A tatami is a type of mat used as a flooring material in traditional Japanese-style rooms. Traditionally made using rice straw to form the core, the cores of contemporary tatami are sometimes composed of compressed wood chip boards or polystyrene foam. With a covering of woven soft rush straw, tatami are made in standard sizes, with the length twice the width, an aspect ratio of 2:1. On the long sides, they have edging of brocade or plain cloth, although some tatami have no edging. In martial arts the tatami is the floor of the training ground in a Dojo and the floor for competition within a martial arts tournament; the term tatami is derived from the verb tatamu, meaning to pile. This indicates that the early tatami were thin and could be folded up when not used or piled in layers. Tatami were a luxury item for the nobility. During the Heian period, when the shinden-zukuri architectural style of aristocratic residences was consummated, the flooring of shinden-zukuri palatial rooms were wooden, tatami were only used as seating for the highest aristocrats.
In the Kamakura period, there arose the shoin-zukuri architectural style of residence for the samurai and priests who had gained power. This architectural style reached its peak of development in the Muromachi period, when tatami came to be spread over whole rooms, beginning with small rooms. Rooms spread with tatami came to be known as zashiki, rules concerning seating and etiquette determined the arrangement of the tatami in the rooms, it is said that prior to the mid-16th century, the ruling nobility and samurai slept on tatami or woven mats called goza, while commoners used straw mats or loose straw for bedding. The lower classes had mat-covered earth floors. Tatami were popularized and reached the homes of commoners toward the end of the 17th century. Houses built in Japan today have few tatami-floored rooms, if any. Having just one is not uncommon; the rooms having tatami flooring and other such traditional architectural features are referred to as nihonma or washitsu, "Japanese-style rooms".
The size of tatami differs between different regions in Japan. Kyoto – within this area, tatami measure 0.955 m by 1.91 m. Tatami of this size are referred to as Kyōma tatami. Nagoya – In this region measure 0.91 m by 1.82 m, are referred to as Ainoma tatami. Tokyo – here tatami measure 0.88 m by 1.76 m. Tatami of this size are referred to as Kantōma tatami. In terms of thickness, 5.5 cm is average for a Kyōma tatami, while 6.0 cm is the norm for a Kantōma tatami. A half mat is called a hanjō, a mat of three-quarter length, used in tea-ceremony rooms, is called daimedatami. In terms of traditional Japanese length units, a tatami is 1 ken by 0.5 ken, or equivalently 6 shaku by 3 shaku – formally this is 1.81818 by 0.90909 metres, the size of Nagoya tatami. Note that a shaku is the same length as one foot in the traditional English-American measurement system. In Japan, the size of a room is measured by the number of tatami mats, about 1.653 square meters. Alternatively, in terms of traditional Japanese area units, room area is measured in terms of tsubo, where one tsubo is the area of two tatami mats.
Some common room sizes are: 4 1⁄2 mats = 9 shaku × 9 shaku ≈ 2.73 m × 2.73 m 6 mats = 9 shaku × 12 shaku ≈ 2.73 m × 3.64 m 8 mats = 12 shaku × 12 shaku ≈ 3.64 m × 3.64 mShops were traditionally designed to be 5 1⁄2 mats, tea rooms are 4 1⁄2 mats. There are rules concerning the layout of the tatami mats in a room. In the Edo period, "auspicious" tatami arrangements and "inauspicious" tatami arrangements were distinctly differentiated, the tatami accordingly would be rearranged depending on the occasion. In modern practice, the "auspicious" layout is ordinarily used. In this arrangement, the junctions of the tatami form a "T" shape. An auspicious tiling requires the use of 1⁄2 mats to tile a room. An inauspicious layout is said to bring bad fortune. Higashiyama Bunka in Muromachi period Media related to Tatami at Wikimedia Commons
Yakuza known as gokudō, are members of transnational organized crime syndicates originating in Japan. The Japanese police, media by request of the police, call them bōryokudan, while the Yakuza call themselves ninkyō dantai; the Western equivalent for the term Yakuza is gangster, meaning an individual involved in a Mafia-like criminal organization. The Yakuza are notorious for their strict codes of conduct, their organized fiefdom nature, several unconventional ritual practices such as "Yubitsume". Yakuza members are described as males with tattooed bodies and slicked hair, yet this group is still regarded as being among "the most sophisticated and wealthiest criminal organizations."At their height, the Yakuza maintained a large presence in the Japanese media and operated internationally. In fact, in the early 1960s police estimated that the Yakuza had a membership of 184,100. However, in recent years their numbers have dwindled with the latest figure from the National Police Agency estimating that as of 2016 the number of members in all 22 designated gangs was 39,100.
This decline is attributed to changing market opportunities and several legal and social developments in Japan which discourage the growth of Yakuza membership. Yet, despite their dwindling numbers, the Yakuza still engage in an array of criminal activities, many Japanese citizens remain fearful of the threat these individuals pose to their safety. However, there remains no strict prohibition on Yakuza membership in Japan today, although much legislation has been passed by the Japanese government aimed at increasing liability for criminal activities and impeding revenue; the name Yakuza originates from the traditional Japanese card game Oicho-Kabu, a game in which the goal is to draw three cards adding up to a score of 9. If the sum of the cards exceeds 10, the second digit is used as the score instead, if the sum is 10, the score is 1. If the three cards drawn are 8-9-3, the sum is 20 and therefore the score is zero, making it the worst possible hand that can be drawn. Despite uncertainty about the single origin of Yakuza organizations, most modern Yakuza derive from two classifications which emerged in the mid-Edo period: tekiya, those who peddled illicit, stolen, or shoddy goods.
Tekiya were considered one of the lowest social groups during the Edo period. As they began to form organizations of their own, they took over some administrative duties relating to commerce, such as stall allocation and protection of their commercial activities. During Shinto festivals, these peddlers opened stalls and some members were hired to act as security; each peddler paid rent in exchange for a stall protection during the fair. The tekiya were a structured and hierarchical group with the oyabun at the top and kobun at the bottom; this hierarchy resembles a structure similar to the family as the oyabun was regarded as a surrogate father, the kobun as surrogate children. During the Edo period, the tekiya were formally recognized by the government. At this time, the oyabun were appointed as supervisors and granted near-samurai status meaning they were allowed the dignity of a surname and two swords. Bakuto had a much lower social standing than traders, as gambling was illegal. Many small gambling houses cropped up in abandoned temples or shrines at the edge of towns and villages all over Japan.
Most of these gambling houses ran loan sharking businesses for clients, they maintained their own security personnel. The places themselves, as well as the bakuto, were regarded with disdain by society at large, much of the undesirable image of the Yakuza originates from bakuto; because of the economic situation during the mid-period and the predominance of the merchant class, developing Yakuza groups were composed of misfits and delinquents that had joined or formed Yakuza groups to extort customers in local markets by selling fake or shoddy goods. The roots of the Yakuza can still be seen today in initiation ceremonies, which incorporate tekiya or bakuto rituals. Although the modern Yakuza has diversified, some gangs still identify with the other. During the formation of the Yakuza, they adopted the traditional Japanese hierarchical structure of oyabun-kobun where kobun owe their allegiance to the oyabun. In a much period, the code of jingi was developed where loyalty and respect are a way of life.
The oyabun-kobun relationship is formalized by ceremonial sharing of sake from a single cup. This ritual is not exclusive to the Yakuza—it is commonly performed in traditional Japanese Shinto weddings, may have been a part of sworn brotherhood relationships. During the World War II period in Japan, the more traditional tekiya/bakuto form of organization declined as the entire population was mobilised to participate in the war effort and society came under strict military government. However, after the war, the Yakuza adapted again. Prospective Yakuza come from all walks of life; the most romantic tales tell how Yakuza accept sons who have been abandoned or exiled by their parents. Many Yakuza start out in junior high school or high school as common street thugs or members of bōsōzoku gangs; because of its lower socio-economic status, numerous Yakuza me
Dice are small throwable objects that can rest in multiple positions, used for generating random numbers. Dice are suitable as gambling devices for games like craps and are used in non-gambling tabletop games. A traditional die is a cube, with each of its six faces showing a different number of dots from one to six; when thrown or rolled, the die comes to rest showing on its upper surface a random integer from one to six, each value being likely. A variety of similar devices are described as dice, they may be used to produce results other than one through six. Loaded and crooked dice are designed to favor some results over others for purposes of cheating or amusement. A dice tray, a tray used to contain thrown dice, is sometimes used for gambling or board games, in particular to allow dice throws which do not interfere with other game pieces. Dice have been used since before recorded history, it is uncertain where they originated; the oldest known dice were excavated as part of a backgammon-like game set at the Burnt City, an archeological site in south-eastern Iran, estimated to be from between 2800–2500 BC.
Other excavations from ancient tombs in the Indus Valley civilization indicate a South Asian origin. The Egyptian game of Senet was played with dice. Senet was played before 3000 BC and up to the 2nd century AD, it was a racing game, but there is no scholarly consensus on the rules of Senet. Dicing is mentioned as an Indian game in the Rigveda and the early Buddhist games list. There are several biblical references to "casting lots", as in Psalm 22, indicating that dicing was commonplace when the psalm was composed, it is theorized that dice developed from the practice of fortunetelling with the talus of hoofed animals, colloquially known as "knucklebones", but knucklebones is not the oldest divination technique that incorporates randomness. Knucklebones was a game of skill played by children. Although gambling was illegal, many Romans were passionate gamblers who enjoyed dicing, known as aleam ludere. Dicing was a popular pastime of emperors. Letters by Augustus to Tacitus and his daughter recount his hobby of dicing.
There were two sizes of Roman dice. Tali were large dice inscribed with one, three and six on four sides. Tesserae were smaller dice with sides numbered from one to six. Twenty-sided dice date back to the 2nd century AD and from Ptolemaic Egypt as early as the 2nd century BC. Dominoes and playing cards originated in China as developments from dice; the transition from dice to playing cards occurred in China around the Tang dynasty, coincides with the technological transition from rolls of manuscripts to block printed books. In Japan, dice were used to play a popular game called sugoroku. There are two types of sugoroku. Ban-sugoroku is similar to backgammon and dates to the Heian period, while e-sugoroku is a racing game. Dice are thrown onto a surface either from a container designed for this; the face of the die, uppermost when it comes to rest provides the value of the throw. One typical dice game today is craps, where two dice are thrown and wagers are made on the total value of the two dice.
Dice are used to randomize moves in board games by deciding the distance through which a piece will move along the board. The result of a die roll is determined by the way it is thrown, according to the laws of classical mechanics. A die roll is made random by uncertainty in minor factors such as tiny movements in the thrower's hand. To mitigate concerns that the pips on the faces of certain styles of dice cause a small bias, casinos use precision dice with flush markings. Common dice are small cubes most 1.6 cm across, whose faces are numbered from one to six by patterns of round dots called pips. Opposite sides of a modern die traditionally add up to seven, implying that the 1, 2 and 3 faces share a vertex; the faces of a die may be placed counterclockwise about this vertex. If the 1, 2 and 3 faces run counterclockwise, the die is called "right-handed", if those faces run clockwise, the die is called "left-handed". Western dice are right-handed, Chinese dice are left-handed; the pips on dice are arranged in specific patterns.
Asian style dice bear similar patterns to Western ones, but the pips are closer to the center of the face. One possible explanation is. In some older sets, the "one" pip is a colorless depression. Non-precision dice are manufactured via the plastic injection molding process; the pips or numbers on the die are a part of the mold. The coloring for numbering is achieved by submerging the die in paint, allowed to dry; the die is polished via a tumble finishing process similar to rock polishing. The abrasive agent scrapes off all of the paint except for the indents of the numbering. A finer abrasive is used to polish the die; this process creates the smoother, rounded edges on the dice. Precision casino dice may have a polished or sand finish, making them transparent or translucent res
Culture of Japan
The culture of Japan has changed over the millennia, from the country's prehistoric Jōmon period, to its contemporary modern culture, which absorbs influences from Asia and North America. Strong 9,000 year old ancient Han Chinese cultural influences, including the 8,000 year old ancient Han Chinese writing script, are still evident in traditional Japanese culture as China had been a global superpower, which has resulted in Japan absorbing many elements of ancient Han Chinese culture first through what as the Imperial Chinese tributary vassal state of Korea later through direct cultural exchanges during China's Sui and Tang dynasties; the inhabitants of Japan experienced a long period of relative isolation from the outside world during the Tokugawa shogunate after Japanese missions to Imperial China, until the arrival of the "Black Ships" and the Meiji period. Today, the culture of Japan stands as one of the leading and most prominent cultures around the world due to the global reach of its popular culture.
Japanese is the primary language of Japan. Japanese has a lexically distinct pitch-accent system. Early Japanese is known on the basis of its state in the 8th century, when the three major works of Old Japanese were compiled; the earliest attestation of the Japanese language is in a Chinese document from 252 AD. Japanese is written with a combination of three scripts: hiragana, derived from the Chinese cursive script, derived as a shorthand from Chinese characters, kanji, imported from China; the Latin alphabet, rōmaji, is often used in modern Japanese for company names and logos and when inputting Japanese into a computer. The Hindu-Arabic numerals are used for numbers, but traditional Sino-Japanese numerals are very common. Shintoism and Buddhism are the primary religions of Japan, though a secular Christmas is widespread, minority Christian and Islamic communities exist. Shintoism is an ethnic religion that focuses on rituals. In Shintoism, followers believe that kami, a Shinto deity or spirit, are present throughout nature, including rocks and mountains.
Humans can be considered to possess a kami. One of the goals of Shintoism is to maintain a connection between humans and kami; the religion developed in Japan prior to the sixth century CE, after which point followers built shrines to worship kami. Buddhism developed in India around the 6th and 4th centuries BCE and spread through China and Korea, it arrived in Japan during the 6th century CE, where it was unpopular. Most Japanese people were unable to understand the difficult philosophical messages present in Buddhism, however they did have an appreciation for the religion's art, believed to have led to the religion growing more popular. Buddhism is concerned with the life after dying. In the religion a person's status was unimportant, as every person would get sick, die, be reincarnated into a new life, a cycle called saṃsāra; the suffering people experienced during life was one way for people to gain a better future. The ultimate goal was to escape the cycle of rebirth by attaining true insight.
The Japanese "national character" has been written about under the term Nihonjinron meaning "theories/discussions about the Japanese people" and referring to texts on matters that are the concerns of sociology, history and philosophy, but emphasizing the authors' assumptions or perceptions of Japanese exceptionalism. Early works of Japanese literature were influenced by cultural contact with China and Chinese literature written in Classical Chinese. Japanese literature developed into a separate style in its own right as Japanese writers began writing their own works about Japan. Since Japan reopened its ports to Western trading and diplomacy in the 19th century and Eastern literature have affected each other and continue to do so; the flowing, brush-drawn Japanese rendering of text itself is seen as a traditional art form as well as a means of conveying written information. The written work can consist of phrases, stories, or single characters; the style and format of the writing can mimic the subject matter to the point of texture and stroke speed.
In some cases, it can take over one hundred attempts to produce the desired effect of a single character but the process of creating the work is considered as much an art as the end product itself. This calligraphy form is known as'shodō' which means'the way of writing or calligraphy' or more known as'shūji"learning how to write characters'. Confused with calligraphy is the art form known as'sumi-e' meaning'ink painting', the art of painting a scene or object. Painting has been an art in Japan for a long time: the brush is a traditional writing and painting tool, the extension of that to its use as an artist's tool was natural. Japanese painters are categorized by what they painted, as most of them constrained themselves to subjects such as animals, landscapes, or figures. Chinese papermaking was introduced to Japan around the 7th century. Washi was developed from it. Native Japanese painting techniques are still in use today, as well as techniques adopted from continental Asia and from the West.
Schools of painting such as the Kano school of the 16th century became known for their bold brush strokes and contrast between light and dark after Oda Nobunaga and Tokugawa Ieyasu
Seiza is the Japanese term for one of the traditional formal ways of sitting in Japan. To sit seiza-style, one must first be kneeling on the floor, folding one's legs underneath one's thighs, while resting the buttocks on the heels; the ankles are turned outward as the tops of the feet are lowered so that, in a slight "V" shape, the tops of the feet are flat on the floor and big toes overlapped, the right always on top of the left, the buttocks are lowered all the way down. Depending on the circumstances, the hands are folded modestly in the lap, or are placed palm down on the upper thighs with the fingers close together, or are placed on the floor next to the hips, with the knuckles rounded and touching the floor; the back is kept straight, though not unnaturally stiff. Traditionally, women sit with the knees; some martial arts, notably kendō, aikidō, iaidō, may prescribe up to two fist widths of distance between the knees for men. Stepping into and out of seiza is mindfully performed. There are codified traditional methods of entering and exiting the sitting position depending on occasion and type of clothing worn.
Through the early history of Japan, various ways of sitting were regarded as'proper', such as sitting cross-legged, sitting with one knee raised, or sitting to the side. People's social circumstances, clothing styles, the places where they sat brought about their manners of sitting; the development, in the Muromachi period, of Japanese architecture in which the floors were covered with tatami, combined with the strict formalities of the ruling warrior class for which this style of architecture was principally designed, heralded the adoption of the sitting posture known today as seiza as the respectful way to sit. However, it was not until around the years surrounding the turn of the 18th century that the Japanese adopted this manner of sitting in their everyday lives. Seiza involves sitting down on the floor and not on a chair. In traditional Japanese architecture, floors in various rooms designed for comfort have tatami floors. Seiza thus is connected with tatami flooring. There are circumstances, when people sit seiza-style on carpeted and hardwood floors.
In many martial arts, for instance, this sitting position takes place on hardwood floors. Depending on the formality of the occasion, the setting, the relative status of the person, it is sometimes acceptable to sit on a special cushion called a zabuton. Sometimes stools are provided for elderly or injured people when others are expected to sit seiza-style, it is advisable in formal situations, to at least try to sit seiza-style. Non-Japanese who have not grown up sitting in this posture may, have difficulty assuming it at all; those unfamiliar with seiza will find that maintaining it for more than a minute or two tends to lead to paresthesia, whereby the compression of the nerves causes a loss of their blood flow, with the accompanying "pins and needles" feeling, followed by painful burning sensations, eventually complete numbness in the legs. However, the physical discomfort lessens with experience. Experienced seiza practitioners can maintain the posture for forty minutes or more with minimal discomfort.
Certain knee problems are made worse when assuming this position Osgood-Schlatter disease. Special seiza stools are available in Japan, they are folding stools, small enough to be carried in a handbag, which are placed between the feet and on which one rests the buttocks when sitting seiza-style. They allow one to maintain the appearance of sitting seiza while discreetly taking pressure off the heels and feet. Doing seiza is an integral and required part of several traditional Japanese arts, such as certain Japanese martial arts and tea ceremony. Seiza is the traditional way of sitting while doing other arts such as shodō and ikebana, though with the increasing use of western-style furniture it is not always necessary nowadays. Many theatres for traditional performing arts such as kabuki and sumo still have audience seating sections where the spectators sit in seiza style. Walking on the feet and knees while in the seiza posture, known as shikkō, is considered more polite than standing up and walking regularly.
Shikkō is today quite rare, but is found in some traditional formal restaurants and ryokan, is practiced in the martial art of aikido, where practitioners learn to defend themselves while moving in shikkō. To perform this knee-walking movement the heels must be kept close together, the body must move as a whole unit, it is because movement in shikkō forces one to engage the hips in a way that it is considered valuable for aikido training. Sitting cross-legged, agura, is considered informal: it is appropriate for certain situations but not others, it is common in informal situations, such as eating at a low table in a casual restaurant, allowed in formal situations for those for whom seiza is difficult, such as elderly or non-Japanese people. Sitting cross-legged is considered uncouth for women, female informal sitting has both legs off to one side, with one side of the hips on the floor, termed yokozuwari. Another informal sitting posture for women is called wariza which resembles seiza, but the lower legs are bent off to their respective sides.
To sit in seiza requires coming to
Gambling is the wagering of money or something of value on an event with an uncertain outcome, with the primary intent of winning money or material goods. Gambling thus requires three elements be present: consideration, a prize; the outcome of the wager is immediate, such as a single roll of dice, a spin of a roulette wheel, or a horse crossing the finish line, but longer time frames are common, allowing wagers on the outcome of a future sports contest or an entire sports season. The term "gaming" in this context refers to instances in which the activity has been permitted by law; the two words are not mutually exclusive. However, this distinction is not universally observed in the English-speaking world. For instance, in the United Kingdom, the regulator of gambling activities is called the Gambling Commission; the word gaming is used more since the rise of computer and video games to describe activities that do not involve wagering online gaming, with the new usage still not having displaced the old usage as the primary definition in common dictionaries.
Gambling is a major international commercial activity, with the legal gambling market totaling an estimated $335 billion in 2009. In other forms, gambling can be conducted with materials which are not real money. For example, players of marbles games might wager marbles, games of Pogs or Magic: The Gathering can be played with the collectible game pieces as stakes, resulting in a meta-game regarding the value of a player's collection of pieces. Gambling dates back before written history. In Mesopotamia the earliest six-sided dice date to about 3000 BC. However, they were based on astragali dating back thousands of years earlier. In China, gambling houses were widespread in the first millennium BC, betting on fighting animals was common. Lotto games and dominoes appeared in China as early as the 10th century. Playing cards appeared in the ninth century in China. Records trace gambling in Japan back at least as far as the 14th century. Poker, the most popular U. S. card game associated with gambling, derives from the Persian game As-Nas, dating back to the 17th century.
The first known casino, the Ridotto, started operating in 1638 in Italy. Many jurisdictions, local as well as national, either ban gambling or control it by licensing the vendors; such regulation leads to gambling tourism and illegal gambling in the areas where it is not allowed. The involvement of governments, through regulation and taxation, has led to a close connection between many governments and gaming organizations, where legal gambling provides significant government revenue, such as in Monaco or Macau, China. There is legislation requiring that the odds in gaming devices be statistically random, to prevent manufacturers from making some high-payoff results impossible. Since these high-payoffs have low probability, a house bias can quite be missed unless the odds are checked carefully. Most jurisdictions that allow gambling require participants to be above a certain age. In some jurisdictions, the gambling age differs depending on the type of gambling. For example, in many American states one must be over 21 to enter a casino, but may buy a lottery ticket after turning 18.
Because contracts of insurance have many features in common with wagers, insurance contracts are distinguished under law as agreements in which either party has an interest in the "bet-upon" outcome beyond the specific financial terms. E.g.: a "bet" with an insurer on whether one's house will burn down is not gambling, but rather insurance – as the homeowner has an obvious interest in the continued existence of his/her home independent of the purely financial aspects of the "bet". Nonetheless, both insurance and gambling contracts are considered aleatory contracts under most legal systems, though they are subject to different types of regulation. Under common law English Law, a gambling contract may not give a casino bona fide purchaser status, permitting the recovery of stolen funds in some situations. In Lipkin Gorman v Karpnale Ltd, where a solicitor used stolen funds to gamble at a casino, the House of Lords overruled the High Court's previous verdict, adjudicating that the casino return the stolen funds less those subject to any change of position defence.
U. S. Law precedents are somewhat similar. For case law on recovery of gambling losses where the loser had stolen the funds see "Rights of owner of stolen money as against one who won it in gambling transaction from thief". An interesting wrinkle to these fact pattern is to ask what happens when the person trying to make recovery is the gambler's spouse, the money or property lost was either the spouse's, or was community property; this was a minor plot point in a Perry Mason novel, The Case of the Singing Skirt, it cites an actual case Novo v. Hotel Del Rio. Ancient Hindu poems like the Gambler's Lament and the Mahabharata testify to the popularity of gambling among ancient Indians. However, the text Arthashastra recommends control of gambling. Ancient Jewish authorities frowned on gambling disqualifying professional gamblers from testifying in court; the Catholic Church holds the position that there is no moral impediment to gambling, so long as it is fair, all bettors have a reasonable chance of winni
Yakuza, known in Japan as Ryū ga Gotoku, is an action-adventure beat'em up video game franchise created and published by Sega. The series originated from Toshihiro Nagoshi's desire to create a game that would tell the way of life of the yakuza. Nagoshi struggled to find a platform for the project, until Sony showed interest in the prospect; the series focuses on the yakuza Kazuma Kiryu from the Tojo clan. While Kazuma assists the Tojo clan, the series has featured him searching for another way of life in the form of raising orphans; the gameplay of Yakuza has the player controlling Kazuma in an open world where he can encounter an enemy or perform an activity in the city to obtain experience. The franchise has become a commercial and critical success, as of 2017, Sega has reported that the Yakuza franchise has sold a combined total of 10.5 million units in physical and digital sales since its debut in 2005. Strong sales of the games in its original Japanese market has led to the franchise's expansion to other mediums, including film adaptations.
The Yakuza games are set in Kamurocho, a fictionalized version of the real life Kabukichō district in Tokyo. Throughout the series, characters visit other areas of Japan, such as Osaka in Yakuza 2 and 0, Okinawa in Yakuza 3, part of the fictional Fukuoka based on Nakasu, part of the fictional Sapporo based on Susukino and Kin'eicho, part of the fictional Nagoya based on Sakae in Yakuza 5, Hiroshima in Yakuza 6. In all games the player controls Kazuma Kiryu, the sole playable character in the first three entries; the game is made of three distinct yet connected modes called Event and Battle. The main character randomly encounters foes on his path; the ensuing fight is called Encounter Battle. In fights the player character uses hand-to-hand combat while weapons can be wielded, though firearms are rare. Winning some of these battles can result in the player winning money which can be used to purchase equipment or healing items. Encounter Battles caused by the story can end quicker by finishing the leader of the enemies, as well as by using powerful moves called Heat Actions, which require the filling of the'Heat gauge' to become useable.
Some of these tend to include quick time events. Across his fights, Kiryu gains experience; this can be used to become a stronger fighter. The series is well known for its high number of entertaining sub-stories, which complement the main game story; these give the player extra EXP. There are many mini-games, which range from things like bowling and arcade games, to much more involved things like hostess club management which can take a number of hours over the course of several sessions in themselves to complete; this includes: Coliseum Fights: where the player fights in three-round mini championships against various opponents in different challenges to earn points which can be spent on unique items. Weapon/gear crafting: the player needs to find various components and blueprints to produce powerful and varied gear and weapons. Hostess club management: the player runs a hostess club in three-minute sessions and tries to earn as much money as possible by matching up the right girl with the right client and responding to their calls for help.
They take part in battles against other hostess clubs. Pocket Circuit: this is where cars called Pocket Circuit cars race against each other. On both Yakuza 0 and Yakuza Kiwami, there are several race series that take place and a number of side stories relating to this mini game. Hostess Clubs: this involves talking to hostess girls to fill out their "love" gauge, as well as ordering the right food/drink, buying gifts and wearing the right accessories to please them as much as possible, until you are able to take them out on a date; this was one of many aspects, controversially cut from the western release of Yakuza 3, leading to criticism of SEGA for ignoring western gamers' desire to experience Japanese culture. A recurring Superboss known as Amon appears in most of the games. Depending on the title, there may be more than one. For example Yakuza 5 features an Amon for each playable character, including an idol version for Haruka to face off against. In the first three installments, the playable protagonist is Kazuma Kiryu.
Yakuza 4 introduces multiple playable protagonists, which include Kazuma Kiryu, Masayoshi Tanimura, Shun Akiyama, Taiga Saejima. Yakuza 5 featured five playable protagonists; the prequel installment featured two protagonists, including another long running supporting character Goro Majima, alongside Kazuma Kiryu. Kiryu is once again the only playable character in Yakuza 6, while an additional story featuring a playable Majima was added to the remake of Yakuza 2, Yakuza Kiwami 2; the latest mainline installment, Shin Ryu Ga Gotoku will feature a new main character, Kasuga Ichiban. As of 2017, the Yakuza series includes seven main games, released in chronological order, with each new installment following the events of the previous title. There are several spin-off titles. One relates Kazuma Kiryu's supposed ancestor, historic figure Miyamoto Musashi from the 16th and 17th centuries.