floats and skis. Alternatively, they can be fitted with luxury appointments for use as a personal air transport. From 1962 to 2006 Cessna produced 8,509 aircraft in the 206 and 207 variants; the aircraft remains in production. The Cessna 205 was introduced late in 1962 as a 1963 model year; the six-seat aircraft was a Cessna 210 with fixed landing gear and with changes to the crew and passenger door arrangement, being designated by Cessna as a "Model 210-5".
The 205 retained the early 210’s engine cowling bulge where the 210 stowed its nosewheel on retraction. This distinctive cowling was made more streamlined on the Cessna 206; the 205 is powered by a Continental IO-470-S engine producing 260 hp. The 205 was produced in only two model years, 1963 and 1964, before being replaced in production by the Cessna 206. A total of 576 Cessna 205s were produced; the six-seat Model 206 was introduced as a 1964 model and was built until 1986, when Cessna halted production of its single-engined product line. It was re-introduced in 1998 and remains in production in 2018. There were many sub-variants, including the U206, P206 all certified to CAR3 standards and 206H certified to FAR Part 23; the total Model 206 production between 1964 and 2004 was 6,581 aircraft. The original 1964 model was the U206, powered by a 285 hp Continental IO-520-A; the “U” designation indicated “utility” and this model was equipped with a pilot side door and large clamshell rear door serving the back two rows of seats, allowing easy loading of oversized cargo.
There was a TU206 turbocharged version powered by the Continental TSIO-520-C engine producing 285 hp. After 1967 the turbo TU206 was powered by a TSIO-520-F of 300 hp; the extra 15 hp was obtained by turning the engine at a higher rpm, was allowed for only five minutes. Due to the large propeller diameter, the additional engine speed meant that the propeller tips were pushed to transonic speeds, which required much more power. From 1964 to 1969 the U206 was known as the “Super Skywagon”. From 1970 it was named the “Stationair”, a contraction of “Station Wagon of the Air”, a good description of the aircraft's intended role. Sub-variants were designated U206 to U206G. In 1977 the U206 had its engine upgraded to a Continental IO-520-F of 300 hp and the TU206 powerplant was changed to the TSIO-520-M producing 310 hp. Production of all versions of the U206 was halted in 1986 when Cessna stopped manufacturing all piston-engined aircraft. A total of 5,208 U206s had been produced; the P206 was added to the line in 1965.
In this case the “P” stood for “people”, as the P206 had passenger doors similar to the Cessna 210 from which it was derived, on both sides. The P206 was powered by a Continental IO-520-A of 285 hp. There was a turbocharged model designated TP206, powered by a Continental TSIO-520-A of 285 hp.647 P206s were produced under the name “Super Skylane” which made it sound like a version of the Cessna 182, which it was not. Sub-variants were designated P206 to P206E. After a production hiatus of twelve years, Cessna started manufacturing a new version of the venerable 206 in 1998, with the introduction of the newly certified 206H; the “H” model is similar to the previous U206 configuration, with a pilot entry door and a rear double clamshell door for access to the middle and back seats. The "H" is marketed under the name "Stationair"; the 206H is powered by a Lycoming IO-540-AC1A powerplant producing 300 hp. The turbocharged T206H is powered by a Lycoming TSIO-540-AJ1A engine of 310 hp. Though the Cessna 206H is certified as a six-seat aircraft in its country of origin, the Canadian aviation regulator, Transport Canada has certified it to carry only five people in Canada.
This is due to concerns about passenger egress through the rear clamshell door with the flaps extended. Cessna addressed one part of this problem early on, after a flight-test aircraft was damaged when the pilot extended the flaps while taxiing, his passenger had the clamshell door open. A switch was added to the flap actuation circuit; the other part of the problem is that if the flaps are down, the passenger must perform the complicated procedure of opening the front part as far as possible open the rear door and restow the rear door handle. This gives enough clearance to open the rear part of the door. Both the 206H and the T206H remain in production in 2013. By the end of 2004 Cessna had produced 221 206Hs and 505 T206Hs, for a total production of 726 "H" models. Cessna has indicated that they do not intend to produce a P206-configuration aircraft in the future, due to lack of market demand; the Model 207 was a seven- and eight-seat development of the 206, achieved by stretching the design further by 45 inches (114