Circle dance, or chain dance, is a style of dance done in a circle or semicircle to musical accompaniment, such as rhythm instruments and singing. Circle dancing is the oldest known dance formation and was part of community life from when people first started to dance. Dancing in a circle is an ancient tradition common to many cultures for marking special occasions, strengthening community and encouraging togetherness; the dance can be enjoyed as an uplifting group experience or as part of a meditation. Circle dances are choreographed to many different styles of music and rhythms. Unlike line dancing, circle dancers are in physical contact with each other, it is a type of dance. The participants follow a leader around the dance floor while holding the hand of the dancers beside them; the dance can be energetic. Modern circle dance mixes traditional folk dances from European or Near Eastern sources, with choreographed ones to a variety of music both ancient and modern. There is a growing repertoire of new circle dances to classical music and contemporary songs.
Modern circle dancing is found in many cultures, including Arabic, Assyrian, Turkish, Azerbaijani and South Eastern European. Despite its immense reputation in the Middle East and southeast Europe, circle dancing has a historical prominence in Brittany and Ireland to the west of Europe, in South America and with Native Americans, it is used, in its more meditative form, in worship within various religious traditions including, the Church of England and the Islamic Haḍra dances. Thousands of medieval tombstones called "Stećci" were found in Bosnia and Hercegovina and neighboring areas, they dated from the end of the 12th century to the 16th century. They bear inscription and figures. Men and women are portrayed dancing together holding hands at shoulder level but the groups consist of only one sex. In Macedonia, near the town of Zletovo, the murals on the monastery of Lesnovo, which date from the 14th century, show a group of young men linking arms in a round dance. A chronicle from 1344 urges the people of the city of Zadar to sing and dance circle dances for a festival.
However, a reference comes from Bulgaria, in a manuscript of a 14th-century sermon, which calls chain dances "devilish and damned." The circle dance of Germany was called "Reigen", which dates from the 10th century, may have originated from devotional dances at early Christian festivals. Dancing around the church or a fire was denounced by church authorities which only underscores how popular it was. One of the frescos in Tyrol, at Runkelstein Castle, depicts Elisabeth of Poland, Queen of Hungary leading a chain dance. Circle dances were found in Czech Republic, dating to the 15th century. Dancing was done around trees on the village green. In Poland as well the earliest village dances were in circles or lines accompanied by the singing or clapping of the participants. In the 14th century Giovanni Boccaccio describes men and women circle dancing to their own singing or accompanied by musicians. One of the frescos in Siena by Ambrogio Lorenzetti painted in 1338-40 show a group of women doing a "bridge" figure while accompanied by another woman playing the tambourine.
There are the accounts of two western European travelers to Constantinople, the capital of the Ottoman Empire. In 1577, Salomon Schweigger describes the events at a Greek wedding: "then they joined arms one upon the other, made a circle, went round the circle, with their feet stepping hard and stamping. Another traveler, the German pharmacist Reinhold Lubenau, was in Constantinople in November 1588 and reports on a Greek wedding in these terms: "a company of Greeks of ten or more persons, stepped forth to the open place, took each other by the hand, made a round circle, now stepped backward, now forward, sometimes went around, singing in Greek the while, sometimes stamped on the ground with their feet." In Denmark, old ballads mention a closed circle dance. A fresco in Ørslev church in Zealand from about 1400 shows nine people and women, dancing in a line; the leader and some others in the chain carry bouquets of flowers. In the case of women's dances, there may have been a man. In Sweden, medieval songs mentioned dancing.
A long chain was formed, with the leader singing the verses and setting the time while the other dancers joined in the chorus. The hora dance originates in the Balkans but found in other countries; the dancers hold each other's hands and the circle spins counterclockwise, as each participant follows a sequence of three steps forward and one step back. The Hora is popular during wedding celebrations and festivals, is an essential part of the social entertainment in rural areas. In Bulgaria, it is not necessary to be in a circle; the kolo is a collective folk dance common in various South Slavic regions, such as Serbia, named after the circle formed by the dancers. It is performed amongst groups of people holding each other's having their hands around each other's waists. There is no movement
A square dance is a dance for four couples arranged in a square, with one couple on each side, facing the middle of the square. Square dances were first documented in 16th-century England but were quite common in France and throughout Europe, they came to North America with the European settlers and have undergone considerable development there. In some countries and regions, through preservation and repetition, square dances have attained the status of a folk dance; the Western American square dance may be the most known form worldwide due to its association in the 20th century with the romanticized image of the American cowboy. Square dancing is, therefore associated with the United States. Nineteen U. S. states have designated it as their official state dance. The various square dance movements are based on the steps and figures used in traditional folk dances and social dances from many countries; some of these traditional dances include English country dance and the quadrille. In most American forms of square dance, the dancers are prompted or cued through a sequence of steps by a caller to the beat of music.
In some forms of traditional square dancing, the caller may be one of the dancers or musicians, but in modern Western square dancing the caller will be on stage, giving full attention to directing the dancers. Modern Western square dances are not learned as complete routines; the American folk music revival in New York City in the 1950s was rooted in the resurgent interest in square dancing and folk dancing there in the 1940s, which gave musicians such as Pete Seeger popular exposure. Terminology: In the United States, in general, people go to square dances and call it square dancing. In England and Scotland, people go to all sorts of dances at which some of the dances will be square dances, but they don't say that they are "square dancing"; the majority of dances at such events will be in the form of longways sets, sets of four, three-couple or four-couple sets or circassian circles. Conversely, people not familiar with the various different forms of dance may ask for an evening of square dance meaning a barn dance where many different formations of dance are used.
It is possible to go to one of these "square dances" and not do a single actual square dance all evening. Traditional square dance, called "old time square dance". Traditional square dance can be subdivided into regional styles; the New England and Appalachian styles have been well documented. There are several other styles. Traditional square dance is presented in alternation with contra dances or with some form of freestyle couple dancing. One ancestor of New England style square dances is the quadrille, older New England callers refer to their squares as "quadrilles." Where traditional square dance has been revived, it encompasses a wide range of new choreography. Modern Western square dance, called "Western square dance", "contemporary Western square dance", or "modern American square dance". Modern Western square dance evolved from the Western style of traditional square dance from about 1940 to 1960. Traditional Western square dancing was promoted beginning in the 1930s by Lloyd Shaw, who solicited definitions from callers across the country in order to preserve that dance form and make it available to other teachers.
Since the 1970s modern Western square dance has been promoted and standardized by Callerlab, the "International Association of Square Dance Callers". Modern Western square dance is sometimes presented in alternation with round dances; this modern form of square dancing is taught in around thirty countries. As well as the USA and Canada, this includes the United Kingdom, Belgium, Germany, Sweden, Finland, the Netherlands, China and Russia. Within Europe, the majority of square dance clubs are in the United Kingdom. All teach the Callerlab syllabus; the initial stage reached by all dancers is called Mainstream. This program consists of a'core' list of about 70 moves, revised periodically; because of this standardization, it is possible for anyone with the proper training to enjoy modern Western square dancing in many countries around the world. Playford: John Playford published The English Dancing Master in 1651. Eight of the 105 dances are square dances, many exhibiting concepts that we still use today such as the Heads performing an action and the Sides repeating the same action.
Three of the dances, such as "Dull Sir John" state "A Square Dance for Eight thus". Square dances such as "Newcastle", one of those original eight, are still popular today, countless new dances have been written in the Playford style, or English country dance style as it is known in the United States. Folk Dance /Barn dance: At English folk or country dances a wide range of dances is performed, many of which are square dances: Playford style dances. D. Willock in the "Manual of Dancing".
Charanga is a traditional ensemble that plays Cuban dance music. They made Cuban dance music popular in the 1940s and their music consisted of son-influenced material, performed on European instruments such as violin and flute by a Charanga orchestra.. The style of music, most associated with a Charanga is termed'Danzón', is an amalgam of both European classical music and African rhythms. "Scholars agree that Spain and parts of West and Central Africa provided the most crucial influences in the development of Cuban popular and religious music. But in the case of charanga, the contributions of French and Haitian influences cannot be ignored. Charanga began its history in the early nineteenth century when Haitians, both African and French, escaped the island's revolution, they brought with them a love for the French contredanse, a multi-sectional dance form that evolved into the danzón, the quintessential charanga style. Both were performed by an ensemble called an orquesta típica, a group with brass and timpani that performed outdoors.
When the upper classes decided to dance indoors, the instrumentation was radically altered. The new ensemble was called charanga francesa. Although the word francesa means "French," it was used in nineteenth-century Cuba more as a name for Haitian Creoles. In the charanga francesa and strings replaced the brass and woodwinds of the orquesta típica, a small drum kit called pailas replaced the booming tympany. While the orquesta típica was raucous in a New Orleans jazz fashion, the charanga francesa produced a light and somewhat effete music; the French influence extends to instrumentation for the modern charanga is based on charanga francesa." The first charanga francesa in Cuba was formed at the turn of the twentieth century by Antonio Torroella, whose orchestra was active by 1894. These orchestras play lighter versions of the danzón without a brass section and emphasizing flutes and piano; the percussion was provided by pailas criollas, now known as timbales. The style continued into the 1940s with his Maravillas.
Charangas are still widespread today. Danzón Music of Haiti French contredanse Aviva; the Cuba Reader: History, Politics. ISBN 0-8223-3197-7. Morales, Ed; the Latin Beat: The Rhythms and Roots of Latin Music, from Bossa Nova to Salsa and Beyond. ISBN 0-306-81018-2. Orquesta Antonio María Romeu Orquesta Aragón Orquesta Charangoa Arcaño y sus Maravillas Barroso y La Sensación Orquesta América Maravillas del Siglo Orquesta Melodías del 40 Maravillas de Florida Fajardo y Sus Estrellas Belisario López Orquesta de Neno González Ritmo Oriental Orquesta Duboney Pacheco y Su Charanga Pupi y Su Charanga Ray Barretto y Su Charanga Moderna Orquesta Broadway Orquesta Típica Ideal Charanga 76 Gonzalo Fernández y Su Súper Típica de Estrellas La Charanga Forever La Charanga Cubana Sample Charanga Music Article on Charanga
Novelty and fad dances
Novelty and fad dances are dances which are characterized by a short burst of popularity. Some of them may get longer-lasting life, they are called dance fads or dance crazes. As the pop music market exploded in the late 1950s, dance fads were exploited. From the 1950s to the 1970s, new dance fads appeared every week. Many were popularized versions of new styles or steps created by African-American dancers who frequented the clubs and discothèques in major U. S. cities like New York and Detroit. Among these were the Madison, "The Swim", the "Mashed Potato", "The Twist", "The Frug", "The Watusi", "The Shake" and "The Hitch hike". Many 1950s and 1960s dance crazes had animal names, including "The Chicken", "The Pony" and "The Dog". In 1965, the Mexican-American group Cannibal and the Headhunters had a hit with the 1962 Chris Kenner song Land of a Thousand Dances which included the names of such dances. One list of Fad Dances compiled in 1971 named over ninety dances. Standardized versions of dance moves were published in dance and teen magazines choreographed to popular songs.
Songs such as "The Loco-Motion" were written with the intention of creating a new dance and many more pop hits, such as "Mashed Potato Time" by Dee Dee Sharp, were written to exploit recent successful novelties. In the early 1970s the disco spawned a succession of dance fads including the Bump, the Hustle, the YMCA; this continued in the 1980s with the popular song "Walk like an Egyptian", in the 1990s with the "Macarena", in the 2000s with "The Ketchup Song" and in the 2010s with "Gangnam Style". Contemporary sources for dance crazes include music movies. There are fad dances which are meant to be danced individually as solo, others are partner dances, yet others are danced in groups; some of them were of freestyle type, i.e. there were no particular step patterns and they were distinguished by the style of the dance movement. Only some have survived to the present day, sometimes only as the name of a step or of a style in a recognized dance. Fad dances are in fashion at the time of their popularity.
They come to be associated with a specific time period, can evoke particular forms of nostalgia when revived. Outline of dance for a list of general dance topics. Summer hit List of specific dances for a general, noncategorized index of dances Streetswing.com's Dance History Archives hosts a large information base about more than thousand dances. Dance Crazes of the 50's & 60's - by Dr. Frank Hoffmann sixtiescity - 60s Dance and Dance Crazes Go-Go Dancing - Fad and Novelty Dances from the 1960s at Little Miss Go-Go
Social dance is a category of dances that have a social function and context. Social dances are intended for participation rather than performance and can be led and followed with relative ease, they are danced to socialise and for entertainment, though they may have ceremonial and erotic functions. Many social dances of European origin are partner dances but this is quite rare elsewhere, where there may instead be circle dances or line dances reserved for those of a certain age, gender or social position; the types of dance performed in social gatherings change with social values. Social dance music of the 14th century has been preserved in manuscript, though without proper choreography, for dances such as the ballo, stampita, saltarello and roto; the 15th century is the first period. A manuscript from Brussels highlights the Burgundian court dance, which spread all over Europe, referred to as the basse dance in which a large group perform a series of steps in triple time. Italian courts danced balli, with a wide array of choreographed rhythms and positions for the dancers.
These were documented in instruction books written by the respected dance masters who choreographed them for the courts. Social dances of lower classes were not recorded until the Late Renaissance. According to Richard Powers, courtiers in the late 16th century continually had to "prove themselves through their social skills through dance." Recorded social dances of the late 16th century include the canario. Thoinot Arbeau's famous book Orchésographie describes peasant branles as well as the 16th century basse danse and la volta; the peasants from the countryside supplied new dances to the court as the old ones' novelty wore out. During the Baroque Era court balls served to display social status. A formal ball opened with a branle in which couples stood in a line in order of their place in the social hierarchy, the most regarded couples dancing first; the Menuet and the Gavotte gained popularity. Balls ended with an English country dance. France gained a pre-eminence in dance, but the French Revolution created a shift away from formality.
During the Regency Era, from 1811-1830, the Quadrille became the most popular dance in England and France. The Quadrille consisted of a large variety of steps that skimmed the ground, such as chassé and jeté. Most other dances of this era, such as the Mazurka, were performed in squares; the waltz, which arrived in Britain toward the end of the Napoleonic Wars, was a partner dance in which partners danced more than had been considered acceptable. In the waltz, neither partner led. Individuals danced as equals, a new phenomenon at the time; the Polka was another dance. According to Powers, the dances of this time were "fresh, inventive and somewhat daring," which mirrored society at the time. Towards the end of the 19th century, Americans were tiring of the court dances of their grandparents' era. In the early 20th century, Americans began pairing Victorian dances such as the Two-Step with Ragtime music. Other dances included the African American Cakewalk, animal dances such as the Turkey Trot; the most popular social dance of the time was the One-Step.
The dance consisted of couples taking one step on each beat of the music, so beginners could participate. Rock'n' roll in the 1950s brought about a shift in social dancing toward rebelliousness; this shift was seen in teenagers who did not want to dance the same steps that their parents did. The dancing was swing based but had a variations in different regions. Couples began dancing as individuals for the first time, sending the message that there did not have to be a leader and a follower. An American Ballroom Companion Boombal Dance music List of basic dance topics List of dance style categories List of dances Ballroom dance Circle dance Contra dance Country-western dance English country dance Folk dance House dance Scottish country dance Irish and Scottish Céilidh Square dance Street dance Latin dance Wallace, Carol McD.. Dance: a social history. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 9780870994869
Enrique Jorrín was a Cuban charanga violinist and music director. He is considered the inventor of the cha-cha-chá, a popular style of ballroom music derived from danzón. At an early age, his family moved to the El Cerro neighborhood of Havana, where Jorrín was to live for the rest of his life. At the age of 12, he decided to learn the violin, he pursued musical studies at the Municipal Conservatory of Havana. He started out as a violinist in the orchestra of Cuba's National Institute of Music, under the direction of González Mántici. In 1941, he became a member of the danzonera Hermanos Contreras, it was here. Next, he joined the renowned charanga. In the early 1950s, while a member of Ninón Mondéjar's Orquesta América, he created a new genre of dance music which became known as the cha-cha-chá, he lived in Mexico from 1954 to 1958 after a tour with the América. He and Félix Reina, the other violinist in the group, decided to stay. In 1964, he toured Europe with his orchestra - Orquesta de Enrique Jorrín.
From 1964 onwards, he recorded extensively for the Cuban record label EGREM. In 1974, he organized a new charanga, which included pianist Rubén González; this orchestra is still active in Havana and includes many songs by Jorrín in their active repertoire. All his accomplishments were all fulfilled while raising his nephew Omar Jorrin Pineda, who grew up playing the piano for the orchestra as he got older. Omar Jorrin Pineda resides in a small Cuban community in New Jersey known to be Union City. Among his numerous compositions are: Danzones: Hilda Liceo del Pilar Central constancia Doña Olga Silver StarCha-cha-chás: Arpeando el Cha-cha-chá with Miriam de Cinca on harp La engañadora El alardoso El túnel Nada para ti Osiris Me muero Orquesta de Enrique Jorrín. 1981. Diccionario de la Música Cubana. La Habana, Editorial Letras Cubanas. ISBN 959-10-0048-0 Sanchez-Coll, Israel. "Enrique Jorrín". Conexión Cubana. Retrieved 2007-01-31