Mao Zedong known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976. His theories, military strategies, political policies are collectively known as Maoism. Mao was the son of a wealthy farmer in Hunan, he had a Chinese nationalist and anti-imperialist outlook early in his life, was influenced by the events of the Xinhai Revolution of 1911 and May Fourth Movement of 1919. He adopted Marxism–Leninism while working at Peking University, became a founding member of the Communist Party of China, leading the Autumn Harvest Uprising in 1927. During the Chinese Civil War between the Kuomintang and the CPC, Mao helped to found the Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army, led the Jiangxi Soviet's radical land policies, became head of the CPC during the Long March. Although the CPC temporarily allied with the KMT under the United Front during the Second Sino-Japanese War, China's civil war resumed after Japan's surrender and in 1949 Mao's forces defeated the Nationalist government, which withdrew to Taiwan.
On October 1, 1949, Mao proclaimed the foundation of the People's Republic of China, a single-party state controlled by the CPC. In the following years he solidified his control through land reforms and through a psychological victory in the Korean War, as well as through campaigns against landlords, people he termed "counter-revolutionaries", other perceived enemies of the state. In 1957, he launched a campaign known as the Great Leap Forward that aimed to transform China's economy from agrarian to industrial; this campaign led to the deadliest famine in history and the deaths of 20–45 million people between 1958 and 1962. In 1966, Mao initiated the Cultural Revolution, a program to remove "counter-revolutionary" elements in Chinese society which lasted 10 years and was marked by violent class struggle, widespread destruction of cultural artifacts, an unprecedented elevation of Mao's cult of personality; the program is now regarded as a "severe setback" for the PRC. In 1972, Mao welcomed U.
S. President Richard Nixon in Beijing, signalling the start of a policy of opening China to the world. After years of ill health, Mao suffered a series of heart attacks in 1976 and died at the age of 82, he was succeeded as paramount leader by Premier Hua Guofeng, sidelined and replaced by Deng Xiaoping. A controversial figure, Mao is regarded as one of the most important and influential individuals in modern world history, he is known as a political intellect, military strategist and visionary. Supporters credit him with driving imperialism out of China, modernising the nation and building it into a world power, promoting the status of women, improving education and health care, as well as increasing life expectancy as China's population grew from around 550 million to over 900 million under his leadership. Conversely, his regime has been called autocratic and totalitarian, condemned for bringing about mass repression and destroying religious and cultural artifacts and sites, it was additionally responsible for vast numbers of deaths with estimates ranging from 30 to 70 million victims through starvation, prison labour and mass executions.
Mao Zedong was born on December 1893, in Shaoshan village, Hunan Province, China. His father, Mao Yichang, was a impoverished peasant who had become one of the wealthiest farmers in Shaoshan. Growing up in rural Hunan, Mao described his father as a stern disciplinarian, who would beat him and his three siblings, the boys Zemin and Zetan, as well as an adopted girl, Zejian. Mao's mother, Wen Qimei, was a devout Buddhist. Mao too abandoned this faith in his mid-teenage years. At age 8, Mao was sent to Shaoshan Primary School. Learning the value systems of Confucianism, he admitted that he didn't enjoy the classical Chinese texts preaching Confucian morals, instead favouring popular novels like Romance of the Three Kingdoms and Water Margin. At age 13, Mao finished primary education, his father united him in an arranged marriage to the 17-year-old Luo Yixiu, thereby uniting their land-owning families. Mao refused to recognise her as his wife, becoming a fierce critic of arranged marriage and temporarily moving away.
Luo was locally disgraced and died in 1910. While working on his father's farm, Mao read voraciously and developed a "political consciousness" from Zheng Guanying's booklet which lamented the deterioration of Chinese power and argued for the adoption of representative democracy. Interested in history, Mao was inspired by the military prowess and nationalistic fervour of George Washington and Napoleon Bonaparte, his political views were shaped by Gelaohui-led protests which erupted following a famine in Changsha, the capital of Hunan. The famine spread to Shaoshan, he claimed sympathy for their situation. At age 16, Mao moved to a higher primary school in nearby Dongshan, where he was bullied for his peasant background. In 1911, Mao began middle school in Changsha. Revolutionary sentiment was strong in the city, where there was widespread animosity towards Emperor Puyi's absolute monarchy and many were advocating republicanism; the republicans' figurehead was Sun Yat-sen, an American-educated Christian who led the Tongmenghui society.
In Changsha, Mao was influenced by Sun's
Eelam People's Democratic Party
The Eelam People's Democratic Party is a political party and a pro-government paramilitary organization in Sri Lanka. It is led by its founder Douglas Devananda. Douglas Devananda was one of the founding members of the Eelam Revolutionary Organisation of Students, one of the earliest Sri Lankan Tamil militant groups. In 1980 EROS split into two as K. Pathmanabha Varatharajah Perumal broke away and formed the Eelam People's Revolutionary Liberation Front. Devananda joined the EPRLF. By early 1986 disputes had arisen between the EPRLF's political leader; the EPRLF leadership split into two factions: EPRLF and EPRLF. In 1987 the EPRLF faction formally split from the EPRLF. Devananda formed the Eelam National Democratic Liberation Front with a breakaway faction of the People's Liberation Organisation of Tamil Eelam led by Paranthan Rajan; the ENDLF collapsed when Rajan started working with Indians - Devananda was opposed to the Indian intervention in the Sri Lankan Civil War. Devananda, now living in Madras, India formed the Eelam People's Democratic Party.
The EPDP lacked funds and Devananda resorted to kidnapping and extortion of Sri Lankan Tamils living in Madras. In 1989 Devananda and 25 others were arrested for the second time by the Indian police, this time for kidnapping a ten-year-old boy for ransom at Poonamallee High Road, Kilpauk and imprisoned, he was given bail. In 1990 police in Kodambakkam, started an investigation on Devananda on charges of rioting and criminal intimidation of a person called Valavan. In 1990 Devananda returned to Sri Lanka. In 1990 Devananda arrived in Colombo. A meeting was arranged by Sri Lankan intelligence between Devananda and Deputy Defence Minister Ranjan Wijeratne. Devananda offered to place the EPDP under Sri Lankan government control in return for support and protection from the Tamil Tigers; the government accepted - the EPDP had transformed itself into a paramilitary organisation. Devananda was attacked for collaborating with the enemy. EPDP cadres from all over Sri Lanka and India converged on Colombo.
The government gave the EPDP vast financial assistance. The EPDP, with the support of the government, took control of the islands off Jaffna peninsula after the Tigers withdrew; the EPDP used the islands as a base to transport goods dried fish, between India and Sri Lanka. It imposed taxes. Tamils living in Colombo were extorted money. On 1 January 1993 Tharmalingam Selvakumar, a former EPDP sympathiser, was abducted from the Premil Sports Club at Kotahena, Colombo. Selvakumar has alleged that he was taken in a van driven by Devananda to Devananda's house at 121 Park Road, Colombo 5, he was detained along with other prisoners in cells at the back of Devananda's house. Selvakumar was tortured and the EPDP tried to extort money from his family. All of this resulted in Devananda making a fortune; the EPDP's paramilitary wing continues to operate, despite its claims to have given up violence. The paramilitary wing has been accused to have helped the Sri Lankan Navy commit massacre in places like Allaipiddy.
Devananda and the EPDP entered electoral politics when it contested the 1994 parliamentary election as an independent group in Jaffna District. Most of the district was under Tamil Tiger control and so did not vote, allowing the EPDP win nine parliamentary seats with just 10,744 votes, of which 9,944 votes came from the EPDP controlled Jaffna islands; the EPDP became an ally of her People's Alliance government. At the 2000 parliamentary election the EPDP won 50,890 votes, securing four of the 225 seats in Parliament. In October 2000 Kumaratunga appointed Devananda as Minister of Development and Reconstruction of the North, Tamil Affairs and East. At the 2001 parliamentary election the EPDP won 72,783 votes, securing two of the 225 seats in Parliament. Devananda lost his ministerial post following the change of government. At the 2004 parliamentary election the EPDP won 24,955 votes, securing one of the 225 seats in Parliament. Devananda was appointed as Minister of Agriculture, Marketing Development, Hindu Education Affairs, Tamil Language & Vocational Training Centres in North when the United People's Freedom Alliance, the successor to the PA, returned to power.
He was appointed Minister for Social Service and Social Welfare by President Mahinda Rajapaksa in 2005. There are unproved allegations of corruption against Devananda. Since the end of the Sri Lankan civil war in May 2009 the EPDP has contested local and national elections under the UPFA banner rather than on its own. At the 2010 parliamentary election three EPDP members were elected on the UPFA ticket, all from Jaffna District. Official Eelam People's Democratic Party website
In political and social sciences, communism is the philosophical, social and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes and the state. Communism includes a variety of schools of thought, which broadly include Marxism and anarchism, as well as the political ideologies grouped around both. All of these share the analysis that the current order of society stems from its economic system, capitalism; the two classes are the working class—who must work to survive and who make up the majority within society—and the capitalist class—a minority who derives profit from employing the working class through private ownership of the means of production. The revolution will put the working class in power and in turn establish social ownership of the means of production, which according to this analysis is the primary element in the transformation of society towards communism.
Critics of communism can be divided into those concerning themselves with the practical aspects of 20th century communist states and those concerning themselves with communist principles and theory. Marxism-Leninism and democratic socialism were the two dominant forms of socialism in the 20th century; the term "communism" was first coined and defined in its modern definition by the French philosopher and writer Victor d'Hupay. In his 1777 book Projet de communauté philosophe, d'Hupay pushes the philosophy of the Enlightenment to principles which he lived up to during most of his life in his bastide of Fuveau; this book can be seen as the cornerstone of communist philosophy as d'Hupay defines this lifestyle as a "commune" and advises to "share all economic and material products between inhabitants of the commune, so that all may benefit from everybody's work". According to Richard Pipes, the idea of a classless, egalitarian society first emerged in Ancient Greece; the 5th-century Mazdak movement in Persia has been described as "communistic" for challenging the enormous privileges of the noble classes and the clergy, for criticizing the institution of private property and for striving to create an egalitarian society.
At one time or another, various small communist communities existed under the inspiration of Scripture. For example, in the medieval Christian Church some monastic communities and religious orders shared their land and their other property. Communist thought has been traced back to the works of the 16th-century English writer Thomas More. In his treatise Utopia, More portrayed a society based on common ownership of property, whose rulers administered it through the application of reason. In the 17th century, communist thought surfaced again in England, where a Puritan religious group known as the "Diggers" advocated the abolition of private ownership of land. In his 1895 Cromwell and Communism, Eduard Bernstein argued that several groups during the English Civil War espoused clear communistic, agrarian ideals and that Oliver Cromwell's attitude towards these groups was at best ambivalent and hostile. Criticism of the idea of private property continued into the Age of Enlightenment of the 18th century through such thinkers as Jean Jacques Rousseau in France.
Following the upheaval of the French Revolution communism emerged as a political doctrine. In the early 19th century, various social reformers founded communities based on common ownership. However, unlike many previous communist communities they replaced the religious emphasis with a rational and philanthropic basis. Notable among them were Robert Owen, who founded New Harmony in Indiana, as well as Charles Fourier, whose followers organized other settlements in the United States such as Brook Farm. In its modern form, communism grew out of the socialist movement in 19th-century Europe; as the Industrial Revolution advanced, socialist critics blamed capitalism for the misery of the proletariat—a new class of urban factory workers who labored under often-hazardous conditions. Foremost among these critics were his associate Friedrich Engels. In 1848, Marx and Engels offered a new definition of communism and popularized the term in their famous pamphlet The Communist Manifesto; the 1917 October Revolution in Russia set the conditions for the rise to state power of Vladimir Lenin's Bolsheviks, the first time any avowedly communist party reached that position.
The revolution transferred power to the All-Russian Congress of Soviets, in which the Bolsheviks had a majority. The event generated a great deal of theoretical debate within the Marxist movement. Marx predicted that socialism and communism would be built upon foundations laid by the most advanced capitalist development. However, Russia was one of the poorest countries in Europe with an enormous illiterate peasantry and a minority of industrial workers. Marx had explicitly stated; the moderate Mensheviks opposed Lenin's Bolshevik plan for socialist revolution before capitalism was more developed. The Bolsheviks' successful rise to power was based upon the slogans such as "Peace and land" which tapp
Nagalingam Shanmugathasan was a trade unionist and Maoist revolutionary leader in Sri Lanka. He was the founding General Secretary of the Ceylon Communist Party. Shanmugathasan hailed from a family of modest means in the town of Manipay in Jaffna District, he began studying history at the University College Colombo in 1938, where he first came into contact with communist ideas and met supporters of the Communist Party of Great Britain who had returned from studying at Cambridge University. In 1939 he and two fellow students were suspended, but soon reinstated, from the university for distributing anti-imperialist flyers after the outbreak of World War II. Shanmugathasan gained notoriety among the students after this action and in 1940 won in the student election to become General Secretary of the University Union Society; the next year he was elected President of the Society. In the meantime, he was organising a group of Communists among the students that opposed both British imperialism and the Trotskyists of the Lanka Sama Samaja Party.
After graduating from the university in 1943, Shanmugathasan joined the trade union movement, became a full-time activist of the Ceylon Communist Party. He became the head of the Ceylon Trade Union Federation and led several strikes, including the general strike of 1947, the Hartal of 1953, a transport strike in 1955. In the aftermath of the Soviet-Chinese split of the Communist movement, he was expelled from the Ceylon Communist Party in 1963 for pro-Mao views. In 1964 he became the general secretary of the Ceylon Communist Party, he contested the 1965 general election as a Communist Party candidate, but was unsuccessful: he won only 0.5% of the vote. The party at its ninth Congress held in 1969 upheld Marxism-Leninism-Mao Tse-tung Thought and the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution. Shanmugathasan visited China twice during the Cultural Revolution and was important enough to have addressed thousands of Red Guards. After the formation of the Communist Party of India, which conducted armed struggle, Shanmugathasan played the role of liaison between China and CPI.
In 1971 Shanmugathasan was imprisoned for one year during a crackdown on revolutionaries following the Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna rebellion. Shanmugathasan was targeted by the government for his espousal of armed revolution for political change and for being identified as one of the political mentors of Rohana Wijeweera, the founding leader of the JVP. While detained in prison Shanmugathasan authored a book, A Marxist Looks at the History of Ceylon. In 1973, Shanmugathasan's party was estimated by the US State Department to have 500 to 800 cadre, possessed "the ability to control the Ceylon Trade Union Federation and the Ceylon Plantation Workers' Union with a combined membership of some 110,000". In 1976, after the death of Mao Tse-tung and the defeat of the Gang of Four and the revolutionary pro-Mao forces in China, Shanmugathasan sided with the pro-Mao forces internationally, he played an important role in the foundation of the Revolutionary Internationalist Movement, which he hailed as a "milestone in the history of the international communist movement".
In 1991 he convened a conference of the Communist Party of Ceylon to promote new leadership and assure the longevity of the party. His last public appearance was at the first press conference of the International Emergency Committee to Defend the Life of Dr Abimael Guzmán in London. Shanmugathasan was one of few national level politicians of Sri Lankan Tamil origin, he died of natural causes on 8 February 1993 in England, where he had gone for medical treatment near the end of his life. It must be noted that Sri Lankan President Maithripala Sirisena commenced his political career under Shanmugathasan in the Communist Party; this is a partial list of articles written by Shanmugathasan. A Marxist Looks at the History of Ceylon, 1974, Colombo: Sarasavi Printers The Bright Red Banner of Mao Tse-tung Thought, 1969, Colombo: Communist Party Publications, written to commemorate the twentieth anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China "Castro Joins Anti-China Chorus," Peking Review, Vol. 9, No.
9, 25 February 1966 Enver Hoxha Refuted published in A World to Win magazine How Can the Working Class Achieve Power? A Selection of Articles of Interest to the Working Class Movement, 1963, Colombo: Worker Publications The Lessons of the October Revolution, 1964, Colombo: Workers' Pub. House "N. Sanmugathasan on Indonesian Revolution," Peking Review, Vol. 9, #37, 9 September 1966 "Nurtured by Mao Tse-tung’s Thought, China Grows Young," Peking Review, Vol. 9, #46, 11 November 1966 Political Memoirs of an Unrepentant Communist, 1989, Colombo "Sri Lanka's Week of Shame: an eyewitness account," Race & Class, A Journal for Black & Third World Liberation, Volume XXVI, Summer 1984, No. 1: Sri Lanka: Racism and the Authoritarian State Some Notes on Mao's Philosophy, 1986 "Tremendous International Significance of Mao Tse-tung’s Thought," Peking Review, Vol. 11, No. 43, 25 October 1968, pp. 22–23 Excerpts from Reminiscences on Comrade Sanmugathasan by M. N. Ravunni, Kerala Communist Party On the Death of Comrade Sanmugathasan, statement by the Committee of the Revolutionary Internationalist Movement, 15 February 1993 On the Demise of Comrade Nagalingam Sanmugathasan – Comrade Shan: An Unrepentant Communist by the Central Organizing Committee, Ceylon Communist Party Sanmugathasan, the Unrepentant Left and the Ethnic Crisis in Sri Lanka by Ravi Vaitheespara
Maoism, known in China as Mao Zedong Thought, is a communist political theory derived from the teachings of the Chinese political leader Mao Zedong, whose followers are known as Maoists. Developed from the 1950s until the Deng Xiaoping reforms in the 1970s, it was applied as the guiding political and military ideology of the Communist Party of China and as theory guiding revolutionary movements around the world. A key difference between Maoism and other forms of Marxism–Leninism is that peasants should be the bulwark of the revolutionary energy, led by the working class in China; the modern Chinese intellectual tradition of the turn of the 20th century is defined by two central concepts, namely iconoclasm and nationalism. By the turn of the 20th century, a proportionately small yet significant cross-section of China's traditional elite found themselves skeptical of the efficacy and the moral validity of Confucianism; these skeptical iconoclasts formed a new segment of Chinese society, a modern intelligentsia whose arrival—or as historian of China Maurice Meisner would label it, their defection—heralded the beginning of the destruction of the gentry as a social class in China.
The fall of the last imperial Chinese dynasty in 1911 marked the final failure of the Confucian moral order and it did much to make Confucianism synonymous with political and social conservatism in the minds of Chinese intellectuals. It was this association of conservatism and Confucianism which lent to the iconoclastic nature of Chinese intellectual thought during the first decades of the 20th century. Chinese iconoclasm was expressed most and vociferously by Chen Duxiu during the New Culture Movement which occurred between 1915 and 1919. Proposing the "total destruction of the traditions and values of the past", the New Culture Movement was spearheaded by the New Youth, a periodical, published by Chen Duxiu and was profoundly influential on the young Mao Zedong, whose first published work appeared on the magazine's pages. Along with iconoclasm, radical anti-imperialism dominated the Chinese intellectual tradition and evolved into a fierce nationalist fervor which influenced Mao's philosophy immensely and was crucial in adapting Marxism to the Chinese model.
Vital to understanding Chinese nationalist sentiments of the time is the Treaty of Versailles, signed in 1919. The Treaty aroused a wave of bitter nationalist resentment in Chinese intellectuals as lands ceded to Germany in Shandong were—without consultation with the Chinese—transferred to Japanese control rather than returned to Chinese sovereignty; the negative reaction culminated in the 4 May Incident in 1919 during which a protest began with 3,000 students in Beijing displaying their anger at the announcement of the Versailles Treaty's concessions to Japan. The protest took a violent turn as protesters began attacking the homes and offices of ministers who were seen as cooperating with, or being in the direct pay, of the Japanese; the 4 May Incident and Movement which followed "catalyzed the political awakening of a society which had long seemed inert and dormant". Yet another international event would have a large impact not only on Mao, but on the Chinese intelligentsia, i.e. the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917.
Although the revolution did elicit interest among Chinese intellectuals, socialist revolution in China was not considered a viable option until after the May 4 Incident. Afterwards, "o become a Marxist was one way for a Chinese intellectual to reject both the traditions of the Chinese past and Western domination of the Chinese present". During the period following the Long March and the Communist Party of China were headquartered in Yan'an, a prefecture-level city in Shaanxi province. During this period, Mao established himself as a Marxist theoretician and he produced the bulk of the works which would be canonized into the "thought of Mao Zedong"; the rudimentary philosophical base of Chinese Communist ideology is laid down in Mao's numerous dialectical treatises and it was conveyed to newly recruited party members. This period established ideological independence from Moscow for Mao and the CPC. Although the Yan'an period did answer some of the questions, both ideological and theoretical, which were raised by the Chinese Communist Revolution, it left many of the crucial questions unresolved.
Mao's Intellectual Marxist development can be divided into five major periods: the initial Marxist period from 1920–1926. The initial Marxist period from 1920–1926: Marxist thinking employs imminent socioeconomic explanations and Mao's reasons were declarations of his enthusiasm. Mao did not believe that education alone would bring about the transition from capitalism to communism because of three main reasons. Psychologically: the capitalists would not turn towards communism on their own; these reasons do not provide socioeconomic explanations, which form the core of Marxist ideology. The formative Maoist period from 1927–1935: in this period, Mao avoided all theoretical implications in his literature and employed a minimum of Marxist category thought, his writings in this period failed to elaborate what he meant by the "Marxist method of
Deng Xiaoping was a Chinese politician, the paramount leader of the People's Republic of China from 1978 until his retirement in 1989. After Chairman Mao Zedong's death in 1976, Deng led China through far-reaching market-economy reforms. Born into a peasant background in Guang'an, Sichuan province, Deng studied and worked in France in the 1920s, where he became a follower of Marxism–Leninism, he joined the Communist Party of China in 1923. Upon his return to China, he joined the party organization in Shanghai was a political commissar for the Red Army in rural regions and by the late 1930s was considered a "revolutionary veteran" because he participated in the Long March. Following the founding of the People's Republic in 1949, Deng worked in Tibet and the southwest region to consolidate Communist control; as the party's Secretary General in the 1950s, Deng presided over Anti-Rightist Campaigns and became instrumental in China's economic reconstruction following the Great Leap Forward of 1957–1960.
However, his economic policies caused him to fall out of favor with Mao Zedong and was purged twice during the Cultural Revolution. Following Mao Zedong's death in 1976, Deng outmanoeuvred the late chairman's chosen successor Hua Guofeng in December 1978. Inheriting a country beset with social conflict, disenchantment with the Communist Party and institutional disorder resulting from the chaotic policies of the Mao era, Deng became the paramount figure of the "second generation" of party leadership. While Deng never held office as the head of state, head of government or General Secretary, some called him "the architect" of a new brand of thinking that combined socialist ideology with free enterprise whose slogan was "socialism with Chinese characteristics". Deng opened China to foreign investment and the global market, policies that are credited with developing China into one of the fastest-growing economies in the world for several generations and raising the standard of living of hundreds of millions.
Deng was the Time Person of the Year in 1978 and 1985, the third Chinese leader and the fourth communist leader to be selected. He was criticized for ordering the crackdown on the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, but praised for his reaffirmation of the reform program in his Southern Tour of 1992 and the reversion of Hong Kong to Chinese control in 1997. Deng died in February 1997, aged 92. Deng has ancestry from ethnically Hakka Han family in the village of Paifang, in the town of Xiexing, Guang'an County in Sichuan province 160 km from Chongqing. Deng's ancestors can be traced back to Jiaying county, Guangdong, a prominent ancestral area for the Hakka people, had been settled in Sichuan for several generations. Deng Xiaoping's daughter Deng Rong wrote in the book My father Deng Xiaoping that his ancestry was but not Hakka. Sichuan was the origin of the Deng lineage until one of them was hired as an official in Guangdong during the Ming dynasty but during the Qing plan to increase the population in 1671 they came to Sichuan again.
Deng Xiaoping was born in Sichuan. Deng's father, Deng Wenming, was a middle-level landowner and had studied at the University of Law and Political Science in Chengdu, his mother, surnamed Dan, died early in Deng's life, leaving Deng, his three brothers and three sisters. At the age of five Deng was sent to a traditional Chinese-style private primary school, followed by a more modern primary school at the age of seven. Deng's first wife, one of his schoolmates from Moscow, died aged 24 a few days after giving birth to Deng's first child, a baby girl who died, his second wife, Jin Weiying, left him after Deng came under political attack in 1933. His third wife Zhuo Lin was the daughter of an industrialist in Yunnan Province, she became a member of the Communist Party in 1938, married Deng a year in front of Mao's cave dwelling in Yan'an. They had five children: two sons; when Deng first attended school, his tutor objected to his having the given name "Xiānshèng", calling him "Xīxián", which includes the characters "to aspire to" and "goodness", with overtones of wisdom.
In the summer of 1919, Deng Xiaoping graduated from the Chongqing School. He and 80 schoolmates travelled by ship to France to participate in the Diligent Work-Frugal Study Movement, a work-study program in which 4,001 Chinese would participate by 1927. Deng, the youngest of all the Chinese students in the group, had just turned 15. Wu Yuzhang, the local leader of the Movement in Chongqing, enrolled Deng and his paternal uncle, Deng Shaosheng, in the program. Deng's father supported his son's participation in the work-study abroad program; the night before his departure, Deng's father took his son aside and asked him what he hoped to learn in France. He repeated the words he had learned from his teachers: "To learn knowledge and truth from the West in order to save China." Deng was aware that China was suffering and that the Chinese people must have a modern education to save their country. In December 1920 a French packet ship, the André Lyon, sailed into Marseille with 210 Chinese students aboard including Deng.
The sixteen-year-old Deng attended middle schools in Bayeux and Châtillon, but he spent most of his time in France working. His first job was as a fitter at the Le Creusot Iron and Steel Plant in La Garenne-Colombes, a south-western suburb of Paris where he moved in April 1921. Coi
United National Front (Sri Lanka)
The United National Front the United National Front for Good Governance is a political alliance in Sri Lanka formed by the United National Party, the alliance represents 7 parties including the largest Muslim party Sri Lanka Muslim Congress and the Sinhala Nationalist Jathika Hela Urumaya. The UNF is current governing party in the Parliament of Sri Lanka. A new UNP led alliance, the National Democratic Front is in the process of being formed for future elections; the UNF was formed as an alliance in 2001 to battle president Kumaratunga's SLFP led People's Alliance in 2001 parliamentary election. Initial members were the United National Party, the Ceylon Workers' Congress, the Sri Lanka Muslim Congress and the Western People's Front; the alliance won the election by securing 109 seats in the parliament, 4 seats short of a majority. UNF government had been in limbo since October 2003, when President Kumaratunga declared a state of emergency and took three key cabinet portfolios for her party. During the campaign, she argued that prime minister Wickremasinghe had been too soft on the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam and promised to take a harder line.
The UNF, for its part, stressed the economic gains, made with the ceasefire and the need to find a negotiated solution to the civil war. President Kumaratunga dissolved the parliament and called an election in 2004, which UNF lost to newly formed United People's Freedom Alliance. In 2006, CWC left the alliance to join UPFA. UNP and SLMC once again contested 2010 parliamentary election from UNF and only secured 29.34% of the popular vote and 60 out of 225 seats. After the election the Sri Lanka Muslim Congress left the UNF and joined President Rajapaksa's UPFA government; the UNP had contested past parliamentary elections in alliance with smaller parties representing ethnic minorities but many of these had defected to the UPFA after the election. The United National Front was once again re-activated by United National Party to form as common front against the re-emergence of Rajapaksa, defeated on 8 January 2015 Presidential Election, with the support of many parties such as the Jathika Hela Urumaya, Sri Lanka Muslim Congress, Tamil National Alliance etc. as a major coalition to support the progress of the Common Candidate Maithripala Sirisena.
Prior to this election being called the UNP had claimed. However, after the election had been called it started forming alliances with minority parties including the Sri Lanka Muslim Congress and Tamil Progressive Alliance. Democratic Party led by Field Marshal Sarath Fonseka signed an MOU with Prime Minister Ranil Wickramasinghe to join the front on 3 February, 2016. On 12 July 2015 the UNP, SLMC and TPA signed agreements with the Jathika Hela Urumaya and anti-Rajapaksa members of the SLFP to form the United National Front for Good Governance to contest the election; the All Ceylon Makkal Congress contested with the UNFGG. The UNFGG is believed to have had the tacit support of President Sirisena but he has pledged to be neutral; the UNFGG had been established by the renaming of the JHU after it left the UPFA. It was registered as a political party with the diamond symbol. Despite this the UNFGG contested the election under the name and elephant symbol of the UNP. UNFGG general-secretary Champika Ranawaka has stated that the JHU name and its conch symbol will be revived after the election.
The UNFGG became the largest group in Parliament after securing 45.66% of votes and 106 seats whilst the UPFA won 42.38% of votes and 95 seats. Rajapaksa conceded defeat in his attempt to become Prime Minister. 42 members of the opposition joined the government, giving them a 2/3 majority. The result left the UNFGG seven seats short of a majority in Parliament. However, on 20 August 2015 the central committee of the SLFP agreed to form a national government with the UNP for two years. Wickremesinghe was sworn in as Prime Minister on 21 August 2015. Afterwards a memorandum of understanding to work together in Parliament was signed by acting SLFP general secretary Duminda Dissanayake and UNP general secretary Kabir Hashim. United People's Freedom Alliance