The Cessna 180 is a four- or six-seat, fixed conventional gear general aviation airplane, produced between 1953 and 1981. Though the design is no longer in production, many of these aircraft are still in use as personal aircraft and in utility roles such as bush flying. Cessna introduced the heavier and more powerful 180 as a complement to the Cessna 170, it came to be known as the Skywagon. The prototype Cessna 180, N41697, first flew on May 26, 1952. Cessna engineering test pilot William D. Thompson was at the controls. In all its versions, 6,193 Cessna 180s were manufactured. In 1956, a tricycle gear version of this design was introduced as the Cessna 182, which came to bear the name Skylane. Additionally, in 1960, Cessna introduced a heavier, more powerful sibling to the 180, the conventional gear Cessna 185. For a time, all three versions of the design were in production; the airframe of the 180 is all-metal, constructed of aluminum alloy. The fuselage is a semi-monocoque structure, with exterior skin sheets riveted to formers and longerons.
The strut-braced wings are constructed of exterior skin sheets riveted to spars and ribs. The landing gear of the 180 is in a conventional arrangement, with main gear legs made of spring steel, a steerable tailwheel mounted on a hollow tapered steel tube. Cessna 180s produced between 1953 and 1963 have two side windows, while 1964 to 1981 models feature three side windows, as they use the same fuselage as the Cessna 185. 180s can be equipped with skis. The Cessna 180 gained recognition as the aircraft chosen by Geraldine Mock, the first woman pilot to fly around the world; the flight was made in 1964 in her 1953 model, the Spirit of Columbus, as chronicled in her book Three-Eight Charlie. The Cessna factory obtained the aircraft and kept it at the Pawnee manufacturing plant after the epic flight, suspended from the ceiling over one of the manufacturing lines, it is on display at the National Air and Space Museum. 180 Four seat high wing light aircraft powered by a 225 hp Continental O-470-A, O-470-J, or a 230 hp O-470-K engine, landplane gross weight 2,550 lb and first certified on 23 December 1952.
180A Four seat high wing light aircraft powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-K, landplane gross weight 2,650 lb and first certified on 17 December 1956. 180B Four seat high wing light aircraft powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-K, landplane gross weight 2,650 lb and first certified on 22 August 1958. 180C Four seat high wing light aircraft powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-L or O-470-R, landplane gross weight 2,650 lb and first certified on 8 July 1959. 180D Four seat high wing light aircraft powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-L or O-470-R, landplane gross weight 2,650 lb and first certified on 14 June 1960. 180E Four seat high wing light aircraft powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-L or O-470-R, landplane gross weight 2,650 lb and first certified on 21 September 1961. 180F Four seat high wing light aircraft powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-L or O-470-R, landplane gross weight 2,650 lb and first certified on 25 June 1962. 180G Six seat high wing light aircraft powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-L or O-470-R, landplane gross weight 2,800 lb and first certified on 19 July 1963.
180H Six seat high wing light aircraft powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-L or O-470-R, landplane gross weight 2,800 lb and first certified on 17 June 1964. 180I There was no "I" model Cessna 180. 180J Six seat high wing light aircraft powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-R or O-470-S, landplane gross weight 2,800 lb and first certified on 13 October 1972. 180K Six seat high wing light aircraft powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-U for which AVGAS 100 or 100LL is specified. The Cessna 180 is popular with air charter companies and is operated by private individuals and companies. Australia19 Cessna 180s were in service with both the Australian Army and RAAF from 1959 to 1974. Royal Australian Air Force No. 16 Air Observation Post Flight RAAF Australian Army Aviation No. 16 Army Light Aircraft Flight No. 161 Reconnaissance Flight – The Australian Army operated a number of Cessna 180s as surveillance aircraft with the 161 Reconnaissance Flight during the Vietnam War. Burkina FasoUnion of Burma Air Force - 10 Cessna 180s operated in 1982.
El Salvador Guatemala HondurasHonduran Air Force IsraelIsraeli Air Force Khmer RepublicKhmer Air Force – operated 2 Cessna 180s. Kingdom of LaosRoyal Lao Air Force Nicaragua PhilippinesPhilippine Air Force ThailandRoyal Thai Navy UruguayUruguayan Air Force Data from CessnaGeneral characteristics Crew: one Capacity: five passengers Length: 25 ft 9 in Wingspan: 35 ft 10 in Height: 7 ft 9 in Wing area: 174 sq ft Empty weight: 1,700 lb Gross weight: 2,800 lb Powerplant: 1 × Continental O-470-U, 230 hp Propellers: 2-bladed constant speed, 6 ft 10 in diameterPerformance Maximum speed: 148 kn Cruise speed: 142 kn Stall speed: 48 kn Range: 890 nmi Service ceiling: 17,700 ft Rate of climb: 1,100 ft/min Related development Cessna 170 Cessna 182 Cessna 185 Gaines, Mike. "World Air Forces 1982". Flight International. Vol. 122 no. 3835. Pp. 1327–1388. ISSN 0015-3710. Retrieved 18 March 2019. Hatch, Paul F.. "World Air Forces 1988". F
The Cessna 150 is a two-seat tricycle gear general aviation airplane, designed for flight training and personal use. The Cessna 150 is the fifth most produced civilian plane with 23,839 aircraft produced; the Cessna 150 was offered for sale in the 150 basic model, Commuter II, Patroller and the aerobatic Aerobat models. Development of the Model 150 began in the mid-1950s with the decision by Cessna Aircraft to produce a successor to the popular Cessna 140 which finished production in 1951; the main changes in the 150 design were the use of tricycle landing gear, easier to learn to use than the tailwheel landing gear of the Cessna 140, replacing the rounded wingtips and horizontal and vertical stabilizers with more modern, squared-off profiles. In addition, the narrow, hinged wing flaps of the 140 were replaced by larger, far more effective Fowler flaps; the Cessna 150 prototype first flew on September 12, 1957, with production commencing in September 1958 at Cessna's Wichita, Kansas plant. 1,764 aircraft were produced by Reims Aviation under license in France.
These French manufactured 150s were designated Reims F-150, the "F" indicating they were built in France. American-made 150s were all produced with the Continental O-200-A 100 hp engine, but the Reims-built aircraft are powered by a Rolls Royce-built Continental O-200-As; some versions have Continental O-240-A engines. All Cessna 150s have effective flaps that extend 40 degrees; the best-performing airplanes in the 150 and 152 fleet are the 1962 Cessna 150B and the 1963 Cessna 150C. Thanks to their light 1,500 lb gross weight and more aerodynamic rear fuselage, they climb the fastest, have the highest ceilings, require the shortest runways, they have a 109-knot cruise speed, faster than any other model year of either the 150 or 152. All models from 1966 onwards have increased baggage space. With the 1967 Model 150G the doors were bowed outwards 1.5 inches on each side to provide more cabin elbow room. A total of 22,138 Cessna 150s were built in the United States, including 21,404 Commuters and 734 Aerobats.
Reims Aviation completed 1,764 F-150s, of which 1,428 were 336 were Aerobats. A Reims affiliate in Argentina assembled 47 F-150s, including 38 Commuters and 9 Aerobats. Of all the Cessna 150-152 models, the 1966 model year was the most plentiful with 3,067 1966 Cessna 150s produced; this was the first year the aircraft featured a swept tail fin, increased baggage area and electrically operated flaps. The 150 was succeeded in the summer of 1977 by the related Cessna 152; the 152 is more economical to operate due to the increased TBO of the Lycoming O-235 engine. The 152 had its flap travel limited to 30 degrees, from the 150's 40 degree flap deflection, for better climb with full flaps and the maximum certified gross weight was increased from 1,600 lb on the 150 to 1670 lb on the 152. Production of the 152 ended in 1985. In 2007 Cessna announced the two-seat successor to the Model 162 Skycatcher. 150The first model year of the Cessna 150 carried no suffix letter. It was available as the "150" or the upgraded "Commuter".
The engine was a 100 horsepower Continental O-200, the gross weight was 1,500 lb and flaps were actuated manually with a lever between the seats. Production commenced late in 1958 as the 1959 model year; the cost was US$6,995 for the Standard Model 150, $7,940 for the Trainer and $8,545 for the Commuter. The 1960 model introduced a 35-ampere generator on the Commuter; the "patroller" was introduced in 1960. This was a standard 150 with acrylic glass windows on the lower doors, 35 US gallon long-range fuel tanks and a message chute for dropping packages to the ground. Production was 122 in 1958, 648 in 1959 and 354 in 1960. 150AThe 1961 model incorporated enough changes to justify a suffix letter and thus was designated the “150A”. The "A" had its main landing gear moved aft by two inches to eliminate the problem of the aircraft ending up on its tail while loading people and baggage and to improve nosewheel steering authority; the "A" had 15% larger rear side windows and new adjustable seats. 344 were constructed.
150BThe 150B was the 1962 model. It had a new propeller that increased cruise speed by 2 knots and the option of a two-passenger child seat for the baggage compartment. 331 "B" models were built. The Commuter version cost US$8,995. 150CThe 1963 model was the "C", which introduced the option of larger 6.00×6 inch tires to replace the standard 5.00×5 tires and fuel quick drains. 472 were completed. 150DThe 1964 "D" model brought the first dramatic change to the 150 – the introduction of a rear window under the marketing name Omni-Vision. The rear window cost 3 mph in cruise speed, it resulted in a larger baggage compartment and a greater structural weight allowance for baggage from 80 to 120 lb. The unswept tailfin from previous years was retained for another two years. Elevator and rudder mass balances were increased to reduce flutter potential caused by the less aerodynamic rear fuselage; the gross weight of the aircraft was increased in 1964 to 1,600 lb, where it would stay until the advent of the Cessna 152.
804 150Ds were built. Many people find the new cabin more "airy" and due to the increased light. 150EThe 1965 Cessna 150E saw only the addition of new seats, although the standard empty weight went up 40 lb that year to 1,010 lb. The "E" model saw production increase to 1637 aircraft. 150FThe 1966 model saw great changes to the 150 design. The tailfin was swept back 35 degrees to match the styling of the C
Cessna 182 Skylane
The Cessna 182 Skylane is an American four-seat, single-engined light airplane, built by Cessna of Wichita, Kansas. It has the option of adding two child seats, installed in the baggage area. Introduced in 1956, the 182 has been produced in a number of variants, including a version with retractable landing gear, is the second most popular Cessna model, after the 172; the Cessna 182 was introduced in 1956 as a tricycle gear variant of the 180. In 1957, the 182A variant was introduced along with the name Skylane; as production continued models were improved with features such as a wider fuselage, swept tailfin with rear "omni-vision" window, enlarged baggage compartment, higher gross weights, landing gear changes, etc. The "restart" aircraft built after 1996 were different in many other details including a different engine, new seating design, etc. By mid-2013 Cessna planned to introduce the next model of the 182T, the JT-A, using the 227 hp SMA SR305-230 diesel engine running on Jet-A with a burn rate of 11 U.
S. gallons per hour and cruise at 155 kn. Cessna has no timeline for the JT-A and the diesel 172; the aspirated, avgas fueled 182 went out of production in 2012, but came back in 2015. Cessna 182s were built in Argentina by DINFIA, by Reims Aviation, France, as the F182; the Cessna 182 is an all-metal aircraft, although some parts – such as engine cowling nosebowl and wingtips – are made of fiberglass or thermoplastic material. Its wing has the same planform as the larger 205/206 series; the retractable gear R182 and TR182 were offered from 1978 to 1986, without and with engine turbocharging respectively. The model designation nomenclature differs from some other Cessna models with optional retractable gear. For instance the retractable version of the Cessna 172 was designated as the 172RG, whereas the retractable gear version of the Cessna 182 is the R182. Cessna gave the R182 the marketing name of "Skylane RG"; the R182 and TR182 offer 10-15% improvement in climb and cruise speeds over their fixed gear counterparts or, alternatively, 10-15% better fuel economy at the same speeds at the expense of increased maintenance costs and decreased gear robustness.
The 1978 R182 has a sea level climb rate of 1140 fpm and cruising speed at 7,500 feet of 156 KTAS at standard temperature. The landing gear retraction system in the Skylane RG uses hydraulic actuators powered by an electrically driven pump; the system includes a gear position warning that emits an intermittent tone through the cabin speaker when the gear is in the retracted position and either the throttle is reduced below 12" MAP or the flaps are extended beyond 20 degrees. In the event of a hydraulic pump failure, the landing gear may be lowered using a hand pump to pressurize the hydraulic system; the system does not, allow the landing gear to be manually retracted. 182 Initial production version with fixed landing gear, four-seat light aircraft, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-L piston engine, gross weight 2,550 lb and certified on 2 March 1956. 182A Skylane Four-seat light aircraft with fixed landing gear, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-L piston engine, gross weight 2,650 lb and certified on 7 December 1956.
182B Skylane Four-seat light aircraft with fixed landing gear, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-L piston engine, gross weight 2,650 lb and certified on 22 August 1958. 182C Skylane Four-seat light aircraft with fixed landing gear, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-L piston engine, gross weight 2,650 lb and certified on 8 July 1959. 182D Skylane Four-seat light aircraft with fixed landing gear, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-L piston engine, gross weight 2,650 lb and certified on 14 June 1960. 182E Skylane Four-seat light aircraft with fixed landing gear, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-L or O-470-R piston engine, gross weight 2,800 lb and certified on 27 June 1961. 182F Skylane Four-seat light aircraft with fixed landing gear, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-L or O-470-R piston engine, gross weight 2,800 lb and certified on 1 August 1962. 182G Skylane Four-seat light aircraft with fixed landing gear, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-L or O-470-R piston engine, gross weight 2,800 lb and certified on 19 July 1963.
182H Skylane Four-seat light aircraft with fixed landing gear, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-R piston engine, gross weight 2,800 lb and certified on 17 September 1964. 182J Skylane Four-seat light aircraft with fixed landing gear, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-R piston engine, gross weight 2,800 lb and certified on 20 October 1965. 182K Skylane Four-seat light aircraft with fixed landing gear, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-R piston engine, gross weight 2,800 lb and certified on 3 August 1966. 182L Skylane Four-seat light aircraft with fixed landing gear, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-R piston engine, gross weight 2,800 lb and certified on 28 July 1967. 182M Skylane Four-seat light aircraft with fixed landing gear, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-R piston engine, gross weight 2,800 lb and certified on 19 September 1968. There was an experimental version of this model with a full cantilever wing. 182N Skylane Four-seat light aircraft with fixed landing gear, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-R or O-470-S piston engine, gross weight 2,950 l
The Cessna 172 Skyhawk is an American four-seat, single-engine, high wing, fixed-wing aircraft made by the Cessna Aircraft Company. First flown in 1955, more 172s have been built than any other aircraft. Measured by its longevity and popularity, the Cessna 172 is the most successful aircraft in history. Cessna delivered the first production model in 1956 and as of 2015, the company and its partners had built more than 44,000; the aircraft remains in production today. The Skyhawk's main competitors have been the Beechcraft Musketeer and Grumman AA-5 series, the Piper Cherokee, more the Diamond DA40 and Cirrus SR20; the Cessna 172 started life as a tricycle landing gear variant of the taildragger Cessna 170, with a basic level of standard equipment. In January 1955, Cessna flew an improved variant of the Cessna 170, a Continental O-300-A-powered Cessna 170C with larger elevators and a more angular tailfin. Although the variant was tested and certified, Cessna decided to modify it with a tricycle landing gear, the modified Cessna 170C flew again on 12 June 1955.
To reduce the time and cost of certification, the type was added to the Cessna 170 type certificate as the Model 172. The 172 was given its own type certificate, 3A12; the 172 became an overnight sales success, over 1,400 were built in 1956, its first full year of production. Early 172s were similar in appearance to the 170s, with the same straight aft fuselage and tall landing gear legs, although the 172 had a straight tailfin while the 170 had a rounded fin and rudder. In 1960, the 172A incorporated revised landing gear and the swept-back tailfin, still in use today; the final aesthetic development, found in the 1963 172D and all 172 models, was a lowered rear deck allowing an aft window. Cessna advertised this added rear visibility as "Omni-Vision."Production halted in the mid-1980s, but resumed in 1996 with the 160 hp Cessna 172R Skyhawk. Cessna supplemented this in 1998 with the 180 hp Cessna 172S Skyhawk SP; the Cessna 172 may be modified via a wide array of supplemental type certificates, including increased engine power and higher gross weights.
Available STC engine modifications increase power from 180 to 210 hp, add constant-speed propellers, or allow the use of automobile gasoline. Other modifications include additional fuel tank capacity in the wing tips, added baggage compartment tanks, added wheel pants to reduce drag, or enhanced landing and takeoff performance and safety with a STOL kit; the 172 has been equipped with the 180 hp fuel injected Superior Air Parts Vantage engine. A Cessna 172 was used in 1958 to set the world record for flight endurance. On December 4, 1958, Robert Timm and John Cook took off from McCarran Airfield in Las Vegas, Nevada, in a used Cessna 172, registration number N9172B, they landed back at McCarran Airfield on February 7, 1959, after 64 days, 22 hours, 19 minutes and 5 seconds in flight. The flight was part of a fund-raising effort for the Damon Runyon Cancer Fund. Food and water were transferred by matching speeds with a chase car on a straight stretch of road in the desert and hoisting the supplies aboard with a rope and bucket.
Fuel was taken on by hoisting a hose from a fuel truck up to the aircraft, filling an auxiliary belly tank installed for the flight, pumping that fuel into the aircraft's regular tanks and filling the belly tank again. The drivers steered while a second person matched speeds with the aircraft with his foot on the vehicle's accelerator pedal. Engine oil was added by means of a tube from the cabin, fitted to pass through the firewall. Only the pilot's seat was installed; the remaining space was used for a pad. The right cabin door was replaced with an easy-opening, accordion-type door to allow supplies and fuel to be hoisted aboard. Early in the flight, the engine-driven electric generator failed. A Champion wind-driven generator was hoisted aboard, taped to the wing support strut, plugged into the cigarette lighter socket; the pilots decided to end the marathon flight because with 1,558 hours of continuously running the engine during the record-setting flight, plus several hundred hours on the engine beforehand, the engine's power output had deteriorated to the point at which they were able to climb away after refueling.
The aircraft is on display in the passenger terminal at McCarran International Airport. Photos and details of the record flight can be seen in a small museum on the upper level of the baggage claim area. After the flight, Cook said: Next time I feel in the mood to fly endurance, I'm going to lock myself in our garbage can with the vacuum cleaner running; that is. 172The basic 172 appeared in November 1955 as the 1956 model and remained in production until replaced by the 172A in early 1960. It was equipped with a Continental O-300 145 hp six-cylinder, air-cooled engine and had a maximum gross weight of 2,200 lb. Introductory base price was US$8,995 and a total of 4,195 were constructed over the five years. 172AThe 1960 model 172A introduced a swept-back rudder, as well as float fittings. The price was US$9,450 and 1,015 were built. 172BThe 172B was introduced in late 1960 as the 1961 model and featured a shorter landing gear, engine mounts lengthened three inches, a reshaped cowling, a pointed propeller spinner.
For the first time, the "Skyhawk" name was applied to an available deluxe option package. This added optional equipment included full exteri
The Cessna Next Generation Propeller Aircraft was a proof-of-concept design for a future family of single engine, fixed-gear, high cantilever wing, light aircraft intended for personal, flight training and commercial use. The single flying prototype, registered N99110, was flight tested by Cessna, first seen publicly in flight on 24 July 2006 at EAA AirVenture Oshkosh; the aircraft was introduced as the "Next Generation Piston", but starting in April 2008 Cessna began referring to it as the "Next Generation Propeller" aircraft instead. After absorbing the purchased Columbia Aircraft line, now known as the Cessna 350 and Cessna 400, Cessna indicated that it was re-positioning the NGP to fit logically into its current aircraft fleet. "Our team is working on finalizing the configuration," said Van Abel, Cessna’s project engineer for the NGP in April 2008. “We continue to evaluate features and materials that will produce a new, unique aircraft family with a potential for multiple powerplants.” This indicates that the aircraft may become turbine or diesel powered so as not to conflict with sales of the 350 and 400.
Little information was made public about the aircraft since development began sometime in early 2005. Cessna confirmed that the NGP was designed to compete with other, newer aircraft. Due to its intended role as competition for the Cirrus SR22, it was referred to in the aviation press as the "Cirrus Killer"; the NGP mock-up displayed at AOPA Air Expo 2006, in Palm Springs, California had five seats. The aircraft was, at that time, intended be powered by a Lycoming IO-580 FADEC 320 hp engine controlled by a single power lever; the design mock-up had four doors with a separate baggage door on the left side, tricycle landing gear with a castering nose wheel and a forward-swept high-mounted wing of small area. The prototype accumulated more than 20 hours of flying time between its first flight on 23 June 2006 and the fly-by at Oshkosh on 24 July 2006. During its appearance at AirVenture it was painted in a factory-style paint scheme and sported wheelpants; the structure was made from composite materials and aluminum.
Cessna President and CEO Jack Pelton confirmed at AirVenture 2006 that the NGP was intended at that time to be the first of a new family of Cessna singles that would, in the long term, replace the Cessna 172 and 182 in production. Pelton confirmed that while the prototype flew with a Lycoming powerplant, Cessna was examining alternative new technology engines as well. On 27 November 2007 Cessna purchased Columbia Aircraft from bankruptcy for US$26.4M including its Columbia 350 and 400 line, which are in the same size and performance class as the NGP. These were introduced into the Cessna line as the Cessna 350 and Cessna 400 and built at former Columbia factory in Bend, Oregon. In 2009 Cessna moved production to Wichita; the introduction of the similar Columbia designs caused media speculation that this would spell the end of the NGP project, but on September 26, 2007 Cessna Vice President for Sales, Roger Whyte confirmed that development of the Cessna NGP project was continuing, regardless of the purchase of Columbia.
In January 2009 Cessna CEO Jack Pelton gave an update on current Cessna projects under development and mentioned the 162 SkyCatcher, Cessna Citation Columbus and the Citation CJ4. No mention of the NGP project was made and the project's webpage was deleted. On 30 March 2011 at Sun'n Fun Cessna President Jack Pelton was interviewed by Paul Bertorelli of AvWeb about the NGP project and he indicated that it was "inactive but not mothballed" at that time, awaiting the right engine and avionics combination. By August 2011 the prototype was no longer on the Federal Aviation Administration registry. Related development Cessna 162Aircraft of comparable role and era Cirrus SR22 Columbia 400 Van's Aircraft RV-10 Avweb article on the NGP EAA's coverage of the aircraft's unveiling Cirrus SR22 performance parameters Cirrus SR22 pricing information Benenson, Flying Magazine, Oct 2006, pg 21, NGP Means "Next Generation Piston" Cessna press release announcing the NGP - accessed 16 October 2006 Cessna NGP home page Photos of the Cessna NGP on AvWeb Cessna NGP Press release
The Cessna 152 is an American two-seat, fixed tricycle gear, general aviation airplane, used for flight training and personal use. It was based on the earlier Cessna 150, including a number of minor design changes and a more powerful engine running on 100LL aviation gasoline; the Cessna 152 has been out of production for more than thirty years, but there are still a large number of aircraft in flying condition. Due to the aircraft's durability many examples have flown more than 15,000 hours and over 60,000 landings and are still in regular use for flight training. First delivered in 1977 as the 1978 model year, the 152 was a modernization of the proven Cessna 150 design; the 152 was intended to compete with the new Beechcraft Skipper and Piper Tomahawk, both of which were introduced the same year. Additional design goals were to improve useful load through a gross weight increase to 1670 lbs, decrease internal and external noise levels and run better on the newly introduced 100LL fuel; as with the 150, the great majority of 152s were built at the Cessna factory in Kansas.
A number of aircraft were built by Reims Aviation of France and given the designation F152/FA152. Production of the 152 was ended in 1985. In 2007 Cessna announced that it would build a light sport successor, designated the Model 162 Skycatcher, although production ended in 2013. All Cessna 152s were manufactured with a Lycoming O-235 engine, in production since 1942; the Lycoming provided not only an increase in engine power over the Cessna 150, but was more compatible with the newer 100LL low lead fuel. Cessna 152s produced between 1977 and 1982 were equipped with Lycoming O-235-L2C engines producing 110 hp at 2550 rpm; this engine still suffered some lead-fouling problems in service. In 1983 it was succeeded by the 108 hp O-235-N2C which featured a different piston design and a redesigned combustion chamber to reduce this problem; the N2C engine was used until 152 production ended in 1985. The airframe is of metal construction. Being of 2024-T3 aluminum alloy with riveted skin. Components such as wingtips and fairings are made from glass-reinforced plastic.
The fuselage is a semi-monocoque with vertical bulkheads and frames joined by longerons running the length of the fuselage. The wings have a 1 degree dihedral angle; the tapered portion of each wing has one degree of washout. This allows greater aileron effectiveness during a stall; the 1978 model has a one piece cowling nose bowl. The 1979 model introduced a split-nose cowling nose bowl that can be removed without removing the propeller. Dual controls are available as optional equipment on the Cessna 152 and all 152s have this option installed; the Cessna 152 is equipped with differential ailerons that move through 20 degrees upwards and 15 degrees downwards. It has single-slotted flaps which are deploy to a maximum of 30 degrees; the rudder is fitted with a ground-adjustable trim tab. The elevators move up through 25 degrees and down through 18 degrees. An adjustable trim tab is installed on the right elevator and is controlled by a small wheel in the center of the control console; the trim tab moves 10 degrees up and 20 degrees down relative to the elevator chordline.
The Cessna 152 is equipped with fixed tricycle landing gear. The main gear has tubular steel legs surrounded by a full-length fairing with a step for access to the cabin; the main gear has a 7 ft 7 in wheelbase. The nosewheel is connected to the engine mount and has an oleo strut to dampen and absorb normal operating loads; the nosewheel is steerable through eight degrees either side of neutral and can castor under differential braking up to 30 degrees. It is connected to the rudder pedals through a spring linkage; the braking system consists of single disc brake assemblies fitted to the main gear and operated by a hydraulic system. Brakes are operated by pushing on the top portion of the rudder pedals, it is possible to use differential braking when taxiing and this allows tight turns to be made. The 152 is fitted with a parking brake system, it is applied by depressing both toe brakes and pulling the "Park Brake" lever to the pilot’s left. The toe brakes are released but pressure is maintained in the system thereby leaving both brakes engaged.
The standard tires used are 500 X 5 on the nosewheel. There are hundreds of modifications available for the Cessna 152; the most installed include: Taildragger conversions such as the'Texas Taildragger' conversion are available and have been fitted to some 152s. It involves strengthening the fuselage for the main gear being moved further forward, removing the nosewheel and strengthening the tail area for the tailwheel; this improves short field performance and is claimed to give up to a 10 kn cruise speed increase. The wings can be modified using a number of STOL modification kits, some improving high speed/cruise performance but most concentrating on STOL performance. Horton's STOL kit is one of the better-known of the latter, it involves fitting a more cambered leading edge cuff to increase the maximum coefficient of lift, fitting fences at the aileron/flap intersection and fitting drooped wingtips. Stalls with these modifications are off the airspeed indicator, since instrument e
Cessna O-1 Bird Dog
The Cessna L-19/O-1 Bird Dog was a liaison and observation aircraft. It was the first all-metal fixed-wing aircraft ordered for and by the United States Army following the Army Air Forces' separation from it in 1947; the Bird Dog had a lengthy career in the U. S. military, as well as in other countries. The U. S. Army was searching for an aircraft that could adjust artillery fire, as well as perform liaison duties, preferably be constructed of all metal, as the fabric-covered liaison aircraft used during World War II had short service lives; the U. S. Army issued the specification for a two-seat liaison and observation monoplane, the Cessna Aircraft Company submitted the Cessna Model 305A, a development of the Cessna 170; the Cessna 305A was a single-engined, strut-braced, high-wing monoplane with a tailwheel landing gear. The greatest difference from the Cessna 170 was that the 305A had only two seats, in tandem configuration, with angled side windows to improve ground observation. Other differences included a redesigned rear fuselage, providing a view directly to the rear, transparent panels in the wings' center-section over the cockpit, which allowed the pilot to look directly overhead.
A wider door was fitted to allow a stretcher to be loaded. The U. S. Army awarded a contract to Cessna for 418 of the aircraft, designated the L-19A Bird Dog; the prototype Cessna 305 first flew on 14 December 1949, it now resides in the Spirit of Flight Center in Erie, Colorado. Deliveries began in December 1950, the aircraft were soon in use fighting their first war in Korea from 1950 through 1953. An instrument trainer variant was developed in 1953 versions had constant speed propellers, the final version, the L-19E, had a larger gross weight. Cessna produced 3,431 aircraft; the L-19 received the name Bird Dog as a result of a contest held with Cessna employees to name the aircraft. The winning entry, submitted by Jack A. Swayze, an industrial photographer, was selected by a U. S. Army board; the name was chosen because the role of the army's new aircraft was to find the enemy and orbit overhead until artillery could be brought to bear on the enemy. While flying low and close to the battlefield, the pilot would observe the exploding shells and adjust the fire via his radios, in the manner of a bird dog used by game hunters.
The United States Department of Defense ordered 3,200 L-19s that were built between 1950 and 1959, entering both the U. S. Army and U. S. Marine Corps inventories designated as OE-1s in the Marine Corps until all US military aircraft designations were standardized in 1962; the aircraft were used in various utility roles such as artillery spotting, front line communications and training. In 1962, the Army L-19 and Marine Corps OE-1 was redesignated the O-1 Bird Dog and entered the war in Vietnam. During the early 1960s, the Bird Dog was flown by South Vietnamese, U. S. Army, U. S. Marines in South Vietnam and by clandestine forward air controllers in Laos and Cambodia; because of its short takeoff and landing and low altitude/low airspeed capabilities, the O-1 later found its way into U. S. Air Force service as a Forward Air Controller aircraft for vectoring faster fighter and attack aircraft and supporting combat search-and-rescue operations recovering downed aircrews. During the Vietnam War the Bird Dog was used for reconnaissance, target acquisition, artillery adjustment, radio relay, convoy escort and the forward air control of tactical aircraft, to include bombers operating in a tactical role.
Supplementing the O-1 gradually replacing it, the USAF switched to the Cessna O-2 Skymaster and North American OV-10 Bronco, while the U. S. Marine Corps took delivery of the OV-10 to replace their aging O-1s. Both were faster twin-engined aircraft, with the OV-10 being a turboprop aircraft, but the U. S. Army retained the Bird Dog throughout the war with up to 11 Reconnaissance Airplane Companies deployed to cover all of South Vietnam, the DMZ and the southern edge of North Vietnam, its quieter noise footprint, lower speed, tighter maneuverability, short runway ability and better visibility kept it valued by the ground units it supported and feared by enemy units it flew over. The last U. S. Army O-1 Bird Dog was retired in 1974. During the course of the Vietnam War, 469 O-1 Bird Dogs were lost to all causes; the USAF lost 178, the USMC lost 7, 284 were lost from the U. S. Army, South Vietnamese Forces, clandestine operators. Three Bird Dogs were lost to enemy hand-held surface-to-air missiles.
Two O-1 Bird Dogs were loaned to the Australian Army's 161 Reconnaissance Flight operating out of Nui Dat in Phuoc Tuy province. One was lost to ground fire in May 1968. Another Bird Dog was built by this unit's maintenance crew, using aircraft sections salvaged from dumps around Vietnam, it was test-flown and smuggled back to Australia in pieces, contained in crates marked as "aircraft spares". This aircraft now resides in the Museum of Army Flying at the Army Aviation Center at Oakey, Queensland; as the USAF phased out the O-1 in favor of the O-2 and OV-10, many O-1s in the United States were sold as surplus. During the 1970s and 1980s, Ector Aircraft remanufactured many as the Ector Mountaineer with their original powerp