Jagdschloss is the German term for a hunting lodge. It is a schloss set in a wildlife park or a hunting area that served as accommodation for a ruler or aristocrat and his entourage while hunting in the area. A Jagdschloss was the venue for a banquet accompanying a hunt, sometimes it hosted festivals and other events; the term Jagdschloss is equated to the Lustschloss or maison de plaisance as the hunt was a recreational activity. However, a Lustschloss and Jagdschloss differ in function as well as architecture; the layout and furnishing of a Lustschloss is unconstrained, while that of a Jagdschloss is always related to hunting: the walls may be adorned with antlers and other trophies, with scenes of hunting, by a deliberate use of wood or other natural materials. A Jagdschloss could be lavishly furnished, but unlike with a Lustschloss, timber-framed buildings or log cabins were not uncommon. Only a few imposing stone buildings have survived, which colours the general understanding of what a Jagdschloss is today.
A Jagdschloss had stables and other outbuildings used to house hunting equipment and the entourage. Larger examples form self-contained ensembles, while smaller ones, known as Jagdhäuser, were built within castle parks and gardens, within range of the Residenz of the owner. Amalienburg in the park of Nymphenburg Palace, Bavaria Augustusburg Hunting Lodge in Augustusburg, Saxony Clemenswerth in Sögel, Lower Saxony Engers Palace Falkenlust in Brühl, North Rhine-Westphalia Gelbensande Hunting Lodge Glienicke Hunting Lodge Granitz Hunting Lodge Grünau Hunting Lodge by Neuburg on the Danube Grunewald Hunting Lodge in Berlin Hubertusstock Hunting Lodge in the Schorfheide Kranichstein Hunting Lodge by Darmstadt Letzlingen Hunting Lodge Moritzburg Castle in Saxony Quitzin Hunting Lodge in Western Pomerania Rominten Hunting Lodge Springe Hunting Lodge Stern Hunting Lodge in Potsdam Wolfsgarten Castle in Hesse Wolfstein Hunting Lodge in Kochholz Schloss Fuschl in Austria Schloss Holzheim in Hesse Lustschloss Monique Chatenet: Maisons des champs dans l'Europe de la Renaissance.
Actes des premières Rencontres d'architecture européenne, Château de Maisons, 10-13 juin 2003. Picard, Paris, 2006, ISBN 2-7084-0737-6. Claude d'Anthenaise: Chasses princières dans l'Europe de la Renaissance. Actes du colloque de Chambord. Fondation de la Maison de la Chasse et de la Nature. Actes Sud, Arles, 2007, ISBN 978-2-7427-6643-7. Heiko Laß: Jagd- und Lustschlösser: Art and culture of two sovereign construction tasks. Imhof, Petersberg, 2006, ISBN 3-86568-092-5
Jean-Claude Nicolas Forestier
Jean-Claude Nicolas Forestier was a French landscape architect, who trained with Adolphe Alphand and became conservator of the promenades of Paris. He developed an arboretum at the gardens of the Champ-de-Mars below the Eiffel Tower. In 1925 he became Inspector of Gardens for the International Exhibition of Decorative Arts and undertook projects in the Americas. In 1925, Forestier moved to Havana for five years to collaborate with architects and landscape designers, he worked on the master plan of the city. He connected the city's road networks while accentuating prominent landmarks, his influence has left a huge mark on Havana although many of his ideas were cut short by the great depression in 1929. Forestier made a plan for the improvement of Buenos Aires. In Spain, he designed the Maria Luisa Park in Seville and the gardens of La Casa del Rey Moro in Ronda. FORESTIER Jean Claude Nicolas, Grandes villes et systèmes de parcs, Hachette, 1908, 50p. FORESTIER Jean Claude Nicolas, Grandes villes et systèmes de parcs, Norma, rééd.
Du texte de 1908 présentée par B. Leclerc et S. Tarrago, 1997, 383p. FORESTIER Jean Claude Nicolas, carnet de plans et de croquis, Paris, Ed Picard, 1994. LECLERC Bénédicte, Jean Claude Nicolas FORESTIER,1861-1930, du Jardin au paysage urbain, Paris, Ed Picard, 2000, 283p. LECLERC Bénédicte, Jean Claude Nicolas FORESTIER,1861-1930, La science des jardins au service de l’art urbain, Revue Pages Paysages, N°2, 1988–89, p24-29. LECLERC Bénédicte, Paysage, urbanisme: la mission de Jean C-N Forestier au Maroc en 1913, Nancy, Ed Ecole d’architecture de Nancy, 1993, s-p. LE DANTEC Jean-Pierre, Le Sauvage et le régulier. Art des jardins et paysagisme en France au XXième siècle, Paris, Ed du Moniteur, 2002, p93 à 101
Stade Français Paris is a French professional rugby union club based in the 16th arrondissement of Paris. The club plays in the Top 14 domestic league in France and is one of the most successful French clubs of the modern era. Stade Français was founded in 1883, it was founded in its current form in 1995 with the merger of the rugby sections of the Stade Français and Club Athlétique des Sports Généraux. Its traditional home is Stade Jean-Bouin, though the club has played some home games at the 80,000-seat Stade de France, taking anywhere from two to five matches to the larger venue each season since 2005–06. From 2010 to 2013, the team played temporarily at the 20,000-capacity Stade Charléty in Paris to allow a new stadium to be built at the Jean-Bouin site; the team participated in the first French championship final in 1892, went on to win numerous titles during the early 1900s. Stade Français spent about 50 years in the lower divisions of French rugby, until entrepreneur Max Guazzini took over in 1992, overseeing a rise to prominence, which saw the team returning to the elite division in just five seasons, capture four French championships in seven years.
After a financial crisis plagued the club in 2011, Guazzini sold a majority stake and stepped down as club president. From 2009 to 2015, the team struggles. 2015 marked a rebirth for them, as the team reached the final phases and won three games in row, against Racing Métro and Clermont and won Top 14. Stade Français was established in 1883 by a group of students in Paris. On 20 March 1892 the USFSA organised the first French rugby union championship, a one-off game between Racing Club de France and Stade Français; the game was refereed by Pierre de Coubertin and saw Racing win 4–3. However the club were able to make up for the loss the next season when the two teams met again in the final, with Stade Français winning 7 points to 3; the team became a powerful side in the competition, featuring in every championship in succession until 1899, successful in 1894, 1895, 1897 and 1898. From 1899 through to the 1908 season Stade Français would contest the championship final on seven occasions against Stade Bordelais, winning in 1901 and again in 1908.
Stade Français defeated SOE Toulouse in the 1903 season in Toulouse. Following a vast amount of success during the early years of the domestic league, after 1908 Stade Français would not make another final appearance until the 1927 season, when they were defeated by Toulouse 19 points to 9 in Toulouse. Stade Français would go onto spend over fifty years in the lower divisions of French rugby. While in the third division of the French leagues, entrepreneur Max Guazzini took over the club in 1992 with the dream of bringing back top class rugby to the city of Paris. Stade Français CASG was born in 1995 through the merger of the existing Stade Français club and another Parisian side, Club Athlétique des Sports Généraux; the team returned to the top division in 1995 which coincided with the appointment of head coach Bernard Laporte. By 1998 the team had reached the championship final, captured their first title since 1908, defeating Perpignan 34 points to 7 at Stade de France. Laporte left the club to coach the national team, he was replaced by Georges Coste, in turn replaced by John Connolly in 2000.
Connolly took the club to their first Heineken Cup final in May 2001, where they were defeated by the Leicester Tigers 34 points to 30 at Parc des Princes. Connolly was replaced by South African Nick Mallet. Stade Français won the domestic league again in both 2003 and 2004. During the 2004–05 season Stade Français went close to winning both the French league and the Heineken Cup, but lost both finals. Mallett soon returned home to South Africa and former Stade Français player and national captain Fabien Galthié was appointed head coach. Stade won the 2006 -- 07 championship; the club faced serious financial issues during the 2010–11 season due to the failure of an affiliated advertising company. In early June 2011, Stade Français temporarily avoided an administrative relegation to the amateur Fédérale 1 league when Guazzini announced a deal by which an unnamed investor, working through a Canada-based foundation, would purchase a majority stake in the club. However, the deal collapsed with at least three people linked to the deal arrested.
On the deadline set by France's professional league for a resolution of the club's situation, Guazzini announced a new deal, in which Jean-Pierre Savare, chairman of French security systems company Oberthur Technologies, purchased a controlling stake in the club. Guazzini stepped down as president in favour of Savare's son Thomas, remaining with the club as honorary president. In the 1880s, many emerging sports clubs were modelled after English institutions and took on English names; the name Stade was chosen by the young students as a reminder of Ancient Greece, for the Stadium was where the athletes performed their feats. Français came later, it was given by British players, against whom the Stadistes played early on, to differentiate them from their own Paris associations as rugby was much an expatriates' game in the late 1880s. In those years, France lived with the memory of the war lost to Germany in 1871; the patriotic appeal of la revanche is behind the choice of the blue and red colours of the French national flag, of the name Stade Français.
A fête, or fete, is an elaborate festival, party or celebration. In Britain, fêtes are traditional public festivals, held outdoors and organised to raise funds for a charity, they include entertainment and the sale of goods and refreshments. Village fêtes are common in Britain; these are outdoor shows held on village greens or recreation grounds with a variety of activities. They are organised by an ad hoc committee of volunteers from organisations like religious groups or residents' associations. Fêtes can be seen in former British colonies. In Australia, fêtes are held yearly by schools and sometimes churches to raise funds. Attractions seen at village fêtes include tombolas, coconut shies, bat a rat stalls, white elephant stalls and home produce such as jams and pickles. Competitive baking, such as making Victoria sponge cake, is part of the classic British fête. Filmed in bunting-draped marquees in scenic gardens, The Great British Bake Off television series is inspired by the quintessential English village fête.
Entertainment at fêtes may include Morris dancing, tug of war, fancy dress, pet shows. The fête itself is a variation of a fair. In Trinidad and Tobago and other English-speaking Caribbean territories, fêtes are huge parties held during the Carnival season. Harvard University's Eliot House uses the term to refer to its spring formal. Bloomington, Minnesota's, Independence Day celebration has been known as Summer Fete since 1978; the English word fête, pronounced FAYT or FET, is borrowed from the Mediaeval Latin festus via the French fête, meaning "holiday" or "party". The 12th-century Middle English root fest- is shared with feast, festive and festival, the Spanish fiesta, Portuguese festa, etc. and the proper name Festus. Kermesse Village Fête, a painting by Claude Lorrain
Bois de Boulogne
The Bois de Boulogne is a large public park located along the western edge of the 16th arrondissement of Paris, near the suburb of Boulogne-Billancourt and Neuilly-sur-Seine. The land was ceded to the city of Paris by the Emperor Napoleon III to be turned into a public park in 1852, it is the second-largest park in Paris smaller than the Bois de Vincennes on the eastern side of the city. It covers an area of 845 hectares, about two and a half times the area of Central Park in New York and less than that of Richmond Park in London. Within the boundaries of the Bois de Boulogne are an English landscape garden with several lakes and a cascade; the Bois de Boulogne is a remnant of the ancient oak forest of Rouvray, which included the present-day forests of Montmorency, Saint-Germain-en-Laye and Meudon. Dagobert, the King of the Franks, hunted bears and other game in the forest, his grandson, Childeric II, gave the forest to the monks of the Abbey of Saint-Denis, who founded several monastic communities there.
Philip Augustus bought back the main part of the forest from the monks to create a royal hunting reserve. In 1256, Isabelle de France, sister of Saint-Louis, founded the Abbey of Longchamp at the site of the present hippodrome; the Bois received its present name from a chapel, Notre Dame de Boulogne la Petite, built in the forest at the command of Philip IV of France. In 1308, Philip made a pilgrimage to Boulogne-sur-Mer, on the French coast, to see a statue of the Virgin Mary, reputed to inspire miracles, he decided to build a church with a copy of the statue in a village in the forest not far from Paris, in order to attract pilgrims. The chapel was built after Philip's death between 1319 and 1330, in what is now Boulogne-Billancourt. During the Hundred Years' War, the forest became a sanctuary for robbers and sometimes a battleground. In 1416-17, the soldiers of John the Fearless, the Duke of Burgundy, burned part of the forest in their successful campaign to capture Paris. Under Louis XI, the trees were replanted, two roads were opened through the forest.
In 1526, King Francis I of France began a royal residence, the Château de Madrid, in the forest in what is now Neuilly and used it for hunting and festivities. It took its name from a similar palace in Madrid, where Francis had been held prisoner for several months; the Chateau was used by monarchs, fell into ruins in the 18th century, was demolished after the French Revolution. Despite its royal status, the forest remained dangerous for travelers. During the reigns of Henry II and Henry III, the forest was enclosed within a wall with eight gates. Henry IV planted 15,000 mulberry trees, with the hope of beginning a local silk industry; when Henry annulled his marriage to Marguerite de Valois, she went to live in the Château de la Muette, on the edge of the forest. In the early 18th century and important women retired to the convent of the Abbey of Longchamp, located where the hippodrome now stands. A famous opera singer of the period, Madmoiselle Le Maure, retired there in 1727 but continued to give recitals inside the Abbey during Holy Week.
These concerts drew large crowds and irritated the Archibishop of Paris, who closed the Abbey to the public. Louis XVI and his family used the forest as a hunting pleasure garden. In 1777, the Comte d'Artois, Louis XVI's brother, built a charming miniature palace, the Château de Bagatelle, in the Bois in just 64 days, on a wager from his sister-in-law, Marie Antoinette. Louis XVI opened the walled park to the public for the first time. On 21 November 1783, Pilâtre de Rozier and the Marquis d'Arlandes took off from the Chateau de la Muette in a hot air balloon made by the Montgolfier brothers. Previous flights had been tethered to the ground; the balloon rose to a height of 910 meters, was in the air for 25 minutes, covered nine kilometers. Following the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1814, 40,000 soldiers of the British and Russian armies camped in the forest. Thousands of trees were cut down to build shelters and for firewood. From 1815 until the French Second Republic, the Bois was empty, an assortment of bleak ruined meadows and tree stumps where the British and Russians had camped and dismal stagnant ponds.
The Bois de Boulogne was the idea of Napoleon III, shortly after he staged a coup d'état and elevated himself from the President of the French Republic to Emperor of the French in 1852. When Napoleon III became Emperor, Paris had only four public parks - the Tuileries Gardens, the Luxembourg Garden, the Palais-Royal, the Jardin des Plantes - all in the center of the city. There were no public parks in the growing east and west of the city. During his exile in London, he had been impressed by Hyde Park, by its lakes and streams and its popularity with Londoners of all social classes. Therefore, he decided to build two large public parks on the eastern and western edges of the city where both the rich and ordinary people coul
Cue sports known as billiard sports, are a wide variety of games of skill played with a cue stick, used to strike billiard balls and thereby cause them to move around a cloth-covered billiards table bounded by elastic bumpers known as cushions. The umbrella term was billiards. While that familiar name is still employed by some as a generic label for all such games, the word's usage has splintered into more exclusive competing meanings in various parts of the world. For example, in British and Australian English, "billiards" refers to the game of English billiards, while in American and Canadian English it is sometimes used to refer to a particular game or class of games, or to all cue games in general, depending upon dialect and context. In colloquial usage, the term "billiards" may be used colloquially to refer to pocket billiards games, such as pool, snooker, or Russian pyramid. There are 3 major subdivisions of games within cue sports: Carom billiards, referring to games played on tables without pockets 10 feet in length, including balkline and straight rail, cushion caroms, three-cushion billiards, artistic billiards and four-ball Pool, covering numerous pocket billiards games played on six-pocket tables of 7-, 8-, or 9-foot length, including among others eight-ball, nine-ball, ten-ball, straight pool, one-pocket, bank pool Snooker, English billiards and Russian pyramid, games played on a billiards table with six pockets called a snooker table, all of which are classified separately from pool based on a separate historical development, as well as a separate culture and terminology that characterize their play.
There are other variants that make use of obstacles and targets, table-top games played with disks instead of balls. Billiards has a long and rich history stretching from its inception in the 15th century, to the wrapping of the body of Mary, Queen of Scots, in her billiard table cover in 1586, through its many mentions in the works of Shakespeare, including the famous line "let's to billiards" in Antony and Cleopatra, through the many famous enthusiasts of the sport such as: Mozart, Louis XIV of France, Marie Antoinette, Immanuel Kant, Abraham Lincoln, Mark Twain, George Washington, French president Jules Grévy, Charles Dickens, George Armstrong Custer, Theodore Roosevelt, Lewis Carroll, W. C. Fields, Babe Ruth, Bob Hope, Jackie Gleason. All cue sports are regarded to have evolved into indoor games from outdoor stick-and-ball lawn games, as such to be related to the historical games jeu de mail and palle-malle, modern trucco and golf, more distantly to the stickless bocce and bowls; the word "billiard" may have evolved from the French word billart or billette, meaning "stick", in reference to the mace, an implement similar to a golf club, the forerunner to the modern cue.
The modern term "cue sports" can be used to encompass the ancestral mace games, the modern cueless variants, such as finger billiards, for historical reasons. "Cue" itself came from the French word for a tail. This refers to the early practice of using the tail of the mace to strike the ball when it lay against a rail cushion. A recognizable form of billiards was played outdoors in the 1340s, was reminiscent of croquet. King Louis XI of France had the first known indoor billiard table. Louis XIV further refined and popularized the game, it swiftly spread among the French nobility. While the game had long been played on the ground, this version appears to have died out in the 17th century, in favor of croquet and bowling games, while table billiards had grown in popularity as an indoor activity. Mary, Queen of Scots, claimed that her "table de billiard" had been taken away by those who became her executioners. Billiards grew to the extent that by 1727, it was being played in every Paris café. In England, the game was developing into a popular activity for members of the gentry.
By 1670, the thin butt end of the mace began to be used not only for shots under the cushion, but players preferred it for other shots as well. The cue as it is known today was developed by about 1800; the mace was used to push the balls, rather than strike them. The newly developed striking cue provided a new challenge. Cushions began to be stuffed with substances to allow the balls to rebound, in order to enhance the appeal of the game. After a transitional period where only the better players would use cues, the cue came to be the first choice of equipment; the demand for tables and other equipment was met in Europe by John Thurston and other furniture makers of the era. The early balls were made from wood and clay. Early billiard games involved various pieces of additional equipment, including the "arch", "port" and "king" in the 1770s, but other game variants, relying on the cushions, were being formed that would go on to play fundamental roles in the development of modern billiards; the early croquet-like games led to the development of the carom or carambole billiards category – what most non-Commonwealth and non-US speakers mean by the word "billiards".
Racing 92 is a French rugby union club based in suburban Paris, formed in 2001 with the collaboration of the Racing Club de France and US Métro. They were called Racing Métro 92 between 2001 and 2015, when they changed the name to Racing 92. "92" is the number of Hauts-de-Seine, a département of Île-de-France, bordering Paris to the west, where they play, whose council gives financial backing to the club. They play in the Top 14, having been promoted as 2008–09 champions of Rugby Pro D2. After starting the 2017–18 season at the Stade Yves-du-Manoir stadium at Colombes, where the France national team played for several decades, Racing played their first match at the new U Arena, since renamed Paris La Défense Arena, in Nanterre on 22 December 2017. Racing Club was established in 1882 as one of the first in France. New sections were added thereafter. A rugby section was founded in 1890, which became an immediate protagonist of the early French championship and to which, until 1898, only Parisian teams were invited.
On 20 March 1892 the USFSA organised the first French rugby championship, a one off game between Racing and Stade Français. The game was refereed by Pierre de Coubertin and saw Racing win 4–3. Racing were awarded the Bouclier de Brennus, still awarded to the winners of the French championship today. Both clubs would contest the championship game the following season as well, though in 1893 it would be Stade Français who would win the event, defeating the Racing Club 7–3. Stade went on to dominate the following years and the Racing Club would make their next final appearance in the 1898 season, where they met Stade yet again; however the title was awarded after a round-robin with six clubs. Stade Français won with 10 points, Racing came in second with 6. Racing contested the 1900 season final against the Stade Bordelais club, as provincial clubs had been allowed to compete in 1899. Racing won the match, defeating Stade Bordelais 37–7; the two clubs would meet again in the 1902 championship game, where Racing would again win, 6–0.
A decade passed until Racing Club made another championship final, which would be on 31 March 1912, where they would play Toulouse in Toulouse. They lost the match 8–6. Due to World War I the French championship was replaced with a competition called the Coupe de l'Espérance; the Racing Club won the competition in 1918, defeating FC Grenoble 22 points to 9. Normal competition resumed for the 1920 season; that season the Racing Club made their first final since 1912, though they lost 8 to 3 to Stadoceste Tarbais, a club from the Pyrénées. After the 1920 season, the Racing Club would not win any championships for a number of years. In 1931 they created the Challenge Yves du Manoir competition. In the 1950s the club had some success, making their first championship final in 30 years, losing to Castres Olympique, 11 points to 8, becoming runners-up in the Challenge Yves du Manoir and winning the Challenge Rutherford in the 1952 season. After losing the 1957 final to FC Lourdes, the club won the championship in the 1959 season, defeating Mont-de-Marsan 8 points to 3.
The Racing Club would next play in the championship final in the 1987 season, where they met Toulon at Parc des Princes in Paris. Toulon won the match 15 points to 12. Three seasons the Racing Club defeated Agen 22 to 12 in Paris, capturing their first title since the 1959 season, but in the wake of the 1990 title, Racing Club had a hard time adapting to the professional era and started to decline, until they were relegated to Division 2 at the end of the 1995–96 season. They jumped back to the top tier in 1998 but went down again in 2000 and played in Division 2 for most of the next decade. In 2001 the rugby section split off from the general sports club to merge with the rugby section of US Métro, the Paris public transport sports club, to form the current professional concern, known as Racing Métro 92. Both Racing Club de France and US Métro retained their other amateur general sports sections. Racing 92's president is Jacky Lorenzetti; when Lorenzetti took over in 2006, the board set goals of bringing Racing into the Top 14 within the next two years and into the Heineken Cup by 2011.
They missed their Top 14 goal by one year, not entering the top flight until 2009, but achieved their Heineken Cup goal by qualifying for the 2010–11 edition. After 2003 the Challenge Yves du Manoir has been taken over by Racing Club as a youth competition for under 15s clubs. Racing Club de France provided 76 players including 12 captains, it is second only to Stade Toulousain in that category. Three Racingmen played in France's first international match against the All Blacks on 1 January 1906. Laurent Cabannes, a France flanker played for Harlequins. At the end of the 2014–15 season, the team's name was shortened from Racing Métro 92 to Racing 92. In France, early organised sport was a matter for rich people. Racing Club became the epitome of the exclusive athletics club, located in the heart of the Bois de Boulogne in the affluent western district of Paris; as the club's name, indicates, it was modelled after fashionable English sports organisations, whose ideal of mens sana in corpore sano appealed much to its members.
Many of them were aristocrats, four nobles took part in the first championship final. Although fewer aristocrats belong to the club now, it is still complicated to join it, the identity and image is one of exclusivity. Racing Club has always defended the amateur spirit of the game and of sports in