Second wine or second label is a term associated with Bordeaux wine to refer to a second label wine made from cuvee not selected for use in the Grand vin or first label. In some cases a third wine or fourth wine is produced. Depending on the house winemaking style, individual plots of a vineyard may be selected those of the youngest vines, fermented separately, with the best performing barrels being chosen for the house's top wine and the other barrels being bottled under a separate label and sold for a lower price than the Grand vin. In less favorable vintages, an estate may choose to release only a second label wine rather than to release a smaller than normal quantity of its Grand vin or a wine that would not be consistent with past vintages under that name; the practice has its roots in the 18th century but became more commercially prominent in the 1980s when consumers discovered these wines as a more affordable way to drink the product of a First growth or classified Bordeaux estate without paying the premium for the estate's label and classification.
The opposite phenomenon, of only releasing a top wine in exceptional years is seen in Iberia in "Gran Reserva" reserve wine and vintage port. From the producer's point of view, a second wine allows the winery to use a stricter selection for its Grand Vin, while still capitalising on its name and distribution channels in selling the second wine, which will be much more profitable than selling off lesser wine "anonymously" to be used in e.g. negociant bulk bottlings. The practice of establishing a second wine began in the 18th century as way for Bordeaux winemakers to be more selective of the wine going into their estate label wine without wasting the remaining wine. According to records, Château Pichon Longueville Comtesse de Lalande shipped its "second wine" of the 1874 vintage to the 1891 Exposition française in Moscow, although La Réserve de la Comtesse would not be for sale to the public until 1973. Château Brane-Cantenac may have had a second label some time in the 18th century according to Decanter, but more evidently, Château Léoville-Las Cases first produced its Clos du Marquis in 1904, Château Margaux followed with Pavillon Rouge produced from 1908.
Château Mouton Rothschild released the poor 1927 vintage named Carruades de Mouton, followed in 1930 by Mouton Cadet as a second label, selling wine from previous difficult harvests considered unfit as château Grand vin vintage at reduced prices to successful response. The estate has since expanded with more labels pushing Mouton Cadet further down its portfolio, with Le Petit Mouton de Mouton Rothschild the estate's second wine and Mouton Cadet evolving into its own brand with a distinctly different marketing strategy. In the drive to higher quality that has taken place in recent decades, additional Bordeaux châteaux have added second wine. With the increased market competition since the 1980s, estates became more selective in the assemblage stage, making greater parts of the production disposed to be either sold off in bulk, or blended into second wine. Having a second wine is a part of the recipe prescribed by Michel Rolland and similar wine-making consultants; as an example, Château Kirwan, a Third Growth in Margaux, added their second wine Les Charmes de Kirwan in 1993, after Rolland was brought in.
In many ways the production of a second wine mirrors the production of estate's Grand vin being made from the same vineyard, with the same blend of grapes and by the same winemaker. Some selection takes place after harvest, when plots that are underperforming or are planted with younger vines will be earmarked for the second wine, which means that they receive a "cheaper" treatment with a lower percentage of new barrels. Additional selection will be done after the barrel aging when the winemaker will isolate the best performing barrels that most reflects the house style of the estate label with the remaining wine being bottled under second or third and fourth labels; the second wine may have some hints and characteristics of the estate wine but is less polished and structured than the estate wine. An estate will promote its second wines and most wine labels will not mention the parent estate because of the desire to keep the estate associated with its Grand vin. However, some high end producers market their second wine as a "wine for earlier consumption" rather than "a lesser wine".
Second wines do not have the word "château" in their name, but they sport some other part of their winery's name to add name recognition. The second wines of classified growths, since they are different wines, are not themselves part of the 1855 classification or other classifications, they are, entitled to use the same appellation as the Grand Vin, as they originate from the same terroir. As an example, Les Forts de Latour is an AOC Pauillac just like Château Latour, but is not a First Growth or any other kind of classified growth. Reserve wine Vintage port
Château Léoville-Las Cases
Château Léoville-Las Cases is a winery in the Saint-Julien appellation of the Bordeaux region of France. Château Léoville-Las Cases is the name of the red wine produced by this property; the wine produced here was classified as one of fifteen Deuxièmes Crus in the original Bordeaux Wine Official Classification of 1855. Léoville-Las Cases was one of the first estates in Bordeaux to introduce a second label, Clos du Marquis. However, Clos du Marquis is a separate wine. Since 2007, the Chateau has offered a Second Wine known as Le Petit Lion de Marquis de Las Cases. Léoville-Las Cases was once part of a much larger estate until the time of the French Revolution when a portion of this estate was separated into what is today Château Léoville-Barton. In 1840, the estate was again divided and land that would become Château Léoville-Poyferré was split off. Since the mid 20th century the Delon family have been owners of this estate owners of châteaux Potensac and Nénin. In 1976, the 1971 vintage ranked number six among the ten French and California red wines in the historic "Judgment of Paris" wine competition.
The largest plot of Léoville-Las Cases' vineyards, known as the Grand Clos, is located on the northern boundary of St-Julien, with only the Juillac tributary separating its vineyards from those of Château Latour in Pauillac. The vineyard area in total extends 97 hectares planted with a grape variety distribution of 65% Cabernet Sauvignon, 19% Merlot, 13% Cabernet Franc and 3% Petit Verdot; the vineyard underwent major replanting during the 1950s, today the vines average 30 years of age. Léoville-Las Cases produces two wines, its grand vin, a second wine called Clos du Marquis, in production since 1902. Grapes are harvested by hand and may be fermented in temperature controlled wood, concrete, or stainless steel vats of varying size depending on the style of the vintage. Léoville-Las Cases employs a state of the art reverse osmosis machine to help extract excess water from the grape must in a rainy vintage. Use of this machine is considered legal, but controversial, while Léoville-Las Cases is not the only estate to employ this technique, few estates admit to their use.
After processing and fermentation, the wine is transferred into oak barrels for 18–20 months of aging before being fined with egg whites and bottled. The average annual production is 180,000 to 200,000 bottles for the Grand Vin, 250,000 to 270,000 bottles for the second wine, Clos du Marquis. Emmanuel, comte de Las Cases
Château Filhot, archaically named Maison Noble de Verdoulet, is a winery rated Deuxième cru classé in the Bordeaux Wine Official Classification of 1855, from the Sauternes appellation in Gironde. Considered by some unjustly omitted from the Premier cru classification, Filhot produces a drier wine than Château d'Yquem, with an unusually high alcohol content for a Sauternes; the vineyard dating from the 1630s, the château was founded by Romain de Filhot in 1709. Following the French revolution, the estate was taken over by Romain-Bertrand de Lur-Saluces who added the estate of Pinaud du Rey and had the château redesigned to its English appearance in 1840. During the period when American ambassador to France Thomas Jefferson ranked the wine directly behind Yquem, Filhot enjoyed a greater reputation than today, the two wines were comparably priced. In 1935, Comtesse Durieu de Lacarelle bought the estate, subsequently modernised by her son, Louis Durieu de Lacarelle, during the 1970s; the estate is run by the Vaucelles family.
The vineyard area extends 62 hectares from a 350 hectares estate with the grape varieties of 60% Sémillon, 36% Sauvignon blanc and 4% Muscadelle. Their annual production is an average of 6500 cases; the second wine is called Chateau Pineau du Rey. Château Filhot official site
The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history; the causes of the French Revolution are still debated among historians. Following the Seven Years' War and the American Revolution, the French government was in debt, it attempted to restore its financial status through unpopular taxation schemes, which were regressive.
Leading up to the Revolution, years of bad harvests worsened by deregulation of the grain industry and environmental problems inflamed popular resentment of the privileges enjoyed by the aristocracy and the Catholic clergy of the established church. Some historians hold something similar to what Thomas Jefferson proclaimed: that France had "been awakened by our Revolution." Demands for change were formulated in terms of Enlightenment ideals and contributed to the convocation of the Estates General in May 1789. During the first year of the Revolution, members of the Third Estate took control, the Bastille was attacked in July, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen was passed in August, the Women's March on Versailles forced the royal court back to Paris in October. A central event of the first stage, in August 1789, was the abolition of feudalism and the old rules and privileges left over from the Ancien Régime; the next few years featured political struggles between various liberal assemblies and right-wing supporters of the monarchy intent on thwarting major reforms.
The Republic was proclaimed in September 1792 after the French victory at Valmy. In a momentous event that led to international condemnation, Louis XVI was executed in January 1793. External threats shaped the course of the Revolution; the Revolutionary Wars beginning in 1792 featured French victories that facilitated the conquest of the Italian Peninsula, the Low Countries and most territories west of the Rhine – achievements that had eluded previous French governments for centuries. Internally, popular agitation radicalised the Revolution culminating in the rise of Maximilien Robespierre and the Jacobins; the dictatorship imposed by the Committee of Public Safety during the Reign of Terror, from 1793 until 1794, established price controls on food and other items, abolished slavery in French colonies abroad, de-established the Catholic church and created a secular Republican calendar, religious leaders were expelled, the borders of the new republic were secured from its enemies. After the Thermidorian Reaction, an executive council known as the Directory assumed control of the French state in 1795.
They suspended elections, repudiated debts, persecuted the Catholic clergy, made significant military conquests abroad. Dogged by charges of corruption, the Directory collapsed in a coup led by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799. Napoleon, who became the hero of the Revolution through his popular military campaigns, established the Consulate and the First Empire, setting the stage for a wider array of global conflicts in the Napoleonic Wars; the modern era has unfolded in the shadow of the French Revolution. All future revolutionary movements looked back to the Revolution as their predecessor, its central phrases and cultural symbols, such as La Marseillaise and Liberté, fraternité, égalité, ou la mort, became the clarion call for other major upheavals in modern history, including the Russian Revolution over a century later. The values and institutions of the Revolution dominate French politics to this day; the Revolution resulted in the suppression of the feudal system, emancipation of the individual, a greater division of landed property, abolition of the privileges of noble birth, nominal establishment of equality among men.
The French Revolution differed from other revolutions in being not only national, for it intended to benefit all humanity. Globally, the Revolution accelerated the rise of democracies, it became the focal point for the development of most modern political ideologies, leading to the spread of liberalism, radicalism and secularism, among many others. The Revolution witnessed the birth of total war by organising the resources of France and the lives of its citizens towards the objective of military conquest; some of its central documents, such as the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, continued to inspire movements for abolitionism and universal suffrage in the next century. Historians have pointed to many events and factors within the Ancien Régime that led to the Revolution. Rising social and economic inequality, new political ideas emerging from the Enlightenment, economic mismanagement, environmental factors leading to agricultural failure, unmanageable national debt, political mismanagement on the part of King Louis XVI have all been cited as laying the groundwork for the Revolution.
Over the course of the 18th century, there emerged what the philosopher Jürgen Habermas called the idea of the "public sphere" in France and elsewhere
Château Lascombes is a winery in the Margaux appellation of the Bordeaux region of France. The wine produced here was classified as one of fifteen Seconds Crus in the original Bordeaux Wine Official Classification of 1855. In the 1950s, the estate was purchased by French wine writer Alexis Lichine who continued to own part of the estate till 1971 when Bass Charrington took over principal ownership. In 2001 it was purchased by Yves Vatelot and US-based Colony Capital, who in 2011 sold it to the French insurance group MACSF. In addition to its premier cuvee, a second wine is produced, under the name Chevalier de Lascombes. Additional brands are Château Segonnes, Rosé de Lascombes, Vin Sec Chevalier de Lascombes and Gombaud. In the 17th century the estate belonged to Antoine, chevalier de Lascombes, has kept his name; some locals suggest the estate, situated on the highest knoll of Margaux, takes its name from "la côte" via "lascote" to "lascombes". Antoine de Lascombes inherited or had possession of the estate from the Durfort de Duras family, with whose properties in the Bordeaux it remained at first integrated.
Jean-François de Lascombes was a councillor at the parlement of Bordeaux, king's procureur at the Admiralty and a member of the Académie de Bordeaux. The vineyard remained the property of the Lascombes family for three generations until after the French Revolution; until 1860 the estate bore the name Domaine de Lascombes. Through sales and inheritance the estate passed through a succession of owners, until it was formed into a company in 1926, with the Ginestet family owners of Château Margaux, as major shareholders. During the stages of World War II the country house served as a headquarters for the Allied forces. Château Lascombes was purchased by Alexis Lichine and a syndicate of American investors that included David Rockefeller, in 1952. Shortly before, Lichine purchased another Margaux estate, Château Prieuré-Lichine. Lichine improved the vineyards through his commitment. In 1971 the backing company was taken over by the British brewing company Bass Charrington, bringing the Lichine era to an end.
Following the acquisition by the Bass Group, winemaker René Vanatelle was recruited as the winemaker. Vanatelle carried out extensive evaluation of the terroir, now extended to 84 hectares of Lascombes' vineyards and found that only 50 hectares produced wines of Deuxièmes Crus quality. In the 1980s, he began isolating these different segments of the vineyard and used the lesser quality terroir to produce a second wine known as Château Segonnes. In 1997, prior to his retirement, Vanatelle introduced a second wine of higher quality, Chevalier de Lascombes, matured in oak barrels for 14–20 months. Château Segonnes is still being now as a third wine. Following Vanatelle's retirement, Bruno Lemoine of Château Montrose, was named new winemaker. In 2001, the estate was purchased for $67 million by US-based Colony Capital with the entrepreneur Yves Vatelot; the new owners invested in modernizing Lascombes, considered an underperformer in relation to its classification. While Lascombes has been awarded high notes for its wines by many wine critics and managed to increase the price of its Grand vin since the investment, the US owners made the château available for sale in late 2007.
In 2011, Lascombes was sold to the French insurance group MACSF for 200 million euro, of which 50 million euro was its stock of wine. Lascombes employs Michel Rolland as consultant of oenology; the vineyard area comprises 84 hectares with a grape variety distribution of 50% Merlot, 45% Cabernet Sauvignon and 5% Petit Verdot. The château annually produces 250,000 bottles of the Grand vin and 70,000 bottles of the second wine Chevalier de Lascombes. In 2008, it was reported that Lascombes had rented vineyards that belong to Château Martinens, a former Cru Bourgeois, which had 28 hectares of vineyards within AOC Margaux plus 25 hectares of Haut-Médoc AOC. Classified growths are allowed to expand their vineyard holdings without losing their classification, but only with vineyards of the same appellation as their own, which makes it uncertain to which purpose the Haut-Médoc vineyards would be put. For most vintages, the composition of the Grand vin is 55% Cabernet Sauvignon, 40% Merlot and 5% Petit Verdot.
The second wine, Chevalier de Lascombes, will have a higher composition of Merlot. Château Lascombes is rich and full bodied with a concentration of ripe fruit and underlying aromas of cedar. Like many Margaux wines, the tannins can be supple; the wines are ready for drinking after eight years and can last up to thirty. Château Lascombes official site
Sémillon is a golden-skinned grape used to make dry and sweet white wines in France and Australia. Its thin skin and susceptibility to botrytis make it dominate the sweet wine region Sauternes AOC and Barsac AOC; the Sémillon grape is native to the Bordeaux region. It was known as Sémillon de Saint-Émilion in 1736, while Sémillon resembles the local pronunciation of the town’s name, it first arrived in Australia in the early 19th century and by the 1820s the grape covered over 90 percent of South Africa's vineyards, where it was known as Wyndruif, meaning "wine grape". It was once considered to be the most planted grape in the world, although this is no longer the case. In the 1950s, Chile's vineyards were made up of over 75% Sémillon. Today, it accounts for just 1% of South African Cape vines. Sémillon, easy to cultivate produces six to eight tons of grapes per acre from its vigorous vines, it is resistant to disease, except for rot. The grape ripens early. Since the grape has a thin skin, there is a risk of sunburn in hotter climates.
The Sémillon grape is rather heavy, with low acidity and an oily texture. It has a high yield and wines based on it can age a long time. Along with Sauvignon blanc and Muscadelle, Sémillon is one of only three approved white wine varieties in the Bordeaux region; the grape is key to the production of sweet wines such as Sauternes. For the grapes to be used for sweet wine production, they need to have been affected by Botrytis; this fungus dries out the grapes, thus concentrating the sugar and flavours in the grape berry. Sémillon is an important cultivar in two significant wine producing countries. In France, Sémillon is the preeminent white grape in the Bordeaux wine regions; the grape has found a home in Australia. In France, the Sémillon grape is grown in Bordeaux where it is blended with Sauvignon blanc and Muscadelle; when dry, it is referred to as Bordeaux blanc and is permitted to be made in the appellations of Pessac-Léognan, Entre-Deux-Mers and other less-renowned regions. In this form, Sémillon is a minor constituent in the blend.
However, when used to make the sweet white wines of Bordeaux it is the dominant variety. In such wines the vine is exposed to the "noble rot" of Botrytis cinerea which consumes the water content of the fruit, concentrating the sugar present in its pulp; when attacked by Botrytis cinerea, the grapes shrivel and the acid and sugar levels are intensified. Due to the declining popularity of the grape variety, fewer clones are cultivated in nurseries causing producers to project a future shortage of quality wine. In 2008, 17 Bordeaux wine producers, including Château d'Yquem, Château Olivier, Château Suduiraut and Château La Tour Blanche, formed an association to grow their own clones. Sémillon is grown in Australia in the Hunter Valley north of Sydney, where for a long time it was known as "Hunter River Riesling". Four styles of Sémillon-based wines are made there: a commercial style blended with Chardonnay or Sauvignon blanc; the latter two styles were pioneered by Lindemans, Tulloch, McWilliam's Elizabeth, Drayton's and Tyrrell's, are considered unique to Australia.
Most examples of these bottle-aged Hunter Semillons exhibit a buttercup-yellow colour, burnt toast or honey characteristics on the nose and excellent complex flavours on the palate, with a long finish and soft acid. Young Hunter Valley semillon is always a dry wine exhibiting citrus flavours of lemon, lime or green apple. Cooler-year Hunter Semillons seem to be the most sought after, with some of the 1974 and 1977 vintages still drinking well; the newer, fruit-accentuated styles are championed by the likes of Iain Riggs at Brokenwood Wines and The Rothbury Estate. Sémillon is finding favour with Australian producers outside the Hunter Valley in the Barossa Valley and Margaret River regions; the Adelaide Hills is becoming a flourishing region for Semillon, with the cooler climate producing some wines of great complexity. Vineyards such as Amadio and Paracombe produce some premium blends of the classical style. Semillon is one of the Cape’s true heritage white varietals, with origins as early as the 17th century, the grape variety accounted for more than 90% of plantings in the first half of the 19th century.
While South African Semillon has not quite taken off as a serious commercial category in single varietal form in the modern era, there are stunning wines being made from older vineyards. More the variety plays a role in beefing up the volume of Sauvignon blancs; the best South African Semillons have juicy fruit with an ethereal-like citrus perfume, fine texture, herbal interest and manage to marry the intensity of flavour with finesse. Outside of these regions, however, Sémillon is unpopular and criticised for lack of complexity and intensity; as such, plantings have decreased over the last century. As referenced above, the grape can still be found in South Chile; the latter is reputed to have the largest plantin
Château Pichon Longueville Baron
Château Pichon Longueville Baron or Château Longueville au Baron de Pichon-Longueville is a winery in the Pauillac appellation of the Bordeaux region of France. Château Pichon Longueville Baron is the name of the red wine produced by this property; the wine produced here was classified as one of fifteen Deuxièmes Crus in the original Bordeaux Wine Official Classification of 1855. Château Pichon Baron was once part of a larger estate, owned by Pierre de Rauzan, along with Château Pichon Longueville Comtesse de Lalande. In 1850 the estate was divided into the two current Pichon estates. In 1987 the estate was purchased by French insurance company AXA, who appointed Jean-Michel Cazes of Château Lynch-Bages as administrator; the property is managed by Englishman Christian Seely. Château Pichon Baron's 73 hectares are planted with Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc and Petit Verdot; the planting density is 9 000 vines per hectare using a double Guyot training and the average age of the vines is 30 years.
The yield is less than 40 hectoliter per hectare. The vineyard is situated at the southern end of the commune of Pauillac near border with the Saint-Julien-Beychevelle appellation. Grapes are harvested and sorted by hand, macerated for 20-30 days, fermented at 28-32 °C in temperature controlled stainless steel vats of varying sizes; the wine is transferred into oak barrels for aging after finishing its malolactic fermentation. The estate produces a second wine, Les Tourelles de Longueville. Château Pichon Longueville Baron official site