Anne Marie Louise d'Orléans, Duchess of Montpensier
Anne Marie Louise d'Orléans, Duchess of Montpensier, known as La Grande Mademoiselle, was the only daughter of Gaston d'Orléans with his first wife Marie de Bourbon, Duchess of Montpensier. One of the greatest heiresses in history, she died unmarried and childless, leaving her vast fortune to her cousin, Philippe of France. After a string of proposals from various members of European ruling families, including Charles II of England, Afonso VI of Portugal, Charles Emmanuel II of Savoy, she fell in love with the courtier, Antoine Nompar de Caumont and scandalised the court of France when she asked Louis XIV for permission to marry him, as such a union was viewed as a mésalliance, she is best remembered for her role in the Fronde, her role in bringing the famous composer Lully to the king's court, her Mémoires. Anne Marie Louise d'Orléans was born at the Palais du Louvre in Paris on 29 May 1627, her father was Gaston, Duke of Orléans, known as Monsieur, the only surviving brother of then-King Louis XIII of France.
Her mother, 21-year-old Marie de Bourbon, Duchess of Montpensier, the only member of the Montpensier branch of the House of Bourbon until the birth of her daughter, died five days after giving birth to Anne Marie. This left the newborn Anne Marie, the new Duchess of Montpensier, heiress to her mother's immense fortune, which included five duchies, the Dauphinate of Auvergne, the sovereign Principality of Dombes, found in the historical province of Burgundy; as the eldest daughter of Monsieur, Anne Marie Louise was known as Mademoiselle from the time of her birth, because she was the granddaughter of a King of France, Henry IV, her uncle Louis XIII created for her the new title of petite-fille de France. Mademoiselle was moved from the Louvre to the Palais des Tuileries and placed under the care of Jeanne de Harlay, Madame de Saint Georges, the head of her household, who taught her how to read and write. Mademoiselle always had a great sense of her own self-importance and when asked about her maternal grandmother Henriette Catherine de Joyeuse she replied that she was not her grandmother, because she was "not a queen".
She grew up in the company of Mademoiselle de Longueville, as well as the sisters of the Maréchal de Gramont. Mademoiselle was close to her father Gaston, Duke of Orléans. Involved in conspiracies against Louis XIII and his unpopular chief advisor, Cardinal Richelieu, he was on bad terms with the court and banished on several occasions. Mademoiselle's father married Marguerite of Lorraine in a secret ceremony in Nancy during the night of 2–3 January 1632. Having not obtained the prior permission of his elder brother, the couple could not appear at the French court, the marriage was kept secret. On learning that the cardinal was the force behind her father's exile, Mademoiselle would sing various street songs and lampoons in the presence of the cardinal himself which earned her a cold scolding from the cardinal, her godfather; the seven-year-old Mademoiselle saw her father again in October 1634. For the first time in two years she met him at Limours, where seeing him she "flung herself into his arms".
Gaston resided at Blois. At the birth of the future Louis XIV in 1638, the determined Mademoiselle decided that she would marry him, calling him "her little husband" to the amusement of Louis XIII. Richelieu subsequently reprimanded her for her remarks. Regardless of her dreams, her father made no secret that he wanted her to marry Louis, Count of Soissons, a prince du Sang and one of his old conspirators; this marriage never materialised. Madame de Saint Georges died in 1643 and Mademoiselle's father chose Madame de Fiesque to take her place. Mademoiselle was devastated at the death of her former governess and, unkeen on having a new governess, was an awkward student, her uncle died in May 1643, leaving Louis XIV as King of France. Louis XIII, prior to death, had accepted his brother's plea for forgiveness and authorised his marriage to Marguerite of Lorraine, whereupon the couple undertook nuptials for the third time in July 1643 before the Archbishop of Paris at Meudon, the Duke and Duchess of Orléans were received at court.
In 1646, Mademoiselle met Prince of Wales. Her aunt, Queen Henrietta Maria of England, encouraged the idea of marrying Charles, stating he had taken a "fancy" to Mademoiselle, but nothing further was said at the time. Soon after, at the death of Empress Maria Anna, Mademoiselle ceased all interest in the prince and thus sighed over a union with her widower, Emperor Ferdinand III. However, under the influence of Mazarin, Queen Anne, her aunt by marriage and regent for the young Louis XIV, ignored Mademoiselle's pleas; the "wealthiest single princess of Europe" was unable to marry the infant Louis XIV or his brother, the Duke of Anjou. Queen Anne suggested her brother, Cardinal Ferdinand of Austria. One of the key areas of the life of Mademoiselle was her involvement in the period of French history known as the Fronde, a civil war in France marked by two distinct phases known as the Fronde Parlementaire and the Fronde des nobles; the former was precipitated by a tax levied on judicial officers of the Parlement of Paris, met with a refusal to pay and the emergence of Louis de Bourbon, Prince of Condé as a rebel figure who took the city of Paris by siege.
The influence of Cardinal Mazarin was opposed. At the Peace of Rueil of 1 April 1649, the Fronde Parlementa
Isabel, Princess Imperial of Brazil
Dona Isabel, nicknamed "the Redemptress", was the heiress presumptive to the throne of the Empire of Brazil, bearing the title of Princess Imperial. She served as the Empire's regent on three occasions. Isabel was born in Rio de Janeiro, the eldest daughter of Emperor Pedro II and Empress Teresa Cristina, thus a member of the Brazilian branch of the House of Braganza. After the deaths of her two brothers in infancy, she was recognized as her father's heiress presumptive, she married a French prince, Count of Eu, in an arranged marriage, they had three sons. During her father's absences abroad, Isabel acted as regent. In her third and final regency, she promoted and signed a law, named Lei Áurea or the Golden Law, emancipating all slaves in Brazil. Though the action was broadly popular, there was strong opposition to her succession to the throne, her gender, strong Catholic faith and marriage to a foreigner were seen as impediments against her, the emancipation of the slaves generated dislike among powerful planters.
In 1889, her family was deposed in a military coup, she spent the last 30 years of her life in exile in France. Isabel was born at 6:30 p.m. on 29 July 1846 in Rio de Janeiro's Paço de São Cristóvão. She was his wife Teresa Cristina. On 15 November the infant princess was baptized in an elaborate ceremony in Igreja da Glória, her godparents, both represented by proxy, were her uncle, King Ferdinand II of Portugal, her maternal grandmother María Isabella of Spain. She was christened Isabel Cristina Leopoldina Augusta Micaela Gabriela Rafaela Gonzaga, her last four names were always bestowed upon the members of her family, Isabel and Cristina honored Isabel's maternal grandmother and mother, respectively. She was a member of the Brazilian branch of the House of Braganza through her father, from birth was referred to using the honorific Dona, she was the granddaughter of Brazil's Emperor Pedro I, the niece of Queen Maria II of Portugal. Through her mother, she was a granddaughter of Francis I and niece to Ferdinand II, both kings of the Two Sicilies in turn.
At the time of her birth, she had an elder brother named Afonso, heir apparent to the Brazilian throne. Two other siblings followed: Leopoldina in 1847 and Pedro in 1848. Afonso's death in 1847, at the age of 2 1⁄2, propelled Isabel to the position of Pedro II's heir presumptive, she lost the position with the birth of Prince Imperial Pedro. After his death in 1850, Isabel became the definitive heir as Princess Imperial, the title given to the first in the line of succession. Isabel's early years were a time of prosperity in Brazil, her parents provided a healthy upbringing. She and her sister "grew up in a stable, secure environment different from the one her father and aunts had known, light years away from the childhood chaos of Pedro I." The early death of both of his sons had an enormous impact on Pedro II. Aside from his personal grief, the loss of his sons affected his future conduct as monarch and would determine the fate of the Empire. In the Emperor's eyes, the deaths of his children seemed to portend an eventual end of the Imperial system.
The future of the monarchy as an institution no longer concerned him, as he saw his position as being nothing more than that of Head of State for his lifetime. The Emperor's words revealed his inner conviction. After learning of the death of his son Pedro in 1850, he wrote: "This has been the most fatal blow that I could receive, I would not have survived were it not that I still have a wife and two children whom I must educate so that they can assure the happiness of the country in which they were born." Seven years in 1857, when it was more than clear that no more children would be born, the Emperor wrote: "As to their education, I will only say that the character of both the princesses ought to be shaped as suits Ladies who, it may be, will have to direct the constitutional government of an Empire such as Brazil". Although the Emperor still had a legal successor in his beloved daughter Isabel, the male-dominated society of the time left him little hope that a woman could rule Brazil, he was fond and respectful of the women in his life, but he did not consider it feasible that Isabel could survive as monarch, given the political realities and climate.
To historian Roderick J. Barman, the Emperor "could not conceive of women, his daughters included, playing any part in governance. In consequence, although he valued D. Isabel as his daughter, he could not accept or perceive her in cold reality as his successor or regard her as a viable ruler." The main reason for this behavior was his attitude toward the female gender. "Pedro II believed, as did most men of his day", says Barman, "that a single woman could not manage life's problem on her own if she possessed the powers and authority of an empress." Isabel began her education on 1 May 1854, when she was taught how to read and write by a male instructor, republican. As the Portuguese court tradition demanded, the heir of the throne was supposed to have an aio in charge of his education once he achieved the age of seven. After a long search, Pedro II chose the Brazilian-born Luísa Margarida Portugal de Barros, the Countess of Barral, daughter of a Brazilian noble and wife of a French noble. Barral assumed her position on 9 September 1856.
The 40-year-old Countess was a charming and vivacious woman who soon captured
Henry I, Duke of Guise
Henry I, Prince of Joinville, Duke of Guise, Count of Eu, sometimes called Le Balafré, was the eldest son of Francis, Duke of Guise, Anna d'Este. His maternal grandparents were Ercole II d'Este, Duke of Ferrara, Renée of France. Through his maternal grandfather, he was a descendant of Lucrezia Borgia and Pope Alexander VI. In 1576 he founded the Catholic League to prevent the heir, King Henry of Navarre, head of the Huguenot movement, from succeeding to the French throne. A key figure in the French Wars of Religion, he was one of the namesakes of the War of the Three Henrys. A powerful opponent of the queen mother, Catherine de' Medici, he was assassinated by the bodyguards of her son, King Henry III, he succeeded his father in 1563 as Duke of Grand Maître de France. He fought the Turks in Hungary in 1565, on his return, he became one of the leaders of the Catholic faction in the French Wars of Religion, he fought at the Battle of Saint-Denis in 1567, Battle of Jarnac defended Poitiers during a siege and fought at the Battle of Moncontour.
His love affair with Margaret of Valois in 1570 offended her brother, Charles IX of France and the Queen Mother, Catherine de' Medici, but his marriage to Catherine of Cleves restored his fortunes. Considering the Huguenot leader Admiral Coligny the architect of his father's assassination during the siege of Orléans in 1563, he is a suspect in the murder of the Admiral in August 1572; this was followed by the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre which took place on the occasion of Margaret's marriage to the Huguenot, Henry of Navarre. Henry was wounded at the Battle of Dormans on 10 October 1575, was thereafter known, like his father, as "Le Balafré". With a charismatic and brilliant public reputation, he rose to heroic stature among the Catholic population of France as an opponent of the Huguenots. In 1576 he formed the Catholic League; the talent and dash of Guise contrasted favorably with the vacillation and weakness of Henry III. He was said to cast eyes on the throne; this led to the stage of the Wars of Religion known as the War of the Three Henries.
However, at the death in 1584 of Francis, Duke of Anjou, the king's brother, Guise concluded the Treaty of Joinville with Philip II of Spain. This compact declared that the Cardinal de Bourbon should succeed Henry III, in preference to Henry of Navarre. Henry III now sided with the Catholic League. Guise sent his cousin Duke of Aumale, to lead a rising in Picardy. Alarmed, Henry III ordered Guise to remain in Champagne; the League now controlled France. But Henry III refused to be treated as a mere cipher by the League, decided upon a bold stroke. On 22 December 1588, Guise spent the night with his current mistress Charlotte de Sauve, the most accomplished and notorious member of Catherine de' Medici's group of female spies known as the "Flying Squadron"; the following morning at the Château de Blois, Guise was summoned to attend the king, was at once assassinated by "the Forty-five", the king's bodyguard, as Henry III looked on. Guise's brother, Louis II, Cardinal of Guise, was assassinated the next day.
The deed aroused such outrage among the remaining relatives and allies of Guise that Henry III was forced to take refuge with Henry of Navarre. Henry III was assassinated the following year by an agent of the Catholic League. According to Baltasar Gracian in A Pocket Mirror for Heroes, it was once said of him to Henry III, "Sire, he does good wholeheartedly: those who do not receive his good influence directly receive it by reflection; when deeds fail him, he resorts to words. There is no wedding he does not enliven, no baptism at which he is not godfather, no funeral he does not attend, he is courteous, generous, the honorer of all and the detractor of none. In a word, he is a king by affection, just as Your Majesty is by law." The Duke of Guise appears as an archetypal Machiavellian schemer in Christopher Marlowe's The Massacre at Paris, written about 20 years after the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre; the death of the duke is mentioned, by the ghost of Machiavelli himself, in the opening lines of The Jew of Malta.
He appears in its sequel, The Revenge of Bussy D'Ambois. John Dryden and Nathaniel Lee wrote The Duke of Guise, based on events during the reign of Henry III of France, he appears by Madame de La Fayette. He appears in Voltaire's epic poem "La Henriade", he is one of the characters in Alexandre Dumas's novel La Reine Margot and its sequels, La Dame de Monsoreau and The Forty-Five Guardsmen. Stanley Weyman's novel A Gentleman of France includes the Duke of Guise in its tale about the War of the Three Henries. Ken Follett's novel A Column of Fire features Henry, Duke of Guise as a prominent character, explores his involvement with the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre; the Duke is a leading character in the play The Massacre at Paris, by Christopher Marlowe. George Onslow's 1837 opera Le duc de Guise deals with the duke's assassination. L'Assassinat du Duc de Guise, Op. 128, first shown at the Salle Charras in Paris on 16 November 1908, was the first film to include a score written by a well-known classical comp
Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, five are overseas departments, which are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils; each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school buildings and technical staff, local roads and school and rural buses, a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity.
All of them were named after physical geographical features, rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had been discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers; the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number; the number is used, for example, in the postal code, was until used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45". In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, to transfer their powers to other levels of governance; this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration. Before the French Revolution, France gained territory through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved in order to weaken old loyalties; the modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure.
Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department; this was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government; the old nomenclature was avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after other physical features. Paris was in the department of Seine. Savoy became the department of Mont-Blanc; the number of departments 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86.
In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department; the 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin became known as the Territoire de Belfort; when France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department; the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, a new Moselle department was created in the regaine
Louis Philippe I
Louis Philippe I was King of the French from 1830 to 1848. His father Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orléans had taken the name "Philippe Égalité" because he supported the French Revolution. However, following the deposition and execution of his cousin King Louis XVI, Louis Philippe fled the country, his father denounced his actions and voted for his death, but was imprisoned and executed that same year. Louis Philippe spent the next 21 years in exile before returning during the Bourbon Restoration, he was proclaimed king in 1830 after his cousin Charles X was forced to abdicate by the July Revolution. The reign of Louis Philippe is known as the July Monarchy and was dominated by wealthy industrialists and bankers, he followed conservative policies under the influence of French statesman François Guizot during the period 1840–48. He promoted friendship with Britain and sponsored colonial expansion, notably the French conquest of Algeria, his popularity faded as economic conditions in France deteriorated in 1847, he was forced to abdicate after the outbreak of the French Revolution of 1848.
He lived out his life in exile in the United Kingdom. His supporters were known as Orléanists, as opposed to Legitimists who supported the main line of the House of Bourbon. Louis Philippe was born in the Palais Royal, the residence of the Orléans family in Paris, to Louis Philippe, Duke of Chartres, Louise Marie Adélaïde de Bourbon; as a member of the reigning House of Bourbon, he was a Prince of the Blood, which entitled him the use of the style "Serene Highness". His mother was an wealthy heiress, descended from Louis XIV of France through a legitimized line. Louis Philippe was the eldest of three sons and a daughter, a family, to have erratic fortunes from the beginning of the French Revolution to the Bourbon Restoration; the elder branch of the House of Bourbon, to which the kings of France belonged distrusted the intentions of the cadet branch, which would succeed to the throne of France should the senior branch die out. Louis Philippe's father was exiled from the royal court, the Orléans confined themselves to studies of the literature and sciences emerging from the Enlightenment.
Louis Philippe was tutored by the Countess of Genlis, beginning in 1782. She instilled in him a fondness for liberal thought; when Louis Philippe's grandfather died in 1785, his father succeeded him as Duke of Orléans and Louis Philippe succeeded his father as Duke of Chartres. In 1788, with the Revolution looming, the young Louis Philippe showed his liberal sympathies when he helped break down the door of a prison cell in Mont Saint-Michel, during a visit there with the Countess of Genlis. From October 1788 to October 1789, the Palais Royal was a meeting-place for the revolutionaries. Louis Philippe grew up in a period that changed Europe as a whole and, following his father's strong support for the Revolution, he involved himself in those changes. In his diary, he reports that he himself took the initiative to join the Jacobin Club, a move that his father supported. In June 1791, Louis Philippe got his first opportunity to become involved in the affairs of France. In 1785, he had been given the hereditary appointment of Colonel of the Chartres Dragoons.
With war imminent in 1791, all proprietary colonels were ordered to join their regiments. Louis Philippe showed himself to be a model officer, he demonstrated his personal bravery in two famous instances. First, three days after Louis XVI's flight to Varennes, a quarrel between two local priests and one of the new constitutional vicars became heated, a crowd surrounded the inn where the priests were staying, demanding blood; the young colonel broke through the crowd and extricated the two priests, who fled. At a river crossing on the same day, another crowd threatened to harm the priests. Louis Philippe put himself between a peasant armed with a carbine and the priests, saving their lives; the next day, Louis Philippe dove into a river to save a drowning local engineer. For this action, he received a civic crown from the local municipality, his regiment was moved north to Flanders at the end of 1791 after the August 27, 1791 Declaration of Pillnitz. Louis Philippe served under his father's crony, Armand Louis de Gontaut the Duke of Biron, along with several officers who gained distinction in Napoleon's empire and afterwards.
These included Lieutenant Colonel Alexandre de Beauharnais. After war was declared by the Kingdom of France on the Habsburg Monarchy on April 20, 1792, Louis Philippe saw his first exchanges of fire of the French Revolutionary Wars within the invaded by France Austrian Netherlands at Boussu, Walloon, on about April 28, 1792, at Quaregnon, Walloon, on about April 29, 1792, at Quiévrain, near Jemappes, Walloon, on about April 30, 1792, where he was instrumental in rallying a unit of retreating soldiers after the victorious Battle of Quiévrain only two days earlier on April 28th of 1792. Biron wrote to War Minister de Grave, praising the young colonel, promoted to brigadier, commanding a brigade of cavalry in Lückner's Army of the North. In the Army of the North, Louis Philippe served with four future Marshals of France: Macdonald, Mortier and Oudinot. Dumouriez was appointed to command the Army of the North in August 1792. Louis Philippe commanded a division under him in the Valmy campaign. At the September 20, 1792 Battle of Va
Normandy is one of the 18 regions of France referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy. Normandy is divided into five administrative departments: Calvados, Manche and Seine-Maritime, it covers 30,627 square kilometres, comprising 5% of the territory of metropolitan France. Its population of 3.37 million accounts for around 5% of the population of France. The inhabitants of Normandy are known as Normans, the region is the historic homeland of the Norman language; the historical region of Normandy comprised the present-day region of Normandy, as well as small areas now part of the departments of Mayenne and Sarthe. The Channel Islands are historically part of Normandy. Normandy's name comes from the settlement of the territory by Danish and Norwegian Vikings from the 9th century, confirmed by treaty in the 10th century between King Charles III of France and the Viking jarl Rollo. For a century and a half following the Norman conquest of England in 1066, Normandy and England were linked by Norman and Frankish rulers.
Archaeological finds, such as cave paintings, prove that humans were present in the region in prehistoric times. Celts invaded Normandy in successive waves from the 4th to the 3rd century BC; when Julius Caesar invaded Gaul, there were nine different Celtic tribes living in Normandy. The Romanisation of Normandy was achieved by the usual methods: Roman roads and a policy of urbanisation. Classicists have knowledge of many Gallo-Roman villas in Normandy. In the late 3rd century, barbarian raids devastated Normandy. Coastal settlements were raided by Saxon pirates. Christianity began to enter the area during this period. In 406, Germanic tribes began invading from the east; as early as 487, the area between the River Somme and the River Loire came under the control of the Frankish lord Clovis. Vikings started to raid the Seine valley during the middle of the 9th century; as early as 841, a Viking fleet appeared at the mouth of the Seine, the principal route by which they entered the kingdom. After attacking and destroying monasteries, including one at Jumièges, they took advantage of the power vacuum created by the disintegration of Charlemagne's empire to take northern France.
The fiefdom of Normandy was created for Rollo. Rollo had besieged Paris but in 911 entered vassalage to the king of the West Franks, Charles the Simple, through the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte. In exchange for his homage and fealty, Rollo gained the territory which he and his Viking allies had conquered; the name "Normandy" reflects Rollo's Viking origins. To this day, in Norwegian language the word nordmann denotes a Norwegian person; the descendants of Rollo and his followers adopted the local Gallo-Romance language and intermarried with the area's native Gallo-Roman inhabitants. They became the Normans – a Norman-speaking mixture of Norsemen and indigenous Franks and Romans. Rollo's descendant William became king of England in 1066 after defeating Harold Godwinson, the last of the Anglo-Saxon kings, at the Battle of Hastings, while retaining the fiefdom of Normandy for himself and his descendants. Besides the conquest of England and the subsequent subjugation of Wales and Ireland, the Normans expanded into other areas.
Norman families, such as that of Tancred of Hauteville, Rainulf Drengot and Guimond de Moulins played important parts in the conquest of southern Italy and the Crusades. The Drengot lineage, de Hauteville's sons William Iron Arm and Humphrey, Robert Guiscard and Roger the Great Count progressively claimed territories in southern Italy until founding the Kingdom of Sicily in 1130, they carved out a place for themselves and their descendants in the Crusader states of Asia Minor and the Holy Land. The 14th-century explorer Jean de Béthencourt established a kingdom in the Canary Islands in 1404, he received the title King of the Canary Islands from Pope Innocent VII but recognized Henry III of Castile as his overlord, who had provided him aid during the conquest. In 1204, during the reign of John Lackland, mainland Normandy was taken from England by France under King Philip II. Insular Normandy remained however under English control. In 1259, Henry III of England recognized the legality of French possession of mainland Normandy under the Treaty of Paris.
His successors, however fought to regain control of their ancient fiefdom. The Charte aux Normands granted by Louis X of France in 1315 – like the analogous Magna Carta granted in England in the aftermath of 1204 – guaranteed the liberties and privileges of the province of Normandy. French Normandy was occupied by English forces during the Hundred Years' War in 1345–1360 and again in 1415–1450. Normandy lost three-quarters of its population during the war. Afterward prosperity returned to Normandy until the Wars of Religion; when many Norman towns joined the Protestant Reformation, battles ensued throughout the province. In the Channel Islands, a period of Calvinism following the Reformation was suppressed when Anglicanism was imposed following the English Civil War. Samuel de Champlain founded Acadia. Four years