Röyksopp are a Norwegian electronic music duo from Tromsø, formed in 1998. The duo consists of Torbjørn Brundtland. Røyksopp is the Norwegian word for the class of mushrooms known as puffballs, but the band's name substitutes ö for the second letter. Berge and Brundtland were introduced to each other through a mutual friend in Norway, they enjoyed the same films and music, shared an interest in electronics. The two experimented with various forms of electronic music, bought a drum machine together during the Tromsø techno scene before going their separate ways. Several years the two met up again and formed Röyksopp during the Bergen Wave. After experimenting with different genres of electronic music, the band solidified their place in the electronica scene with their 2001 debut album, Melody A. M. released on the Wall of Sound record label. Röyksopp has experimented with various genres pertaining to electronic music. Stylistically, the band makes use including ambient, house music and synth-pop.
The band is known for its elaborate concert performances, which feature eccentric outfits. Since their 1998 debut, the duo has gained critical acclaim and popular success around the world. To date, Röyksopp has been nominated for two Grammy Awards, won seven Spellemannprisen awards, performed worldwide tours, produced albums that have topped the charts in several countries, including four consecutive number-one albums in their native country. Svein Berge and Torbjørn Brundtland were introduced at a friend's house in Tromsø, began experimenting with electronic instruments in the early 1990s as a part of the Tromsø techno scene; the two met when Berge was 12 years old and Brundtland was 13, the two began playing music together due to a shared interest in electronica. Their childhood in Tromsø and the natural scenery of Northern Norway have been mentioned as some of their most important inspirations; the pair separated before obtaining any popular success with their music, but reunited with each other in 1998 in Bergen, Norway.
Bergen, a city of 212,944 people in 1990, had overtaken Tromsø's position as the most vital scene for underground electronic music in Norway, Röyksopp worked with other Norwegian musicians like Frost, Those Norwegians, Drum Island, Kings of Convenience's guitarist and singer Erlend Øye in what was called the Bergen Wave. During this time, the duo befriended Geir Jenssen. Under the tutelage of Jenssen, the duo started a band called Aedena Cycle with Gaute Barlindhaug and Kolbjørn Lyslo. In 1994 Aedena Cycle recorded; the EP was released under the R&S Records sublabel Apollo. Following the release of the EP, Jenssen convinced the band to sign a full record deal with Apollo Records. After recording as part of Aedena Cycle and Brundtland left the group to form their own band, Röyksopp; the word röyksopp is a stylized version of the Norwegian word for the puffball mushroom, "røyksopp". The band has stated that the word could evoke the mushroom cloud resulting from an atomic blast. Röyksopp's debut single was released by local Bergen Wave-era independent label Tellé.
Röyksopp's first single "So Easy", re-released on their first album, was the second record released by Tellé. After being used in a UK T-Mobile advertisement, "So Easy" became popular in the UK market and was re-released, combined with their single "Remind Me". After leaving Tellé, the band signed with British label Wall of Sound and released Melody A. M. which became certified platinum in the band's native Norway and sold over a million copies worldwide. The album peaked at number one in Norway, produced the UK Top 40 singles "Eple", "Poor Leno", "Remind Me". A final single, "Sparks", was released. Eple – meaning "apple" in Norwegian – was licensed by Apple Inc. for use as the welcome music to the company's Mac OS X Panther operating system, playing the first time a user booted a new Apple-brand computer. The band's popularity was boosted by several graphically experimental music videos, many of which were put into heavy rotation by MTV; the music video for "Remind Me", featuring an infographic-style video by French company H5, won the 2002 MTV Europe Music Award for best music video.
In this same event the duo was nominated in three more categories: "Best Nordic Act", "Best New Artist" and "Best Dance Act". The duo performed the song "Poor Leno" at the event. One year they received a nomination for "Best Group" at the Brit Awards. During this period Röyksopp gained popularity in the United States. "Remind Me", one of the two Röyksopp and Erlend Øye collaborations found on Melody A. M. was featured in a Geico car insurance commercial. The commercial was the fourth of the "It's so easy a caveman could do it" ads, featured said caveman riding a moving sidewalk in an airport terminal when he comes across a poster displaying the advertisement campaign. During this time, Röyksopp were approached to compose the soundtrack for The Matrix Reloaded, although they declined the offer. Röyksopp's second studio album, The Understanding, was released on 12 July 2005, preceded by the single "Only This Moment" on 27 June 2005; the single managed to peak at number 33 in the United Kingdom. The video for "Only This Moment" is based on the events of the Paris 1968 riots, elements of propaganda are found throughout the video clip.
The album's second single, "49 Percent", with the vocals of Chelonis R. Jones was released on 26 September 2005. A third single, "What Else Is There?", including vocals from Swedish singer Karin Dreijer "Fever Ray" Andersson of The Knife, became the album's biggest single, peaking at number 32 in the Unit
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Switzerland the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in western and southern Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities; the sovereign state is a federal republic bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2. While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of 8.5 million people is concentrated on the plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global cities and economic centres Zürich and Geneva. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648; the country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation.
It pursues an active foreign policy and is involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. On the European level, it is a founding member of the European Free Trade Association, but notably not part of the European Union, the European Economic Area or the Eurozone. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties. Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French and Romansh. Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy, Alpine symbolism. Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz. On coins and stamps, the Latin name – shortened to "Helvetia" – is used instead of the four national languages.
Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Switzerland ranks at or near the top globally in several metrics of national performance, including government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic competitiveness and human development. Zürich and Basel have all three been ranked among the top ten cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the first ranked second globally, according to Mercer in 2018; the English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, an obsolete term for the Swiss, in use during the 16th to 19th centuries. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse in use since the 16th century; the name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, one of the Waldstätten cantons which formed the nucleus of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for "Confederates", used since the 14th century.
The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes perhaps related to swedan ‘to burn’, referring to the area of forest, burned and cleared to build; the name was extended to the area dominated by the canton, after the Swabian War of 1499 came to be used for the entire Confederation. The Swiss German name of the country, Schwiiz, is homophonous to that of the canton and the settlement, but distinguished by the use of the definite article; the Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica was neologized and introduced after the formation of the federal state in 1848, harking back to the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic, appearing on coins from 1879, inscribed on the Federal Palace in 1902 and after 1948 used in the official seal.. Helvetica is derived from the Helvetii, a Gaulish tribe living on the Swiss plateau before the Roman era. Helvetia appears as a national personification of the Swiss confederacy in the 17th century with a 1672 play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach.
Switzerland has existed as a state in its present form since the adoption of the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1848. The precursors of Switzerland established a protective alliance at the end of the 13th century, forming a loose confederation of states which persisted for centuries; the oldest traces of hominid existence in Switzerland date back about 150,000 years. The oldest known farming settlements in Switzerland, which were found at Gächlingen, have been dated to around 5300 BC; the earliest known cultural tribes of the area were members of the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel. La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age from around 450 BC under some influence from the Gree
Tijs Michiel Verwest OON, better known by his stage name Tiësto, is a Dutch DJ and record producer from Breda. He was named "the Greatest DJ of All Time" by Mix magazine in a poll voted by the fans. In 2013, he was voted by DJ Mag readers as the "best DJ of the last 20 years", he is regarded as the "Godfather of EDM" by many sources. In 1997, he founded the label Black Hole Recordings with Arny Bink, where he released the Magik and In Search of Sunrise CD series. Tiësto met producer Dennis Waakop Reijers in 1998. From 1998 to 2000, Tiësto collaborated with Ferry Corsten under the name Gouryella, his 2000 remix of Delerium's "Silence" featuring Sarah McLachlan exposed him to more mainstream audiences. In 2001, he released his first solo album, In My Memory, which gave him several major hits that launched his career, he was voted World No. 1 DJ by DJ Magazine in its annual Top 100 DJs readership poll consecutively for three years from 2002 to 2004. Just after releasing his second studio album Just Be he performed live at the 2004 Summer Olympics opening ceremony in Athens, the first DJ to play live on stage at an Olympics.
In April 2007 Tiësto launched his radio show Tiësto's Club Life on Radio 538 in the Netherlands and released his third studio album Elements of Life. The album reached number one on the Belgian album chart as well on "Billboard Top Electronic Albums" in the U. S. and received a nomination for a Grammy Award in 2008. Tiësto released his fourth studio album Kaleidoscope in October 2009, followed by A Town Called Paradise in June 2014, he won the Grammy Award for Best Remixed Recording, Non-Classical for his remixed version of John Legend's hit "All of Me" at the 57th Annual Grammy Awards. Tijs Michiel Verwest was born in Breda, Netherlands on 17 January 1969, he began to cultivate a passion for music from the age of twelve. At age fourteen, he intensified his commitment to the art, began DJing professionally at school parties. Between 1985 and 1994, Tiësto began a residency at several clubs in the Netherlands at the behest of his manager. At the Spock, a small club in Breda, he fine-tuned his own live style by performing from 10 p.m. until 4 a.m. on weekends.
In the beginning of his career as a DJ he played new beat and acid house. In 1994, he began releasing material on Noculan Records' sub-labels Coolman. During these years, he produced hardcore and gabber tracks under such aliases as Da Joker and DJ Limited. Tiësto was discovered by the general manager of Rotterdam-based Basic Beat Recordings. In late 1994, Tiësto signed to Basic Beat where he met Arny Bink, Tiësto released records on the sub-label Trashcan, founded by Arny, created the Guardian Angel sub-label with Arny in which they introduced the popular Forbidden Paradise series. From 1995–96 he released four extended plays on Bonzai Jumps and XTC, sub-labels of Lightning Records. In 1997, he joined his friend Yves Vandichel on his sub-label, DJ Yves, a division of the now defunct Human Resource label XSV Music. In the fall of 1997, Bink and Tiësto decided to leave Basic Beat and create their own parent label, Black Hole Recordings, Trashcan was discontinued and Guardian Angel continued releasing music until 2002.
Through Black Hole, Tiësto released the Magik series and created two major sub-labels. From 1998–99, he released music on Planetary Consciousness where he met A&R Hardy Heller and invited him to release some records on Black Hole. In 1998, Tiësto joined forces with fellow Dutch deejay Ferry Corsten to create the trance based duo of Gouryella; the first Gouryella track called Gouryella, was released in May 1999 and became a huge hit scoring various chart positions around the world, including a top fifteen position in the UK Singles Chart. Tiësto showcased this track in Magik Three: Far from Earth as well as in his set at the first ID&T Innercity party, his first major breakthrough; the next single, entitled "Walhalla" made it on the charts worldwide, peaking at No. 27 in the UK Singles Chart. Released via Ferry's Tsunami, both singles went on to be certified Gold on record sales. During these years, Tiësto collaborated with Benno de Goeij of Rank 1 under the name Kamaya Painters. In November 1999, he released the first installment of the In Search of Sunrise series.
Since he performed monthly as a resident at Gatecrasher in Sheffield, played a 12-hour set, his longest, in Amsterdam. On 31 December 1999, he performed at Trance Energy 2000, a special party held by ID&T for the turn of the millennium. Together with Armin van Buuren, Tiësto created two projects in 2000. After the release of "Tenshi" in September 2000, Tiësto decided to concentrate on his solo work and left Ferry Corsten to take on the Gouryella project as his own. Through his first compilations and the "In Trance We Trust" series, he ended up introducing Armin van Buuren and Johan Gielen to the mainstream. Summerbreeze marked Tiësto's U. S. debut, a mix album that showcased his remix of Delerium's "Silence", which spent four weeks in the UK's Top Ten chart and reached number three in the Billboard dance chart. In Search of Sunrise 2 was released in November 2000. In 2001, Tiësto created a new sub-label, Magik Muzik, released his first solo album, In My Memory, which contained 5 major hits.
Mogwai are a Scottish post-rock band, formed in 1995 in Glasgow. The band consists of Stuart Braithwaite, Barry Burns, Dominic Aitchison, Martin Bulloch; the band compose lengthy guitar-based instrumental pieces that feature dynamic contrast, melodic bass guitar lines, heavy use of distortion and effects. The band were for several years signed to Glasgow label Chemikal Underground, have been distributed by different labels such as Matador in the US and Play It Again Sam in the UK, but now use their own label Rock Action Records in the UK, Sub Pop in North America; the band were championed by John Peel from their early days, recorded seven Peel Sessions between 1996 and 2004. Peel recorded a brief introduction for the compilation Government Commissions: BBC Sessions 1996–2003. Stuart Braithwaite and Dominic Aitchison met in April 1991, four years formed Mogwai with old schoolfriend Martin Bulloch; the band are named after the creatures from the film Gremlins, although guitarist Stuart Braithwaite comments that "it has no significant meaning and we always intended on getting a better one, but like a lot of other things we never got round to it."'Mogwai' means "evil spirit" or "devil" in Cantonese.
The band debuted in February 1996 with the "Tuner"/"Lower" single and by the end of the year they received'single of the week' from NME for "Summer", a feat repeated early in 1997 with "New Paths to Helicon". After playing a few shows the band expanded with the introduction of John Cummings on guitar, Teenage Fanclub drummer Brendan O'Hare joined while they recorded their début album Mogwai Young Team; the album, released in October 1997, reached number 75 on the UK Albums Chart, featured a guest appearance from Aidan Moffat of Arab Strap. In 1998 the band had their first singles chart success with a split single with Magoo of Black Sabbath cover versions reaching number 60 in the UK and an EP of "Fear Satan" remixes reaching number 57. In the same year, an album of remixes of the band's tracks by the likes of Kevin Shields, Alec Empire, μ-ziq was issued; the band remixed tracks for David Holmes and Manic Street Preachers. O'Hare was sacked after the release of the album. Barry Burns was brought in prior to the recording of Come On the band's second album.
He had played a few shows with the band, as a flautist and as an occasional pianist. According to Stuart, Barry was invited into the band because he was a "good laugh"; the album reached number 29 in the UK. The band line up remained unchanged from 1998 until November 2015, when John Cummings left to pursue other projects. Fellow Scottish musician Luke Sutherland has contributed violin to Mogwai's records and live performances; the band's 2001 album Rock Action gave them their highest UK album chart placing, reaching number 23. The album was less guitar-led than featuring more electronics. Shortly afterwards the band released "My Father My King", a cacophonous 20-minute song which closed their Rock Action-period shows, was billed as a companion piece to the album. Mogwai's 2003 album Happy Songs for Happy People continued the band's movement into the use of electronica and more spacious arrangements, it was the band's first album to sell in any numbers in the US, reaching No.13 on the Billboard Independent Albums Chart and spending one week in the Billboard 200.
Reviews were favourable, although as Pitchfork Media said in 2008 "... reception ranged from middling to favorable. Some praised the band's scope and willingness to explore beyond the bounds of the quiet-loud-louder dynamic it had mastered. In March 2006, the album Mr Beast was released in a regular format and in a limited deluxe edition package that came with both the album on CD and a DVD documenting the recording process entitled The Recording of Mr Beast; the album was described by Creation Records head Alan McGee as "probably the best art rock album I've been involved with since Loveless. In fact, it's better than Loveless" – referring to the influential 1991 album by My Bloody Valentine. AllMusic called the album "Possibly the most accessible yet sophisticated album Mogwai released"; the band's sixth studio album was recorded from late 2007 until early 2008, was released in September 2008. It was the first Mogwai album not to feature vocals, was the first to be self-produced by the band.
The album spawned an EP, featuring the title track from the album and a collaboration with Roky Erickson, with Erickson providing vocals on "Devil Rides". In 2010 the band live album. Burning contains eight tracks from the band's Brooklyn shows during their 2008/2009 American tour, whilst Special Moves adds nine more tracks from the same source. Special Moves was the first release on Mogwai's own Rock Action records, named after Stooges drummer Scott Asheton, who had his name changed to Rock Action. In Se
Ayumi Hamasaki is a Japanese singer, record producer, model and entrepreneur. Through her entire career, she has written all her lyrical content, has sometimes composed her music. Born and raised in Fukuoka, Hamasaki moved to Tokyo at fourteen in 1993 to pursue a career in singing and acting. In 1998, under the tutelage of Avex CEO Max Matsuura, Hamasaki released her debut single "Poker Face" and debut major-label album A Song for XX; the album debuted at the top of the Oricon charts and remained there for five weeks, selling over a million copies. Her next ten albums shipped over a million copies in Japan, with her third, selling nearly three million. A Best, her first compilation album, is her best-selling album, with more than four million copies sold in Japan. Since 2006, after her album Secret was released and single sales have declined. Hamasaki has sold over 50 million records, making her the best-selling Japanese solo artist of all time. Hamasaki has several domestic record achievements for her singles, such as the most number-one hits by a female artist.
From 1999 to 2010, Hamasaki had at least two singles each year topping the charts. Hamasaki is the first female recording artist to have ten studio albums since her debut to top the Oricon and the first artist to have a number-one album for 13 consecutive years since her debut. Hamasaki's second remix album, Super Eurobeat Presents Ayu-ro Mix, is recognized as one of the best selling remix albums of all time and remains her only album to be recognized in a worldwide accreditation. During the height of her career, Hamasaki has been dubbed as the "Empress of J-pop" because of her popularity in Japan and Asia. Following an ear infection in 2000, she has suffered worsening hearing loss and is deaf in one ear. Born in Fukuoka Prefecture, Hamasaki was raised as an only child by her grandmother, her father had left the family and never again came into contact with her. Hamasaki's mother worked to support the family, so Hamasaki was taken care of by her grandmother, she described herself as a "tomboy" when she was a teenager, as a “strange kid” who “liked to be alone”.
At age seven, Hamasaki began modeling for local institutions, such as banks, in order to supplement the family's income. She continued this career path by leaving her family at fourteen and moving to Tokyo as a model under SOS, a talent agency, her modeling career did not last long. Under the name of "Ayumi", Hamasaki released a rap EP, Nothing from Nothing, on the Nippon Columbia label in 1995, she was dismissed from the label. After this failure, Hamasaki took up acting and starred in B-movies such as Ladys Ladys!! Sōcho Saigo no television dramas such as Miseinen, which were poorly received by the public. From August 1995 to March 1996, Hamasaki co-hosted the SoundLink "magazine" Hōkago no Ōsama for the Nintendo Satellaview once a week with Shigeru Izumiya. Growing dissatisfied with her job, Hamasaki quit acting and moved in with her mother, who had moved to Tokyo. Hamasaki was a good student, earning good grades in junior high school, she lost faith in the curriculum, thinking that the subjects taught were of no use to her.
Her grades worsened. While living in Tokyo, she attempted to further her studies at Horikoshi Gakuen, a high school for the arts, but dropped out in the first year. Hamasaki did not attend school or have a job, so she spent much of her time shopping at Shibuya boutiques and dancing at Velfarre, an Avex-owned disco club. At Velfarre, she was introduced to Max Matsuura, through a friend. After hearing Hamasaki sing karaoke, Matsuura offered her a recording deal, but Hamasaki suspected ulterior motives and turned the offer down, he succeeded in recruiting her for the Avex label in the following year. Hamasaki started vocal training, but skipped most of her classes after finding her instructors to be too rigid and the classes dull; when she confessed this to Matsuura, he sent her to New York to train her vocals under another method. During her foreign sojourn, Hamasaki corresponded with Matsuura and impressed him with her style of writing. On her return to Japan, he suggested. Hamasaki made her debut under Avex at 19 on April 8, 1998 with the single "Poker Face".
It—and the following four singles—were not major hits, however each release was better than the last, thus increasing her exposure and presence on the market. Hamasaki's debut album, A Song for ××, was "unassuming": the tracks, composed by Yasuhiko Hoshino, Akio Togashi, Mitsuru Igarashi, were "cautious" pop-rock songs. However, Hamasaki's lyrics, introspective observations about her feelings and experiences that focused on loneliness and individualism, resonated with the Japanese public; the songs gained Hamasaki a growing following, the release of the album was a success: it topped the Oricon charts for five weeks and sold over a million copies. For her achievements, she earned a Japan Gold Disc Award for "Best New Artist of the Year". With Ayu-mi-x, the first of a series of remix albums, Hamasaki began moving beyond the pop-rock of A Song for ×× and began to incorporate different styles including trance and orchestra. Hamasaki began to experiment with different musical styles in her singles as well, releasing dance
MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus