Munich is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria, the second most populous German federal state. With a population of around 1.5 million, it is the third-largest city in Germany, after Berlin and Hamburg, as well as the 12th-largest city in the European Union. The city's metropolitan region is home to 6 million people. Straddling the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps, it is the seat of the Bavarian administrative region of Upper Bavaria, while being the most densely populated municipality in Germany. Munich is the second-largest city in the Bavarian dialect area, after the Austrian capital of Vienna; the city is a global centre of art, technology, publishing, innovation, education and tourism and enjoys a high standard and quality of living, reaching first in Germany and third worldwide according to the 2018 Mercer survey, being rated the world's most liveable city by the Monocle's Quality of Life Survey 2018. According to the Globalization and World Rankings Research Institute Munich is considered an alpha-world city, as of 2015.
Munich is a major international center of engineering, science and research, exemplified by the presence of two research universities, a multitude of scientific institutions in the city and its surroundings, world class technology and science museums like the Deutsches Museum and BMW Museum.. Munich houses many multinational companies and its economy is based on high tech, the service sector and creative industries, as well as IT, biotechnology and electronics among many others; the name of the city is derived from the Old/Middle High German term Munichen, meaning "by the monks". It derives from the monks of the Benedictine order, who ran a monastery at the place, to become the Old Town of Munich. Munich was first mentioned in 1158. Catholic Munich resisted the Reformation and was a political point of divergence during the resulting Thirty Years' War, but remained physically untouched despite an occupation by the Protestant Swedes. Once Bavaria was established as a sovereign kingdom in 1806, it became a major European centre of arts, architecture and science.
In 1918, during the German Revolution, the ruling house of Wittelsbach, which had governed Bavaria since 1180, was forced to abdicate in Munich and a short-lived socialist republic was declared. In the 1920s, Munich became home to several political factions, among them the NSDAP; the first attempt of the Nazi movement to take over the German government in 1923 with the Beer Hall Putsch was stopped by the Bavarian police in Munich with gunfire. After the Nazis' rise to power, Munich was declared their "Capital of the Movement". During World War II, Munich was bombed and more than 50% of the entire city and up to 90% of the historic centre were destroyed. After the end of postwar American occupation in 1949, there was a great increase in population and economic power during the years of Wirtschaftswunder, or "economic miracle". Unlike many other German cities which were bombed, Munich restored most of its traditional cityscape and hosted the 1972 Summer Olympics; the 1980s brought strong economic growth, high-tech industries and scientific institutions, population growth.
The city is home to major corporations like BMW, Siemens, MAN, Linde and MunichRE. Munich is home to many universities and theatres, its numerous architectural attractions, sports events and its annual Oktoberfest attract considerable tourism. Munich is one of the fastest growing cities in Germany, it is a top-ranked destination for expatriate location. Munich hosts more than 530,000 people of foreign background; the first known settlement in the area was of Benedictine monks on the Salt road. The foundation date is not considered the year 1158, the date the city was first mentioned in a document; the document was signed in Augsburg. By the Guelph Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, had built a toll bridge over the river Isar next to the monk settlement and on the salt route, but as part of the archaeological excavations at Marienhof in advance of the expansion of the S-Bahn from 2012 shards of vessels from the eleventh century were found, which prove again that the settlement Munich must be older than their first documentary mention from 1158.
In 1175 Munich received city fortification. In 1180 with the trial of Henry the Lion, Otto I Wittelsbach became Duke of Bavaria, Munich was handed to the Bishop of Freising. In 1240, Munich was transferred to Otto II Wittelsbach and in 1255, when the Duchy of Bavaria was split in two, Munich became the ducal residence of Upper Bavaria. Duke Louis IV, a native of Munich, was elected German king in 1314 and crowned as Holy Roman Emperor in 1328, he strengthened the city's position by granting it the salt monopoly, thus assuring it of additional income. In the late 15th century, Munich underwent a revival of gothic arts: the Old Town Hall was enlarged, Munich's largest gothic church – the Frauenkirche – now a cathedral, was constructed in only 20 years, starting in 1468; when Bavaria was reunited in 1506, Munich became its capital. The arts and politics became influenced by the court. During the 16th century, Munich was a centre of the German counter reformation, of renaissance arts. Duke Wilhelm V commissioned the Jesuit Michaelskirche, which became a centre for the counter-reform
Turkey national football team
The Turkey national football team represents Turkey in association football and is controlled by the Turkish Football Federation, the governing body for football in Turkey. They are affiliated with UEFA. Turkey has qualified three times for the FIFA World Cup, in 1950, 1954, 2002, although they withdrew from the 1950 event. Turkey has qualified four times for the UEFA European Championship, in 1996, 2000, 2008, 2016, they have reached the semi-finals of three major tournaments: the 2002 World Cup, the 2003 FIFA Confederations Cup, Euro 2008. After their third-place finish at the 2002 World Cup, which marked a high point in Turkish football history, Turkey occupied a spot in the top ten of the FIFA World Rankings for the first time since the rankings were introduced in December 1992; the Turkey national team played their first match against Romania in 1923, drawing 2–2. Zeki Rıza Sporel is considered as the first big star of Turkish football as he scored the first two goals against Romania. Turkey played their first official match at the 1924 Summer Olympics losing 5–2 to Czechoslovakia.
Although Turkey qualified for the 1950 World Cup, beating Syria 7–0, they were forced to withdraw from the tournament due to financial problems. Turkey qualified for the 1954 World Cup after a play-off with Spain; the Turkish team first lost 4–1 to Spain, but a 1–0 win a few days initiated a replay. On that occasion, they tied 2 -- 2 after. Turkey was put in a group along with West Germany; the Turks, never played Hungary due to the tournament format, a 4–1 defeat by the Germans was followed by Turkey carrying out a 7–0 win over South Korea. Turkey lost the play-off to West Germany 7–2. In 1956, Turkey did play Hungary in a friendly match in Istanbul, defeating what was one of the strongest teams of the era, 3–1. Lefter Küçükandonyadis, arguably one of the best Turkish strikers of all-time, scored two goals during the tournament. Despite the introduction of a national league, showings by Turkish clubs in European competition, the 1960s would be a barren time for the national team. Most players from the 1954 World Cup squad were retired, the new generation of players failed to qualify for a major tournament.
The 1970s saw Turkey holding back in the World Cup and UEFA European Championship qualifiers, but the team was a point too short to qualify for both UEFA Euro 1972 and Euro 1976. In the 1980s the Turkish team suffered their worst defeats with 8–0 scorelines against Poland and twice against England, yet the 1990 World Cup qualifiers would mark a turning point for Turkish football, with Turkey only missing out on qualification in the final match. Prominent players in this period included Rıdvan Dilmen, Oğuz Çetin, Rıza Çalımbay, Feyyaz Uçar, European Golden Boot winner Tanju Çolak. In 1990, German coach Sepp Piontek was put in charge of the national team. Under his guidance, a group of new players debuted for the national team. Many of these players would become the backbone of the national team for many years. Piontek's mission came to an end in 1993, where he was replaced by Fatih Terim, who in turn managed to qualify for Euro 1996. Turkey qualified for its first major tournament since 1954, marking another turning point for Turkish football after having failed to qualify for both Euro 1992 and the 1994 World Cup.
The appointment of Piontek was a recommended move by another German coach, Jupp Derwall, who had coached Galatasaray for three seasons. Derwall is regarded as the revolutionizer of Turkish football, since his introduction of modern Western European training techniques and tactical ideas to the Turkish game heavily influenced the national team. Turkey qualified for Euro 1996, defeating both Switzerland and Sweden 2–1 en route during qualification. Despite a solid performance during the qualifiers, Turkey lost all their matches without scoring a single goal, they did, however. Although Turkey failed to qualify for the 1998 World Cup, they qualified for Euro 2000 after winning a play-off against the Republic of Ireland. Turkey lost their first match 2–1 to Italy, they drew their second match against Sweden 0–0, beat host nation Belgium 2–0, making it the first time in the history of the UEFA European Championship a host nation had been eliminated in the first round; this victory brought Turkey into the last eight of the tournament, where they were beaten 2–0 by Portugal, with Arif Erdem missing a critical penalty.
For the 2002 World Cup, Turkey finished second in their qualifying group, despite starting well and being the favourites to top the group. They lost 2 -- 1 to Sweden in the crucial match; the Turks were forced to play the play-offs against Austria. They booked their place at the finals; the Turkish team started the 2002 World Cup with a 2–1 defeat against eventual winners Brazil. Turkey qualified from the group stage with a 3–0 win against China PR after drawing 1–1 with Costa Rica. Turkey faced home team Japan in the second round, winning 1–0; the Turkish team continued their run, as they beat Senegal 1–0 on a golden goal to book their place in the semi-finals, where a 1–0 defeat against eventual tournament winners Brazil forced them to play the third place match, a bronze medal was won after a 3–2 victory over co-hosts South Korea. Hakan Şükür scored Turkey's first goal in 10.8 seconds when the South Koreans kicked off first. It was the fastest goal in World Cup history. Tens of thousands of flag-waving Turkish fans greeted the World Cup squad on their return to Istanbul
A midfielder is an association football position. Midfielders are positioned on the field between their team's defenders and forwards; some midfielders play a disciplined defensive role, breaking up attacks, are otherwise known as defensive midfielders. Others blur the boundaries, being more mobile and efficient in passing: they are referred to as deep-lying midfielders, play-makers, box-to-box, or holding midfielders; the number of midfielders on a team and their assigned roles depends on the team's formation. Most managers assign at least one midfielder to disrupt the opposing team's attacks, while others may be tasked with creating goals, or have equal responsibilities between attack and defence. Midfielders are the players who travel the greatest distance during a match; because midfielders arguably have the most possession during a game they are among the fittest players on the pitch. Central or centre midfielders are players whose role is divided equally between attack and defence and to dominate the play around the centre of the pitch.
These players will try to pass the ball to the team's attacking midfielders and forwards and may help their team's attacks by making runs into the opposition's penalty area and attempting shots on goal themselves. When the opposing team has the ball, a central midfielder may drop back to protect the goal or move forward and press the opposition ball-carrier to recover the ball. A centre midfielder defending their goal will move in front of their centre-backs in order to block long shots by the opposition and track opposition midfielders making runs towards the goal; the 4–3–3 and 4–5–1 formations each use three central midfielders. The 4−4−2 formation may use two central midfielders, in the 4–2–3–1 formation one of the two deeper midfielders may be a central midfielder; the term box-to-box midfielder refers to central midfielders who are hard-working and who have good all-round abilities, which makes them skilled at both defending and attacking. These players can therefore track back to their own box to make tackles and block shots and run to the opponents' box to try to score.
The change of trends and the deviation from the standard 4–4–2 formation to the 4–2–3–1 formation imposed restrictions on the typical box-to-box midfielders of the 80s, as teams' two midfield roles were now divided into "holders" or "creators". Notable examples of box-to-box midfielders are Bastian Schweinsteiger, Yaya Touré, Radja Nainggolan. Left and right midfielders have a role balanced between attack and defence, similar to that of central midfielders, but they are positioned closer to the touchlines of the pitch, they may be asked to cross the ball into the opponents' penalty area to make scoring chances for their teammates, when defending they may put pressure on opponents who are trying to cross. Common modern formations that include left and right midfielders are the 4−4−2, the 4−4−1−1, the 4–2–3–1 and the 4−5−1 formations. Jonathan Wilson describes the development of the 4−4−2 formation: "…the winger became a wide midfielder, a shuttler, somebody who might be expected to cross a ball but was meant to put in a defensive shift."
Notable examples of wide midfielders are Ryan Giggs. The historic position of wing-half was given to midfielders, it became obsolete as wide players with defensive duties have tended to become more a part of the defence as full-backs. Defensive midfielders are midfield players; these players may defend a zone in front of their team's defence, or man mark specific opposition attackers. Defensive midfielders may move to the full-back or centre-back positions if those players move forward to join in an attack. Sergio Busquets described his attitude: "The coach knows that I am an obedient player who likes to help out and if I have to run to the wing to cover someone's position, great." A good defensive midfielder needs good positional awareness, anticipation of opponent's play, tackling, interceptions and great stamina and strength. A holding or deep-lying midfielder stays close to their team's defence, while other midfielders may move forward to attack; the holding midfielder may have responsibilities when their team has the ball.
This player will make short and simple passes to more attacking members of their team but may try some more difficult passes depending on the team's strategy. Marcelo Bielsa is considered as a pioneer for the use of a holding midfielder in defence; this position may be seen in the 4 -- 2 -- 3 -- 4 -- 4 -- 2 diamond formations. A defensive midfielder, or "destroyer", a playmaker, or "creator", were fielded alongside each other as a team's two holding central midfielders; the destroyer was responsible for making tackles, regaining possession, distributing the ball to the creator, while the creator was responsible for retaining possession and keeping the ball moving with long passes out to the flanks, in the manner of a more old-fashioned deep-lying playmaker or "regista". Early examples of a destroyer are Nobby Stiles, Herbert Wimmer, Marco Tardelli, while examples include Claude Makélélé and Javier Mascherano, although several of these players possessed qualities of other types of midfielders, were therefore not confined to a single role.
Early examples of a creator would be Gérson, Glenn Hoddle, Sunday Oliseh, while more recent examples Xabi Alonso, Michael Carrick. The latest and third type of holding midfielder developed as a box-to-box midfielder, or "carrier", neither destructive nor creative, capable of winning b
Belarus national football team
Belarus national football team represents Belarus in association football and is controlled by the Football Federation of Belarus, the governing body for football in Belarus. Belarus' home ground is Borisov Arena in Borisov. Belarus has not yet qualified for UEFA European Championship. Since March 2017 the team is coached by Igor Kriushenko. After the split of the Soviet Union, Belarus played their first match against Lithuania on 20 July 1992. Before that, several Belarusian players played for the Soviet Union national team; the first FIFA-recognized international was a friendly against Ukraine on 28 October 1992, their first win came in a match against Luxembourg on 12 October 1994. Belarus have never qualified for either the UEFA European Championship. Despite the lack of any significant success during the 1990s, some notable results were still achieved, like a home win against the Netherlands in the qualifiers for Euro 1996, two draws against Italy during Euro 2000 qualifiers. Under coach Eduard Malofeyev, the team came close to playing Germany in a play-off round to qualify for the 2002 World Cup in Japan and South Korea, but were defeated by Wales in the last group stage match, missing the chance to overtake Ukraine, who drew their last game, finishing the group second behind Poland.
Their Euro 2004 qualifying campaign was unsuccessful as Belarus lost seven of their eight games. Around the same time, a generational change occurred and a number of players from the U-21 team joined the senior national team. With each subsequent head coach the team improved their attacking skills; as a result, in each subsequent qualifying tournament starting with the 2006 World Cup, Belarus scored more goals than in previous campaigns. However, problems in defense and a lot of missed goals prevented them from finishing higher than fourth in the group; some notable results during this period, included a high-scoring 3–4 away loss to Italy in the 2006 World Cup qualifiers, another home victory against the Netherlands during the Euro 2008 qualifiers as well as an away win and a home draw against France in the Euro 2012 qualifiers. Belarusians achieved some success in minor tournaments. In 2002, the team beat out Ukraine to win the LG Cup. In 2004 and 2008, they won the 12th and 14th editions of the Malta International Tournament respectively.
The first with its Olympic Squad, the with the first team. The team played. Other venues are used: Molodechno City Stadium in May 1996, Vitebsky Central Sport Complex in Vitebsk in November 2005, Central Stadium in Gomel in October 2007, Neman Stadium in Grodno June 2009, Borisov City Stadium just a few days and Regional Sport Complex Brestskiy in Brest in October 2009. In late 2012 Dinamo Stadium was closed for renovation and the team started alternating between different home venues: Central Stadium in Gomel, Borisov City Stadium and Torpedo Stadium in Zhodino. From 2014 till 2017 Belarus played at Borisov Arena. In 2018 they returned to Dinamo Stadium, re-opened after major renovation. Throughout the 1990s and early 2000s Belarus played home games in all white changing shorts to green. All green uniform or green jerseys/white shorts were used as away kits. Since qualifying campaign for UEFA Euro 2004 Belarus changed their primary colors to red jerseys and green shorts, away kits to all white.
In 2011 home colors were changed to all red. All-White became the home colour a short time and now appears with the pattern on the Belarus flag, with the away kit being in Black in 2016 using an adidas template and placing the flag pattern on it. In August 2016, the Football Association announced that the team's nickname would be the "White Wings"; the name was influenced by the book The Land Beneath White Wings by famous Belarusian writer Uladzimir Karatkevich. The BFF’s new marketing and communications director, Uladzimir Berezhkov, said: "We are looking at various ways of establishing links with our literary heritage and cultural traditions", commenting that "If the Belarusian people opt to associate the team with Karatkevich every phrase in the book can be used as a hashtag!" Friendly match Friendly match 2018–19 UEFA Nations League D 2018–19 UEFA Nations League D 2018–19 UEFA Nations League D 2018–19 UEFA Nations League D 2018–19 UEFA Nations League D 2018–19 UEFA Nations League D UEFA Euro 2020 qualifying UEFA Euro 2020 qualifying UEFA Euro 2020 qualifying UEFA Euro 2020 qualifying UEFA Euro 2020 qualifying Friendly match UEFA Euro 2020 qualifying The following players were called up for the UEFA Euro 2020 qualifying matches against Netherlands and Northern Ireland on 21 and 24 March 2019.
Caps and goals are correct as of 24 March 2019, after the game against Netherlands. The following players have been called up to the Belarus squad during last 12 months. INJ Withdrew due to an injury PRE Preliminary squad RET Retired from national team Belarus B national team has been assembled a number of times throughout the hist
2013 Turkish Super Cup
2013 Turkish Super Cup was the 40th edition of the Turkish Super Cup since its establishment as Presidential Cup in 1966. The match was contested between the 2012–13 Süper Lig champions Galatasaray and the 2012–13 Turkish Cup winners Fenerbahçe, making the game the 375th edition of Kıtalar Arası Derbi; the game was a rematch of the 2012 Turkish Super Cup, won by title holders Galatasaray. This will be the 5th overall national super cup matchup between the teams since 1966, the second matchup since 2006, when the cup was rebranded as TFF Süper Kupa. Galatasaray last won the cup in 2012 against Fenerbahçe, Fenerbahçe last won the cup in 2009 against Beşiktaş. In their previous finals, both teams won twice. Galatasaray in 1996 and 2012, Fenerbahçe in 1973 and 1985. Galatasaray were champions in the regular season, finishing ten points ahead of Fenerbahçe. In the regular season, Galatasaray collected 71 points by 8 draws and 5 losses, they were trailed by Fenerbahçe, who collected 61 points by 7 draws and 9 losses.
Although runners-up of the league, Fenerbahçe performed better in the domestic cup. They entered the tournament at the fourth round, they won their fourth round match against Pendikspor. In the fifth round, they beat Göztepe. In the group stage they were drawn against Sivasspor, 1461 Trabzon, Bursaspor but were winners in the group; the semi-finals were the toughest home and away matches for Fenerbahçe, as they struggled against Eskişehirspor but were winners after a penalty shoot-out. In the 2013 Turkish Cup Final they were crowned champions against rivals Trabzonspor by a decisive 1–0 win; this was a consecutive win for Fenerbahçe. 2012–13 Süper Lig 2012–13 Turkish Cup
Trabzonspor are a professional Turkish sports club located in the city of Trabzon, Turkey. Formed in 1967 through a merger of several local clubs, the men's football department of Trabzonspor have won six Süper Lig championship titles. Trabzonspor have a women's football team and a men's basketball team. Trabzonspor are one of the most decorated clubs in Turkey, they are first non Istanbul-based club to win the league. They have got eight Federation Cup titles; the club won their first championship title in 1975–76, won three championship titles in a row in the 1978–79, 1979–80, 1980–81 seasons. From 1976 to 1984, Trabzonspor have won a total of 30 trophies: Süper Lig, Federation Cup, Süper Kupa, the Başbakanlık Kupası, Red Group Championship Second Division and Cyprus Peace Cup; the club colours are claret and blue, they have maroon and blue kits. Trabzonspor play at the Şenol Güneş Stadium which replaced the Hüseyin Avni Aker Stadium as their home ground during the 2016–17 season. In 1921 Trabzon İdman Ocağı were founded.
Trabzonspor were founded through a merger of several local clubs including İdman Ocağı in 1967. In 1975–76 season they won their first championship, won further titles in 1976–77, 1977–78,1979–80, 1980–81 and 1983–84. In the 2010–11 season Trabzonspor finished level on points to winners Fenerbahçe but were pushed into second on goal difference. Club completed Süper Lig contention between 3rd and 7th place through 1990s. 1992–93 season’s first 10 week was their worst season opening, they were down by 10 points from the leader. However, Ünal Karaman, one of the best players in Trabzonspor history, gained by the club, he was captain of the Turkey. There was Tolunay Kafkas; the club won 2 Turkish Cups, won a Presidential Cup, won 2 Chancellor Cups. In 1994–95 and 1995–96 seasons, they finished the league in the second place. In the 2010–11 season Trabzonspor finished runners-up to Fenerbahçe for points; however Fenerbahçe on goal difference. Two months had passed after the end of the season when the 2011 Turkish sports corruption scandal broke out.
The Turkish Football Federation banned Fenerbahçe from joining any UEFA competition for a year. Trabzonspor's board of directors applied to the Turkish Football Federation about this season's champions being them but their application was denied on the grounds that pertinent season's decision had been made. Although a number of theories have been put forward as to why the club colours of Trabzonspor are claret and blue, it has been claimed that they were adopted after the club were sent a set of kits by English club Aston Villa after their formation in 1967, they share the same club colours as Drogheda United, in Republic of Ireland and in 2011 the two sides became sister clubs. These were given in favor of the Ottoman Empire's assistance during Irish Famine. Since December 2016, Home ground is the Şenol Güneş Stadium, which has a capacity of 43,223. Former home ground is the Hüseyin Avni Aker Stadium, which has a capacity of 24,169; as of 21 January 2019: Note: Flags indicate national team. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
Trabzonspor U21 is a youth team of Trabzonspor. The club competes alongside other U21 clubs around Turkey. Notable former players include Hami Mandıralı, Gökdeniz Karadeniz, Fatih Tekke, Trabzonspor Kulübü Bayan Futbol Takımı are a Turkish women's association football club affiliated with Trabzonspor; the club was founded in 2007 and they are title holders of 2008–09 season of Turkish Women's First Football League. 1461 Trabzon was founded as Trabzon Karadenizspor in 2008 as a feederclub in which Trabzonspor holds first buying option on players as well as being able to loan out youngsters to gain first-team experience. As of 21 January, 2019: Süper Lig Winners: 1975–76, 1976–77, 1978–79, 1979–80, 1980–81, 1983–84 Runners-up: 1977–78, 1981–82, 1982–83, 1994–95, 1995–96, 2003–04, 2004–05, 2010–11 Cup Winners: 1976–77, 1977–78, 1983–84, 1991–92, 1994–95, 2002–03, 2003–04, 2009–10 Runners-up: 1974–75, 1975–76, 1984–85, 1989–90, 1996–97, 2012–13 Super Cup Winners: 1977–78, 1978–79, 1979–80, 1980–81, 1981–82, 1984–85, 1996–97, 2010–11 Runners-up: 1982–83, 1985–86, 1993–94 They first competed in Europe in 1976/77, reached the group stages of the Champions League in 2011/12.
As of 3 September 2018
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under