Charles, Duke of Orléans
Charles of Orléans was Duke of Orléans from 1407, following the murder of his father, Louis I, Duke of Orléans, on the orders of John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy. He was Duke of Valois, Count of Beaumont-sur-Oise and of Blois, Lord of Coucy, the inheritor of Asti in Italy via his mother Valentina Visconti, daughter of Gian Galeazzo Visconti, Duke of Milan, he is now remembered as an accomplished medieval poet owing to the more than five hundred extant poems he produced, written in both French and English, during his 25 years spent as a prisoner of war and after his return to France. Charles was born in Paris. Acceding to the duchy at the age of thirteen after his father had been assassinated, he was expected to carry on his father's leadership against the Burgundians, a French faction which supported the Duke of Burgundy; the latter was never punished for his role in Louis' assassination, Charles had to watch as his grief-stricken mother Valentina Visconti succumbed to illness not long afterwards.
At her deathbed and the other boys of the family were made to swear the traditional oath of vengeance for their father's murder. During the early years of his reign as duke, the orphaned Charles was influenced by the guidance of his father-in-law, Bernard VII, Count of Armagnac, for which reason Charles' faction came to be known as the Armagnacs. After war with the Kingdom of England was renewed in 1415, Charles was one of the many French noblemen at the Battle of Agincourt on 25 October 1415, he was discovered unwounded but trapped under a pile of corpses, incapacitated by the weight of his own armour. He was taken prisoner by the English, spent the next twenty-four years being moved from one castle to another in England, including the Tower of London, Pontefract Castle – the castle where England's young King Richard II, cousin once removed of the incumbent English King Henry V, had been imprisoned and died 15 years earlier at the age of 33; the conditions of his confinement were not strict.
However, he was not offered release in exchange for a ransom, since the English King Henry V had left instructions forbidding any release: Charles was the natural head of the Armagnac faction and in the line of succession to the French throne, was therefore deemed too important to be returned to circulation. After his capture, his entire library was moved by Yolande of Aragon to Saumur, to prevent it from falling into enemy hands It was during these twenty-four years that Charles would write most of his poetry, including melancholy works which seem to be commenting on the captivity itself, such as En la forêt de longue attente, he is credited with writing the first Valentine's Day poem. The majority of his output consists of two books, one in French and the other in English, in the ballade and rondeau fixed forms. Though once controversial, it is now abundantly clear that Charles wrote the English poems which he left behind when he was released in 1440, his acceptance in the English canon has been slow.
A. E. B. Coldiron has argued that the problem relates to his "approach to the erotic, his use of puns and rhetorical devices, his formal complexity and experimentation, his stance or voice: all these place him well outside the fifteenth-century literary milieu in which he found himself in England."One of his poems Is she not passing fair?, translated by Louisa Stuart Costello, was set to music by Edward Elgar. Claude Debussy set three of his poems to music in his Trois Chansons de Charles d'Orléans, L.92, for unaccompanied mixed choir. Freed in 1440 by the efforts of his former enemies, Philip the Good and Isabella of Portugal, the Duke and Duchess of Burgundy, he set foot on French soil again after 25 years, by now a middle aged man at 46 and "speaking better English than French," according to the English chronicler Raphael Holinshed. Philip the Good had made it a condition that the murder of Charles' father Louis of Orleans by Philip's own father, John the Fearless, would not be avenged.
Charles agreed to this condition prior to his release. Meeting the Duchess of Burgundy after disembarking, the gallant Charles said: "M'Lady, I make myself your prisoner." At the celebration of his third marriage, with Marie of Cleves, he was created a Knight of the Golden Fleece. His subsequent return to Orléans was marked by a splendid celebration organised by the citizens, he made an unsuccessful attempt to press his claims to Asti in Italy, before settling down as a celebrated patron of the arts. He died at Amboise in his 71st year. Charles married three times, his first wife Isabella of Valois, whom he married in Compiègne in 1406, died in childbirth. Their daughter, Joan married John II of Alençon in 1424 in Blois. Afterwards, he married Bonne of Armagnac, the daughter of Bernard VII, Count of Armagnac, in 1410. Bonne died; the couple had no issue. On his return to France in 1440, Charles married Marie of Cleves in Saint-Omer and had three children: Marie of Orléans. Married Jean of Foix in 1476.
Louis XII of France Anne of Orléans, Abbess of Fontevrault and Poitiers. Kingdom of France – Duchy of Orléans: Grand Master and Knight of the Order of the Porcupine Duchy of Burgundy: Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece Charles appears as "Duke of Orléans" in William Shakespeare's Henry V. In the 2012 television adaptation The Hollow Crown, Charles is played by French actor Stanley Weber and is inaccurately po
Palace of Fontainebleau
The Palace of Fontainebleau or Château de Fontainebleau, located 55 kilometres southeast of the center of Paris, in the commune of Fontainebleau, is one of the largest French royal châteaux. The medieval castle and subsequent palace served as a residence for the French monarchs from Louis VII to Napoleon III. Francis I and Napoleon were the monarchs who had the most influence on the Palace as it stands today.. It is now a UNESCO World Heritage Site; the earliest record of a fortified castle at Fontaineau dates to 1137. It became a favorite residence and hunting lodge of the Kings of France because of the abundant game and many springs in the surrounding forest, it took its name from one of the springs, the fountain de Bliaud, located now in the English garden, next to the wing of Louis XV. It was used by King Louis VII, for whom Thomas Becket consecrated the chapel in 1169. In the 15th century some modifications and embellishments were made to the castle by Isabeau of Bavaria, the wife of King Charles VI, but the medieval structure remained intact until the reign Francis I.
He commissioned the architect Gilles le Breton to build a palace in the new Renaissance style imported from Italy. Le Breton preserved the old medieval donjon, where the King's apartments were located, but incorporated it into the new Renaissance-style Cour Ovale, or oval courtyard, built on the foundations of the old castle, it included monumental Porte Dorée, as its southern entrance. As well as a monumental Renaissance stairway, the portique de Serlio, to give access the royal apartments on the north side. Beginning in about 1528, Francis constructed the Gallery Francis I, which allowed him to pass directly from his apartments to the chapel of the Trinitaires, he brought the architect Sebastiano Serlio from Italy, the Florentine painter Giovanni Battista di Jacopo, known as Rosso Fiorentino, to decorate the new gallery. Between 1533 and 1539 Rosso Fiorentino filled the gallery with murals glorifying the King, framed in stucco ornament in high relief, lambris sculpted by the furniture maker Francesco Scibec da Carpi.
Another Italian painter, Francesco Primaticcio from Bologna, joined in the decoration of the palace. Together their style of decoration became known as the first School of Fontainebleau; this was the first great decorated gallery built in France. Broadly speaking, at Fontainebleau the Renaissance was introduced to France. In about 1540, Francis began another major addition to the chateau. Using land on the east side of the chateau purchased from the order of the Trinitaires, he began to build a new square of buildings around a large courtyard, it was enclosed on the north by the wing of the Ministers, on the east by the wing of Ferrare, on the south by a wing containing the new gallery of Ulysses. The chateau was surrounded by a new park in the style of the Italian Renaissance garden, with pavilions and the first grotto in France. Primaticcio created more monumental murals for the gallery of Ulysses. Following the death of Francis I, King Henry II decided to expand the chateau; the King and his wife chose Jean Bullant to do the work.
They extended the east wing of the lower court, decorated it with the first famous horseshoe-shaped staircase. In the oval court, they transformed the loggia planned by Francois into a Salle des Fétes or grand ballroom with a coffered ceiling. Facing the courtyard of the fountain and the fish pond, they designed a new building, the Pavillon des Poeles, to contain the new apartments of the King; the decoration of the new ballroom and the gallery of Ulysses with murals by Francesco Primaticcio and sculptured stucco continued, under the direction of the Mannerists painters Primaticcio and Niccolò dell'Abbate. At Henri's orders the Nymphe de Fontainebleau by Benvenuto Cellini was installed at the gateway entrance of Château d'Anet, the primary domain of Henri's primary mistress Diane de Poitiers. Following the death of Henry II in a jousting accident, his widow, Catherine de' Medici, continued the construction and decoration of the château, she named Primaticcio as the new superintendent of royal public works.
He designed the section known today as the wing of the Belle Cheminée, noted for its elaborate chimneys and its two opposing stairways. In 1565, as a security measure due to the Wars of Religion, she had moat dug around the château to protect it against attack. King Henry IV made more additions to the château than any King since Francis I, he extended the oval court toward the west by building two pavilions, called Luxembourg. Between 1601 and 1606, he remade all the façades around the courtyard, including that of the chapel of Saint-Saturnin, to give the architecture greater harmony. On the east side, he built a new monumental gateway with a dome, called the porte du Baptistère. Between 1606 and 1609, he built a new courtyard, called the Cour des Offices or the Quartier Henry IV, to provide a place for the kitchens and residences for court officials. Two new galleries, the Galerie de Diane de Poitiers and the Galerie des Cerfs, were built to enclose the old garden of Diane, he added a large Jeu de paume, or indoor tennis court, the largest such court existing in the world.
A "second school of Fontainebleau" of painters and decorators went to work on the interiors. The architect Martin Fréminet created the ornate chapel of the Trinity, while the p
The Château d'Amboise is a château in Amboise, located in the Indre-et-Loire département of the Loire Valley in France. Confiscated by the monarchy in the 15th century, it became a favoured royal residence and was extensively rebuilt. King Charles VIII died at the château in 1498 after hitting his head on a door lintel; the château fell into decline from the second half of the 16th century and the majority of the interior buildings were demolished, but some survived and have been restored, along with the outer defensive circuit of towers and walls. It has been recognised as a monument historique by the French Ministry of Culture since 1840; the Château d'Amboise is situated at an elevation of 81 meters. The Château d'Amboise was built on a spur above the River Loire; the strategic qualities of the site were recognised before the medieval construction of the castle, a Gallic oppidum was built there. In the late 9th century Ingelgarius was made viscount of Orléans and through his mother was related to Hugh the Abbot, tutors to the French kings.
Ingelgarius married a member of a prominent family who controlled Château d'Amboise. He was made Count of the Angevins and his rise can be attributed to his political connections and reputation as a soldier. Château d'Amboise would pass through Ingelgarius and Adelais' heirs, he was succeeded by their son, Fulk the Red; as Fulk the Red expanded his territory, Amboise and Villentrois formed the core of his possessions. Amboise lay on the eastern frontier of the Angevins holdings. Amboise and its castle descended through the family to Fulke Nerra in 987. Fulk had to contend with the ambitions of Odo I, Count of Blois who wanted to expand his own territory into Anjou. Odo I could call on the support of many followers and instructed Conan, Count of Rennes, Gelduin of Saumr, Abbot Robert of Saint-Florent de Saumur to harass Fulk's properties. While Conan was busy on Anjou's western border and Robert attempted to isolate the easternmost castles of Amboise and Loches by raiding the Saumurois and disrupting communications.
To further threaten Amboise, fortifications were erected at Chaumont and Montsoreau, while Saint-Aignan was garrisoned. Expanded and improved over time, on 4 September 1434 it was seized by Charles VII of France, after its owner, Louis d'Amboise, Viscount of Thours, was convicted of plotting against Louis XI and condemned to be executed in 1431. However, the king took his château at Amboise. Once in royal hands, the château became a favourite of French kings, from Louis XI to Francis I. Charles VIII decided to rebuild it extensively, beginning in 1492 at first in the French late Gothic Flamboyant style and after 1495 employing two Italian mason-builders, Domenico da Cortona and Fra Giocondo, who provided at Amboise some of the first Renaissance decorative motifs seen in French architecture; the names of three French builders are preserved in the documents: Colin Biart, Guillaume Senault and Louis Armangeart. Following the Italian War of 1494–1495, Charles brought Italian architects and artisans to France to work on the château, turn it into "the first Italianate palace in France".
Among the people Charles brought from Italy was Pacello da Mercogliano who designed the gardens at the Châteaux of Ambois and Blois. Charles died at Château d'Amboise in 1498. Before his death he had the upper terrace widened to hold a larger parterre and enclosed with latticework and pavilions; the parterres have been recreated in the twentieth century as rectangles of lawns set in gravel and a formal bosquet of trees. King Francis I was raised at Amboise, which belonged to his mother, Louise of Savoy, during the first few years of his reign, the château reached the pinnacle of its glory; as a guest of the King, Leonardo da Vinci came to Château Amboise in December 1515 and lived and worked in the nearby Clos Lucé, connected to the château by an underground passage. Records show that at the time of Leonardo da Vinci's death on 2 May 1519, he was buried in the Chapel of St. Florentin located 100 meters NE of the Chapel of St. Hubert; this Chapel of St. Florentin belonged to the royal castle and lay within the stone fortifications surrounding the property of the Château d'Amboise, it should not to be confused with the nearby Église Saint-Florentin in Amboise, but not located within the property borders of the Château d'Amboise.
After the French Revolution, the Chapel of St. Florentin was in such a ruinous state that the engineer appointed by Napoleon decided that it was not worth preserving and had it demolished; the remaining stonework was used to repair the Château d'Amboise. Some sixty years the foundational site of the Chapel of St. Florentin was excavated: it is alleged that a complete skeleton was found, with fragments of a stone inscription containing some of the letters of his name. However, other accounts describe heaps of bones and anecdotes of children kicking skulls around for fun and games. Nonetheless, based on some contemporaneous accounts, it is the collection of bones that were found to be whole and with an extraordinarily large skull that are supposed to be buried in the Chapel of Saint-Hubert, where now a large floor-level marble stone bearing a metal medallion relief portrait of Leonardo da Vinci (based on the "Melzi's por
The Loire Valley, spanning 280 kilometres, is located in the middle stretch of the Loire River in central France, in both the administrative regions Pays de la Loire and Centre-Val de Loire. The area of the Loire Valley comprises about 800 square kilometres, it is referred to as the Cradle of the French and the Garden of France due to the abundance of vineyards, fruit orchards, artichoke, asparagus fields, which line the banks of the river. Notable for its historic towns and wines, the valley has been inhabited since the Middle Palaeolithic period. In 2000, UNESCO added the central part of the Loire River valley to its list of World Heritage Sites; the valley includes historic towns such as Amboise, Blois, Montsoreau, Orléans and Tours. The climate is favorable most of the year, the river acting as a line of demarcation in France's weather between the northern climate and the southern; the river has a significant effect on the mesoclimate of the region, adding a few degrees of temperature. The climate can be cool with springtime frost.
Summers are hot. Temperature and average sunshine time in Angers: The Loire Valley wine region is one of the world's most well-known areas of wine production and includes several French wine regions situated along the river from the Muscadet region on the Atlantic coast to the regions of Sancerre and Pouilly-Fumé just southeast of the city of Orléans in north central France. Loire wines tend to exhibit a characteristic fruitiness with crisp flavors. On December 2, 2000, UNESCO added the central part of the river valley, between Chalonnes-sur-Loire and Sully-sur-Loire, to its list of World Heritage Sites. In choosing this area that includes the French départements of Loiret, Loir-et-Cher, Indre-et-Loire, Maine-et-Loire, the committee said that the Loire Valley is: "an exceptional cultural landscape, of great beauty, comprised of historic cities and villages, great architectural monuments - the châteaux - and lands that have been cultivated and shaped by centuries of interaction between local populations and their physical environment, in particular the Loire itself."
The Loire Valley chansonniers are a related group of songbooks attributed to the composers of the Loire Valley and are the earliest surviving examples of a new genre which offered a combination of words and illuminations. A new Contemporary Art offer is developing all along the Loire River from Montsoreau to Orléans with such places as Château de Montsoreau-Contemporary Art Museum, CCCOD Tours, the Domaine Régional de Chaumont sur Loire and the Frac Centre Orléans, they are a rare association of Renaissance architecture with contemporary art. The architectural heritage in the valley's historic towns is notable its châteaux, such as the Château de Montsoreau, Château d'Amboise, Château d'Azay-le-Rideau, Château de Chambord, Château de Chinon, Château du Rivau, Château d'Ussé, Château de Villandry and Chenonceau; the châteaux, numbering more than three hundred, represent a nation of builders starting with the necessary castle fortifications in the 10th century to the splendour of those built half a millennium later.
When the French kings began constructing their huge châteaux here, the nobility, not wanting or daring to be far from the seat of power, followed suit. Their presence in the lush, fertile valley began attracting the best landscape designers. In addition to its many châteaux, the cultural monuments illustrate to an exceptional degree the ideals of the Renaissance and the Age of the Enlightenment on western European thought and design. Many of the châteaux were designed to be built on the top of hills, one example of this is the Château d'Amboise. Many of the châteaux had detailed and expensive churches on the grounds, or within the actual château itself; the Château de Montsoreau is the only château to have been built in the Loire riverbed, it is the only one to be dedicated to contemporary art. Loire Valley portal Loire Valley world heritage site Loire Valley Chateau du Rivau Chinon Fortress Chateau de Montsoreau-Contemporary Art Museum Western France Tourist Board
Louis XII of France
Louis XII was King of France from 1498 to 1515 and King of Naples from 1501 to 1504. The son of Charles, Duke of Orléans, Maria of Cleves, he succeeded his cousin Charles VIII, who died without a closer heir in 1498. Louis was the eighth French king from the House of Valois, the first from the Orléans branch of that dynasty. Before his accession to the throne of France, he was known as Louis of Orléans and was compelled to be married to his disabled and sterile cousin Joan by his second cousin, King Louis XI. By doing so, Louis XI hoped to extinguish the Orléans cadet branch of the House of Valois. Louis of Orléans was one of the great feudal lords who opposed the French monarchy in the conflict known as the Mad War. At the royal victory in the Battle of Saint-Aubin-du-Cormier in 1488, Louis was captured, but Charles VIII pardoned him and released him, he subsequently took part in the Italian War of 1494–1498 as one of the French commanders. When Louis XII became king in 1498, he had his marriage with Joan annulled by Pope Alexander VI and instead married Anne of Brittany, the widow of his cousin Charles VIII.
This marriage allowed Louis to reinforce the personal Union of France. Louis persevered in the Italian Wars, initiating a second Italian campaign for the control of the Kingdom of Naples. Louis conquered the Duchy of Milan in 1500 and pushed forward to the Kingdom of Naples, which fell to him in 1501. Proclaimed King of Naples, Louis faced a new coalition gathered by Ferdinand II of Aragon and was forced to cede Naples to Spain in 1504. Louis XII did not encroach on the power of local governments or the privileges of the nobility, in opposition with the long tradition of the French kings to attempt to impose absolute monarchy in France. A popular king, Louis was proclaimed "Father of the People" in 1506 by the Estates-General of Tours for his reduction of the tax known as taille, legal reforms, civil peace within France. Louis, who remained Duke of Milan after the second Italian War, was interested in further expansion in the Italian Peninsula and launched a third Italian War, marked by the military prowess of the Chevalier de Bayard.
Louis XII died in 1515 without a male heir. He was succeeded by his cousin and son-in-law Francis from the Angoulême cadet branch of the House of Valois. Louis d'Orléans was born on 27 June 1462 in the Château de Touraine; the son of Charles, Duke of Orléans, Marie of Cleves, he succeeded his father as Duke of Orléans in the year 1465. Louis XI, who had become king of France in 1461, became distrustful of the close relationship between the Orleanists and the Burgundians and began to oppose the idea of an Orleanist coming to the throne of France. However, Louis XI may have been more influenced in this opinion by his opposition to the entire Orleanist faction of the royal family than by the actual facts of this paternity case. Despite any alleged doubts that King Louis XI may have had, the King became "godfather" of the newborn. King Louis XI died on 30 August 1483, he was succeeded to the throne of France by his thirteen year-old son, Charles VIII. Nobody knew the direction. Accordingly, on 24 October 1483, a call went out for a convocation of the Estates General of the French kingdom.
In January 1484, deputies of the Estates General began to arrive in France. The deputies represented three different "estates" in society; the First Estate was the Church. The Second Estate was composed of the royalty of France; the Third Estate was composed of commoners and the class of traders and merchants in France. Louis, the current Duke of Orleans and future Louis XII, attended as part of the Second Estate; each estate brought their chief complaints to the Estates General in hopes to have some impact on the policies that the new King would pursue. The First Estate wanted a return to the "Pragmatic Sanction"; the Pragmatic Sanction had been first instituted by King Charles VII, the current King Charles VIII's grandfather. The Pragmatic Sanction eliminated the papacy from the process of appointing bishops and abbots in France. Instead, these positions would be filled by appointment made by the cathedrals and monastery chapters themselves. All church prelates within France would be appointed by the King of France without reference to the pope.
The deputies representing the Second Estate at the Estates General of 1484 wanted all foreigners to be prohibited from command positions in the military. The deputies of the Third Estate wanted taxes to be drastically reduced and that the revenue needs of the crown be met by reducing royal pensions and the number offices. All three of the estates were in agreement on the demand for an end to the sale of government offices. By 7 March 1484, the King announced. Five days the deputies were told that there was no more money to pay their salaries, the Estates General meekly concluded its business and went home; the Estates General of 1484 is called, by historians, the most important Estates General until the Estates General of 1789. Important as they were, many of the reforms suggested at the meeting of the Estates General were not adopted. Rather the reforms would only be acted on. Since Charles VIII was only thirteen years of age when he became king, his older sister Anne was to serve as regent until Charles VIII became 20 years old.
From 1485 through 1488, there
Marie de' Medici
Marie de' Medici was Queen of France as the second wife of King Henry IV of France, of the House of Bourbon. She was a member of the powerful House of Medici. Following the assassination of her husband in 1610, which occurred the day after her coronation, she acted as regent for her son, King Louis XIII of France, until 1617, when he came of age, she was noted for her ceaseless political intrigues at the French court and extensive artistic patronage. She was born as Maria at the Palazzo Pitti of Florence, the sixth daughter of Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Archduchess Joanna of Austria. Marie was not a male-line descendant of Lorenzo the Magnificent but from Lorenzo the Elder, a branch of the Medici family sometimes referred to as the'cadet' branch, she did descend from Lorenzo in the female-line however, through his daughter Lucrezia de' Medici. She was a Habsburg through her mother, a direct descendant of Joanna of Castile and Philip I of Castile. Marie was one of seven children.
A portrait of Marie as a young girl shows her with a high forehead. Her wavy hair was light brown in colour, she had honey-brown eyes and fair skin; the painter was from the school of Santi di Tito. She married Henry IV of France in October 1600 following the annulment of his marriage to Margaret of Valois; the wedding ceremony was held in Florence, was celebrated by four thousand guests with lavish entertainment, including examples of the newly invented musical genre of opera, such as Jacopo Peri's Euridice. Henry did not attend the ceremony, the two were therefore married by proxy. Marie brought as part of her dowry 600,000 crowns, her eldest son, the future King Louis XIII, was born at Fontainebleau the following year. Her husband was 47 at the marriage and had a long succession of mistresses. Dynastic considerations required him to take a second wife, his first spouse Margaret of Valois never having produced children by Henry or by her lovers. Henry chose Marie de' Medici because Henry "owed the bride's father, Francesco de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, who had helped support his war effort, a whopping 1,174,000 écus and this was the only means Henry could find to pay back the debt...."The marriage was successful in producing children, but it was not a happy one.
The queen feuded with Henry's mistresses in language. She quarreled with her husband's leading mistress, Catherine Henriette de Balzac d'Entragues, whom he had promised he would marry following the death of his former "official mistress", Gabrielle d'Estrées; when he failed to do so, instead married Marie, the result was constant bickering and political intrigues behind the scenes. Catherine referred to Maria as "the fat banker's daughter". Although the king could have banished his mistress, supporting his queen, he never did so. She, in turn, showed great sympathy and support to her husband's banished ex-wife Marguerite de Valois, prompting Henry to allow her back into the realm. Marie was crowned Queen of France on 13 May 1610, a day before her husband's death. Hours after Henry's assassination, she was confirmed as regent by the Parliament of Paris, she banished his mistress, Catherine Henriette de Balzac, from the court. During her husband's lifetime Marie showed little sign of political acumen, her abilities scarcely improved after she assumed the regency.
Stubborn and of limited intellect, she was influenced by her maid Leonora "Galigai" Dori. Dori conspired with her unscrupulous Italian husband, Concino Concini, created Marquis d'Ancre and a Marshal of France though he had never fought a battle; the Concinis had Henry IV's able minister, the Duke of Sully and Italian representatives of the Roman Catholic Church hoped to force the suppression of Protestantism in France by means of their influence. Half-Habsburg herself, Marie abandoned the traditional anti-Habsburg French foreign policy, she lent support to Habsburg Spain by arranging the marriage of her daughter Elisabeth to the future Philip IV of Spain. Marie overturned the Treaty of Bruzolo, an alliance signed between Henry's representatives and Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy. Under the regent's lax and capricious rule, the princes of the blood and the great nobles of the kingdom revolted; the queen, too weak to assert her authority, consented to buy them off on 15 May 1614. The opposition to the regency was led by Henri de Bourbon, Duke of Enghien, who pressured Marie into convoking the Estates General in 1614 and 1615.
In 1616 Marie's rule was strengthened by the addition to her councils of Armand Jean du Plessis, who had come to prominence at the meetings of the Estates General. However, her son Louis XIII several years into his legal majority, asserted his authority the next year; the king overturned the pro-Habsburg, pro-Spanish foreign policy pursued by his mother, ordered the assassination of Concini, exiled the queen to the Château de Blois and appointed Richelieu to his bishopric. After two years of virtual imprisonment "in the wilderness", as she put it, Marie escaped from Blois in the night of 21/22 February 1619 and became the figurehead of a new aristocratic revolt headed by Louis's brother Gaston, Duke of Orléans, whose forces Louis dispersed. Through the mediation of Richelieu the king was reconciled with his mother, allowed to hold a small court at Angers, she resumed her place in the royal council