The Annunciation referred to as the Annunciation to the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Annunciation of Our Lady, or the Annunciation of the Lord, is the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox celebration of the announcement by the Archangel Gabriel to the Blessed Virgin Mary that she would conceive and become the mother of Jesus, the Son of God, marking His Incarnation. Gabriel told Mary to name her son Yeshua, meaning "YHWH is salvation". According to Luke 1:26, the Annunciation occurred "in the sixth month" of Elizabeth's pregnancy with John the Baptist. Many Christians observe this event with the Feast of the Annunciation on 25 March, an approximation of the northern vernal equinox nine full months before Christmas, the ceremonial birthday of Jesus; the Annunciation is a key topic in Christian art in general, as well as in Marian art in the Catholic Church during the Middle Ages and Renaissance. A work of art depicting the Annunciation is sometimes itself called an Annunciation. In the Bible, the Annunciation is narrated in Luke 1:26–38: 26 In the sixth month of Elizabeth’s pregnancy, God sent the angel Gabriel to Nazareth, a town in Galilee, 27 to a virgin pledged to be married to a man named Joseph, a descendant of David.
The virgin’s name was Mary. 28 The angel went to her and said, “Greetings, you who are favored! The Lord is with you.” 29 Mary was troubled at his words and wondered what kind of greeting this might be. 30 But the angel said to her, “Do not be afraid, Mary. 31 You will conceive and give birth to a son, you are to call him Jesus. 32 He will be called the Son of the Most High. The Lord God will give him the throne of his father David, 33 and he will reign over Jacob’s descendants forever. 34 “How will this be,” Mary asked the angel, “since I am a virgin?” 35 The angel answered, “The Holy Spirit will come on you, the power of the Most High will overshadow you. So the holy one to be born will be called the Son of God. 36 Even Elizabeth your relative is going to have a child in her old age, she, said to be unable to conceive is in her sixth month. 37 For no word from God will fail.” 38 “I am the Lord’s servant,” Mary answered. “May your word to me be fulfilled.” The angel left her. A separate, briefer annunciation is given to Joseph in Matthew 1:18–22: 18 This is how the birth of Jesus the Messiah came about: His mother Mary was pledged to be married to Joseph, but before they came together, she was found to be pregnant through the Holy Spirit.
19 Because Joseph her husband was faithful to the law, yet did not want to expose her to public disgrace, he had in mind to divorce her quietly. 20 But after he had considered this, an angel of the Lord appeared to him in a dream and said, “Joseph son of David, do not be afraid to take Mary home as your wife, because what is conceived in her is from the Holy Spirit. 21 She will give birth to a son, you are to give him the name Jesus, because he will save his people from their sins.” 22 All this took place to fulfill what the Lord had said through the prophet: 23 “The virgin will conceive and give birth to a son, they will call him Immanuel”. Manuscript 4Q246 of the Dead Sea Scrolls reads: shall be great upon the earth. O king, all people shall make peace, all shall serve him, he shall be called the son of the Great God, by his name shall he be hailed as the Son of God, they shall call him Son of the Most High. It has been suggested that the similarity in content is such that Luke's version may in some way be dependent on the Qumran text.
The Annunciation is described in the Quran, in Sura 003:045 verses 45–51: 45 Behold! the angels said: "O Mary! Allah giveth thee glad tidings of a Word from Him: his name will be Christ Jesus, the son of Mary, held in honour in this world and the Hereafter and of those nearest to Allah. In the Eastern Orthodox, Eastern Catholic, Oriental Orthodox Churches, the Feast of the Annunciation is one of the twelve "Great Feasts" of the liturgical year, is among the eight of them that are counted as "feasts of the Lord". Throughout the Orthodox Church, the feast is celebrated on March 25. In the churches that use the new style Calendar, this date coincides with March 25 on the civil calendar, while in those churches using the old style Julian calendar, March 25 is reckoned to fall on April 7 on the civil calendar, will fall on April 8 starting in the year 2100; the traditional hymn for the feast of the Annunciation goes back to St Athanasius. It runs: As the action initiating the Incarnation of Christ, Annunciation has such an important place in Orthodox Christian theology that the festal Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom is always celebrated on the feast if it falls on Great and Holy Friday, the day when the crucifixion of Jesus is remembered.
Indeed, the Divine Liturgy is celebrated on Great and Holy Friday only when the latter coincides with the feast of the Annunciation. If the Annunciation falls on Pascha itself, a coincidence, called Kyriopascha it is celebrated jointly with the Resurrection, the focus of Easter. Due to these and similar rules, the rubrics surrounding the celebration of the feast are the most complex of all in Orthodox Christian liturgics. St Ephraim taught that the date of the conception of Jesus Christ fell on 10 Nisan on the Hebrew calendar, the day in which the passover lamb was selected according to Exodus 12; some years 10 Nisan falls on March 25, the traditional date for the Feast of the Annunciation and is an offi
Venus and Mars (Botticelli)
Venus and Mars is a panel painting of about 1485 by the Italian Renaissance painter Sandro Botticelli. It shows the Roman gods Venus, goddess of love, Mars, god of war, in an allegory of beauty and valour; the youthful and voluptuous couple recline in a forest setting, surrounded by playful baby satyrs. The painting was intended to commemorate a wedding, set into panelling or a piece of furniture to adorn the bedroom of the bride and groom as part of a set of works; this is suggested by the close view of the figures. It is seen as representation of an ideal view of sensuous love, it seems that Botticelli worked out the concept for the painting, with its learned allusions, with an advisor such as Poliziano, the Medici house poet and Renaissance Humanist scholar. The National Gallery's dating in 2017 of "c. 1485". Lightbown dates it to "probably around 1483", but the Ettlingers to "the latter half of the 1480s". All dates depend on analysis of the style, as the painting has not been convincingly tied to a specific date, such as a wedding.
It therefore comes a few years after the Primavera and Pallas and the Centaur and around the time of The Birth of Venus. It is the only one of these paintings not in the Uffizi in Florence, has been in the National Gallery in London since 1874. Venus watches Mars sleep while two infant satyrs play, carrying his helmet and lance as another rests inside his breastplate under his arm. A fourth blows a small conch shell in his ear in an effort, so far unsuccessful, to wake him; the clear implication is that the couple have been making love, the male habit of falling asleep after sex was a regular subject for ribald jokes in the context of weddings in Renaissance Italy. The lance and conch can be read as sexual symbols; the scene is set in a grove of myrtle, traditionally associated with Venus and marriage, or laurel, associated with Lorenzo de' Medici, or both plants. There is a limited view of the meadow beyond, leading to a distant walled city. In the foreground, a swarm of wasps hovers around Mars' head as a symbol that love is accompanied by pain.
Another explanation, first suggested by Ernst Gombrich, is that the wasps represent the Vespucci family that may have commissioned the painting. They had been neighbours of Botticelli since his childhood, had commissioned his Saint Augustine in His Study for the Ognissanti church in 1480 in addition to other commissions, their coat of arms included wasps, as their name means "little wasps" in Italian, the wasps' nest, in a hollow in the tree in the top left corner, is in the place in the panel where the coat of arms of a patron was painted. The painting is thought to have been set into panelling as a spalliera, or part of furniture such as a bed, the back of a lettuccio, a wooden sofa, or a similar piece. Ronald Lightbown describes Mars as "Botticelli's most perfect male nude", though there are not a large number of these; the Venus here, unlike in the artist's Birth of Venus, is clothed, as she is in marital mode. This despite Venus being the wife of Vulcan, making the relationship adulterous by normal human standards.
In Greek Neoplatonism, Harmony was the daughter of their union. Other late classical sources regarded Cupid as a child of the union; the usual view of scholars is that the painting was commissioned to celebrate a marriage, is a uncomplicated representation of sensual pleasure, with an added meaning of love conquering or outlasting war. This was a commonplace in Renaissance thinking, which might be elaborated in terms of Renaissance Neoplatonism; as with the other mythologies, Ernst Gombrich and Edgar Wind were the first to analyse the painting in these terms. The couple's relationship could be considered in terms of astrology, in which Mars is, according to Marsilio Ficino, "outstanding in strength among the planets, because he makes men stronger, but Venus masters him...she seems to master Mars, but Mars never masters Venus". The Victorian critic John Addington Symonds, without disagreeing with that interpretation, thought the newly fashionable Botticelli overrated and "harboured an irrational dislike for the picture", writing that "The face and attitude of that unseductive Venus... opposite her snoring lover, seems to symbolize the indignities which women have to endure from insolent and sottish boys with only youth to recommend them."One dissenting interpretation is from Charles Dempsey, who finds a more sinister meaning in the picture, with the little satyrs as incubi who torment sleepers, provoking "sexual terrors in the dreams of those bound in a state of sensual error and confusion."
He concludes that "The idea of love here invested in Venus seems to be revealed, not in a positive celebration of the spirit animating natural life shown in the Primavera and Birth of Venus but as an empty sensual fantasy that disarms and torments the slumbering spirit of a once virile martial valour. The work is agreed by all to draw on the description by Lucian, a poet in Greek of the 2nd-century AD, of a famous painting, now lost, by Echion of the wedding ceremony of Alexander the Great and Roxana; the ancient painting adapted iconography associated with Venus and Mars to the historical Alexander and his bride. Lucian's ekphrasis or description mentions amoretti or putti playing with Alexander's armour during the ceremony, two carrying his lance and one who has crawled inside his breastplate; this is taken both as evidence of Botticelli's collaboration with Hu
Sant'Ambrogio Altarpiece (Botticelli)
The Madonna and Child with Six Saints known as Sant'Ambrogio Altarpiece, is a painting by the Italian Renaissance master Sandro Botticelli, finished around 1470. It is housed in Florence, it portrays the Virgin enthroned with the saints Mary Magdalene, John the Baptist, Francis of Assisi, Catherine of Alexandria and, kneeling and Damian. It is in fact most that the latter are portraits of Medici members. Lorenzo il Magnifico and his brother Giuliano have been considered. Page at artonline.it
The Sistine Chapel is a chapel in the Apostolic Palace, the official residence of the pope, in Vatican City. Known as the Cappella Magna, the chapel takes its name from Pope Sixtus IV, who restored it between 1477 and 1480. Since that time, the chapel has served as a place of both functionary papal activity. Today, it is the site of the process by which a new pope is selected; the fame of the Sistine Chapel lies in the frescos that decorate the interior, most the Sistine Chapel ceiling and The Last Judgment by Michelangelo. During the reign of Sixtus IV, a team of Renaissance painters that included Sandro Botticelli, Pietro Perugino, Domenico Ghirlandaio and Cosimo Rosselli, created a series of frescos depicting the Life of Moses and the Life of Christ, offset by papal portraits above and trompe-l'œil drapery below; these paintings were completed in 1482, on 15 August 1483 Sixtus IV celebrated the first mass in the Sistine Chapel for the Feast of the Assumption, at which ceremony the chapel was consecrated and dedicated to the Virgin Mary.
Between 1508 and 1512, under the patronage of Pope Julius II, Michelangelo painted the chapel's ceiling, a project which changed the course of Western art and is regarded as one of the major artistic accomplishments of human civilization. In a different climate, after the Sack of Rome, he returned and, between 1535 and 1541, painted The Last Judgment for Popes Clement VII and Paul III; the fame of Michelangelo's paintings has drawn multitudes of visitors to the chapel since they were revealed five hundred years ago. While known as the location of Papal conclaves, the primary function of the Sistine Chapel is as the chapel of the Papal Chapel, one of the two bodies of the Papal household, called until 1968 the Papal Court. At the time of Pope Sixtus IV in the late 15th century, the Papal Chapel comprised about 200 people, including clerics, officials of the Vatican and distinguished laity. There were 50 occasions during the year on which it was prescribed by the Papal Calendar that the whole Papal Chapel should meet.
Of these 50 occasions, 35 were masses, of which 8 were held in Basilicas, in general St. Peter's, were attended by large congregations; these included the Christmas Easter masses, at which the Pope himself was the celebrant. The other 27 masses could be held in a smaller, less public space, for which the Cappella Maggiore was used before it was rebuilt on the same site as the Sistine Chapel; the Cappella Maggiore derived its name, the Greater Chapel, from the fact that there was another chapel in use by the Pope and his retinue for daily worship. At the time of Pope Sixtus IV, this was the Chapel of Pope Nicholas V, decorated by Fra Angelico; the Cappella Maggiore is recorded as existing in 1368. According to a communication from Andreas of Trebizond to Pope Sixtus IV, by the time of its demolition to make way for the present chapel, the Cappella Maggiore was in a ruinous state with its walls leaning; the present chapel, on the site of the Cappella Maggiore, was designed by Baccio Pontelli for Pope Sixtus IV, for whom it is named, built under the supervision of Giovannino de Dolci between 1473 and 1481.
The proportions of the present chapel appear to follow those of the original. After its completion, the chapel was decorated with frescoes by a number of the most famous artists of the High Renaissance, including Sandro Botticelli, Domenico Ghirlandaio, Pietro Perugino, Michelangelo; the first mass in the Sistine Chapel was celebrated on 15 August 1483, the Feast of the Assumption, at which ceremony the chapel was consecrated and dedicated to the Virgin Mary. The Sistine Chapel has maintained its function to the present day, continues to host the important services of the Papal Calendar, unless the Pope is travelling. There is a permanent choir, the Sistine Chapel Choir, for whom much original music has been written, the most famous piece being Gregorio Allegri's Miserere. One of the functions of the Sistine Chapel is as a venue for the election of each successive pope in a conclave of the College of Cardinals. On the occasion of a conclave, a chimney is installed in the roof of the chapel, from which smoke arises as a signal.
If white smoke,which is created by burning the ballots of the election, appears, a new Pope has been elected. If a candidate receives less than a two-thirds vote, the cardinals send up black smoke—created by burning the ballots along with wet straw and chemical additives—it means that no successful election has yet occurred; the first papal conclave to be held on the Sistine Chapel was the conclave of 1492, which took place from August 6 from August 11 of the same year and in which Pope Alexander VI known as Rodrigo Borja, was elected. The conclave provided for the cardinals a space in which they could hear mass, in which they could eat and pass time attended by servants. From 1455, conclaves have been held in the Vatican. Since 1996, John Paul II's Apostolic Constitution Universi Dominici gregis requires the cardinals to be lodged in the Domus Sanctae Marthae during a papal conclave, but to continue to vote in the Sistine Chapel. Canopies for each cardinal-elector were once used during conclaves—a sign of equal dignity.
After the new Pope accepts his election, he would give his new name. Until reforms instituted by Saint Pius X, the canopies were of different colours to designate which Cardinals had been appointed by which Pope. Paul
Pallas and the Centaur
Pallas and the Centaur is a painting by the Italian Renaissance painter Sandro Botticelli, c. 1482. It is now in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence, it has been proposed as a companion piece to his Primavera. The medium used is tempera paints on canvas and its size is 207 x 148 cm; the painting has been retouched in many places, these retouchings have faded. The life-size figures are from classical mythology and form an allegory. There is a centaur on the left, a female figure holding a elaborate and no doubt heavy halberd on the right, she is clutching the centaur's hair, he seems submissive to her. The female figure was called Camilla in the earliest record of the painting, an inventory of 1499, but in an inventory of 1516 she is called Minerva, the Roman equivalent of Pallas Athene, which remains her usual identification in recent times. Camilla was a figure from Roman mythology, a princess raised in the forest by her father, the exiled King Metabus, to be a virgin warrior huntress, for whom subduing a centaur might be considered all in a day's work.
Pallas/Minerva, by contrast, is a major deity, goddess of wisdom and much else. Centaurs are associated with uncontrolled passion and sensuality, at least part of the meaning of the painting is about the submission of passion to reason. Various more specific personal and philosophical meanings along these general lines have been proposed; the fine cloth of Pallas' clinging dress is decorated with the three ring insignia of the Medici family, confirming that the painting was made for the Medici family. She wears laurel branches, entwined around her arms and chest as a crown. On her back is a shield and she wears leather sandals on her feet; the halberd in such large and elaborate form, was a weapon carried by guards rather than on the battlefield, the centaur has been arrested while preparing to shoot his bow. The painting is dated to about 1482 or 1483 on stylistic grounds, soon after Botticelii's return from Rome, where he had been part of the project to paint the Sistine Chapel; the features of the centaur are close to those of Moses in one of his frescos there.
The painting is connected with the wedding in 1482 of Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de' Medici to Semiramide Appiano as a wedding gift from Lorenzo de' Medici. Given the Medici device on Pallas' dress, it was commissioned by the Medici family, as were many of Botticelli’s paintings, has passed to the Uffizi with much of their collection. In 1499 an inventory lists it in the same room as Botticelli's Primavera, in the town palace in Florence of Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de' Medici and his brother Giovanni "Il Popolano", they were the cousins of Lorenzo de' Medici, de facto ruler of Florence, after their father's early death had been his wards. In the 16th century it hung in the Palazzo Vecchio. In 1638 it was at the Medici Villa di Castello, as was the Primavera it is recorded in the Pitti Palace by about 1830, by which time Botticelli was unfashionable and regarded as of historical interest; the painting was little-known until it was noticed in 1895 in one of the ante-rooms of the Palazzo Pitti by the English artist, living in Florence, William Blundell Spence.
The painting was in the Uffizi gallery from 1922. It has been transferred from panel to canvas. In 2015, this painting among other Botticelli paintings was in an exhibition that opened in Berlin before moving to London, it showcased Botticelli’s works and other artists’ renditions of his paintings such as his The Birth of Venus. There was a novel written about it by Linda Proud which describes Botticelli, this painting, its possible interpretations. There have been many pop culture references to some of Botticelli’s paintings including a dress worn by Lady Gaga that showed Botticelli’s painting Birth of Venus. If given by Lorenzo de' Medici for his cousin's wedding, the two figures may represent the couple, aside from any other interpretations; the lands of the bride's father, lord of Piombino on the Ligurian coast, the island of Elba just off it, might be considered as part of Camilla's hunting grounds. A possible interpretation of the painting is that Lorenzo de' Medici, if he was the main commissioner of this artwork, is represented by Pallas as he is overcoming the greed surrounding him – represented by the centaur – when he made a bold journey to Naples to reverse alliances and end the Pazzi War.
The Italian for the balls in the Medici coat of arms is palle, their supporters were sometimes called palleschi, which adds to the plausibility of political interpretations. Pallas is a figure of reason, restraining the beast of our nature – represented by the centaur – by the hair and looking at it with no fear; this has been connected with Sigmund Freud’s theory of the unconscious, to the Renaissance Neo-Platonist Marsilio Ficino's idea of the human soul as part animal and part human. It has been interpreted as an allegory on the peace after the Pazzi wars. Botticelli’s idea for the painting could have come from an image in the Chronography of 354, a Roman calendar by Furius Dionysius Filocalus, the secretary to Pope Damasus I; the calendar depicts a female warrior with a spear and shield holding the hair of a male figure with a bow and arrows by his feet. The male looks as if he is trying to escape her grasp; the two works are similar and it is possible Botticelli got his idea for his painting from this image, having seen a copy.
There are three drawings in Botticelli's style of Pallas, which may be earl
A Young Man Being Introduced to the Seven Liberal Arts
A Young Man Being Introduced to the Seven Liberal Arts known as Lorenzo Tornabuoni Presented by Grammar to Prudentia and the other Liberal Arts or Lorenzo Tornabuoni Being Introduced to the Liberal Arts, is a painting by the Italian Renaissance painter Sandro Botticelli, circa 1483-1486. The painting and its companion piece and the Three Graces Presenting Gifts to a Young Woman decorated Villa Lemmi, a country villa near Florence owned by Giovanni Tornabuoni, uncle of Lorenzo de' Medici and head of the Roman branch of the Medici Bank, they were commissioned for the 1486 wedding of Giovanni's son Lorenzo to Giovanna of the Albizzi family, are therefore thought to depict the two. A Young Man Being Introduced to the Seven Liberal Arts depicts a young man Lorenzo Tornabuoni, led by a personification of Grammar into a circle of allegorical figures representing the Seven Liberal Arts. Presided over by Prudentia, the circle includes Rhetoric, Arithmetic, Geometry and Music, each recognizable by means of various attributes.
In antiquity, the liberal arts denoted the education worthy of a free person and the painting therefore testifies to the young man's broad education. The figure of Arithmetic is seen holding its hand out in greeting to the young man. Tornabuoni, a scion to a banking family, would have had an education focused on numbers. Both paintings were discovered at Villa Lemmi in 1873 under a coat of whitewash and removed from their original location, they are housed in the Musée du Louvre, Paris
Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum
The Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum is a museum and art gallery in Glasgow, Scotland. It reopened in 2006 after a three-year refurbishment and since has been one of Scotland's most popular visitor attractions; the gallery is located on Argyle Street, in the West End of the city, on the banks of the River Kelvin. It is adjacent to Kelvingrove Park and is situated near the main campus of the University of Glasgow on Gilmorehill; the construction of Kelvingrove was financed by the proceeds of the 1888 International Exhibition held in Kelvingrove Park. The gallery was designed by Sir John W. Simpson and E. J. Milner Allen and opened in 1901, as the Palace of Fine Arts for the Glasgow International Exhibition held in that year, it is built in a Spanish Baroque style, follows the Glaswegian tradition of using Locharbriggs red sandstone, includes an entire program of architectural sculpture by George Frampton, William Shirreffs, Francis Derwent Wood and other sculptors. The centrepiece of the Centre Hall is a concert pipe organ installed by Lewis & Co..
The organ was commissioned as part of the Glasgow International Exhibition, held in Kelvingrove Park in 1901. The organ was installed in the concert hall of the exhibition, capable of seating 3,000 people; the Centre Hall of the newly completed Art Gallery and Museum was intended from the beginning to be a space in which to hold concerts. When the 1901 exhibition ended, a Councillor urged the Glasgow Corporation to purchase the organ, stating that without it, "the art gallery would be a body without a soul". Purchase price and installation costs were met from the surplus exhibition proceeds, the organ was installed in the Centre Hall by Lewis and Co; the present case front in walnut with non-functional display pipes was commissioned at this time from John W. Simpson. Simpson was the senior partner of architects of the gallery building. There is an urban myth in Glasgow that the building was accidentally built back-to-front, the architect jumped from one of the towers in despair upon realising his mistake.
In reality, the grand entrance was always intended to face into Kelvingrove Park. The museum's collections came from the McLellan Galleries and from the old Kelvingrove House Museum in Kelvingrove Park, it has one of the finest collections of arms and armour in the world and a vast natural history collection. The art collection includes many outstanding European artworks, including works by the Old Masters, French Impressionists, Dutch Renaissance, Scottish Colourists and exponents of the Glasgow School; the museum houses Christ of Saint John of the Cross by Salvador Dalí. The copyright of this painting was bought by the curator at the time after a meeting with Dalí himself. For a period between 1993 and 2006, the painting was moved to the St Mungo Museum of Religious Life and Art; the museum contains a large gift of the decorative arts from Anne Hull Grundy, an art collector and philanthropist, covering the history of European jewellery in the 18th and 19th centuries. Kelvingrove was reopened by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II on 11 July 2006 after a three-year closure for major refurbishment and restoration.
The work cost around £28 million and includes a new restaurant and a large basement extension to its display space to accommodate the 8,000 exhibits now on display. A new display layout and wayfinding scheme was introduced to make the building more visitor-friendly. After its 2003–06 refurbishment, the museum was the most popular free-to-enter visitor attraction in Scotland, recording 2.23 million visitors in 2007. These numbers made it the most visited museum in the United Kingdom outside London. In 2015 there were 1,261,552 visitors; the Kelvingrove Museum is mentioned in the lyrics of the Irish ballad "Hot Asphalt", a song about Irish navvies laying asphalt in Britain. During the course of the song, the singer'catches his death of cold', is taxidermied and displayed in the museum'as a monument to the Irish making hot asphalt'. Museum website