Château Saint-Maire is a castle in Lausanne, that serves as the seat of the cantonal government, the Council of State of Vaud. It is a Swiss heritage site of national significance; the château was built from 1397 to 1425 by the Bishops of Lausanne to serve as their fortified residence. Begun under Guillaume of Menthonay, it was completed under his successor, Guillaume of Challant, named after Saint Marius, the first Bishop of Lausanne, it served as the bishop's residence until 1536, when Bern captured Lausanne and secularized the bishopric. The Bernese used it as an armory. Upon the creation of the canton of Vaud in 1803, it became seat of the cantonal government, a role it has retained; the château was built as a single massive rectangular block, as was common at the time, with brick for the upper portion and sandstone for the lower portion. It had Ghibelline merlons, which gave it a somewhat Italian appearance, but due to the wet climate, the roof was extended and the merlons filled in the 16th century.
The windows that form a row just below the eaves fill the gaps between the merlons, the arches above the windows fill the v-shaped openings in the Ghibelline style of merlon. In 1789, the Bernese built an annex on the west side of the castle. A tower that stood next to the château was demolished in 1890, around the same time, a statue of Abraham Davel was installed against the front wall. List of cultural property of national significance in Switzerland: Vaud List of castles and fortresses in Switzerland Council of State of Vaud Page on the website of the City of Lausanne
Americana is the fifth studio album by American punk rock band the Offspring, released on November 17, 1998, by Columbia Records. Following a worldwide tour in support of its previous album Ixnay on the Hombre, the band commenced work on a new album in July 1998. Americana was a major success upon its release, debuting at number six on the US Billboard 200 and selling over 175,000 copies in its first week of sales, it is the band's second best-selling album after their 1994 breakout Smash, has sold over ten million copies worldwide. Americana spawned the hit singles "Pretty Fly", "Why Don't You Get a Job?", "The Kids Aren't Alright", was promoted with a worldwide tour and an appearance at the infamous Woodstock 1999 festival. Americana's one-year gap is the shortest between two Offspring albums to date. After the unexpected success of Smash, the Offspring were signed to Columbia Records in 1996, releasing the fourth studio album Ixnay on the Hombre, which wasn't as successful as Smash. Although Ixnay on the Hombre was not as well received as Smash, it managed simultaneous gold and platinum certifications in the United States in April 1997.
After touring in support of Ixnay on the Hombre, the Offspring began writing new material for their next album. Frontman Dexter Holland told Rolling Stone in August 1998 that, "I wanted to write a record that wasn't a radical departure from what we've done before. I feel. We're in a place where we more or less set the boundaries where we can do a lot of stuff without having to stretch it out farther... and do a swing song or something." Recording took place from July to September 1998 at Eldorado Recording Studios with producer Dave Jerden, who produced Ixnay on the Hombre. On the album's direction, Holland told Guitar World, "The idea wasn't to reinvent the wheel. We expanded our horizons on our last record and that's okay, but I don't feel like you have to be a different band on every record." While most songs are the regular punk rock the band popularized, others such as the Latino-influenced "Pretty Fly" and the psychedelic "Pay the Man" add variety "so that there's enough in there so people don't get bored".
"Pay the Man" was left off Ixnay on the Hombre for sounding too different from anything else the band had made at that time. The structure of the song more resembles progressive rock. Holland contributed the song "Too Much Drama" to the Vandals' album Hitler Bad, Vandals Good, released five months before Americana; the chorus melody is reused on this album on the song "Walla Walla." Americana contains themes of unhappy American lifestyles. Speaking of the album shortly after its release, Holland explained, "The songs on Americana aren't condemnations, they're short stories about the state of things and what we see going on around us. We want to expose the darker side of our culture, it may look like an episode of Happy Days out there in America, but it feels more like Twin Peaks." He detailed that Americana was not thought right away as a concept album and "this cool social statement", though once the band recorded a few songs complaining about 1998 America, "then we realized we had a theme". Holland explained that Americana served as "a commentary on American culture", satirizing hypocritical lives and political correctness.
One of the influences was The Jerry Springer Show, with the band considering naming the album after the show's news tickers such as "Stripper Wars". A major source of inspiration was seeing the people in Holland's hometown of Huntington Beach, such as the "wiggers" who were mocked in "Pretty Fly". Despite dealing with aimlessness and disillusionment, derived from how the generation that had just got to adulthood was having problems in getting jobs and sustaining themselves, Holland declared that "I didn't want it to be a record that made you feel hopeless. At the end of the day I hope that you can get something positive out of it." Americana was released on November 17, 1998, peaked at number 2 on the Billboard 200 album chart, the highest position the band attained at the time, so their highest thus far. Shortly after its release, the album was certified gold and later platinum; the album received positive reviews, Michael Gallucci of Allmusic described the album as a "raucous ride through America as seen through the eyes of a weary, but still optimistic, young kid".
Gallucci praised the music as "a hearty combination of poppy punk" and a "blend of salsa and alterna-rock sounds", stating the band's music was taking a different direction. The album received a rating of three out of five stars, while "Pretty Fly", "Why Don't You Get a Job?", "The Kids Aren't Alright" and "She's Got Issues" earned the Offspring its heaviest airplay on MTV and radio stations to date. Americana is the 224th best selling album of all time according to Billboard as of 2009; the album was included in Rock Sound's 101 Modern Classics list at number 79. The album was included at number 23 on Rock Sound's "The 51 Most Essential Pop Punk Albums of All Time" list. BuzzFeed included the album at number 15 on their "36 Pop Punk Albums You Need To Hear Before You F——ing Die" list. NME listed the album as one of "20 Pop Punk Albums Which Will Make You Nostalgic"; the album was named at the 2000 Juno Awards as one of the best-selling albums that year. Artist Frank Kozik was hired to do the artwork for the album as Holland found that his concert tour posters "had all the connotations we associated with Americana: glossy, innocent and 1950s, but with a twisted aspect."
Kozik, who had known the singer for a long time, was reluctant to
Vasai Creek is an estuarine creek, one of the two main distributaries of the Ulhas River in Maharashtra state of western India. The Ulhas splits at the northeast corner of Salsette Island into its two main distributaries, Vasai Creek and Thane Creek. Vasai Creek empties west into the Arabian Sea. Thane creek empties southwards into Bombay Harbour. To the south of the creek lies the Bhayandar shore, developed on both sides of the railway track. Two railway bridges connect other stations to the Western suburbs. Old bridge is believed to have been built during the British Raj and has been closed since it was declared too dangerous to cross; the new bridge has 4 tracks. The Bhayandar seashore has been developed with protective measures for enthusiasts, it houses a children's park, pooja area, visarjan area for idol immersion on the east side. On the west there are small garden benches. There are small paths heading down into the sea where the waves can be watched hitting the shoreline; the areas around the Vasai creek have been developing at high pace.
To accommodate the growing demand of transport, the creek is being looked forward to be used as a waterway to boost inland water and cargo transport. The Maharashtra Maritime Board is developing coastal shipping facilities at five points in the Vasai Creek; the five points under consideration are Bhayander, Kolshet and Kalher. Panju Island